2022代写作业EDUCATION ESSAY GUIDELINES 美国教育essay指导需求
PURPOSEAn essay is intended as an opportunity for you to:
(i)Conduct independent research using relevant sources in both Japanese and English;(ii)Demonstrate a firm grasp of the historical and theoretical debates surrounding your chosen area of study;(iii)Articulate an organised and coherent account of the topic you have chosen.
Your essay should not be merely a survey of information. You will be expected to investigate your subject area, analyse the issues, identify problems, formulate an argument and draw some relevant conclusions.
STRUCTURE AND CONTENTIn their assessment of the essay, assessors give weight to structure and content. Rigid rules cannot be set down since different subjects require varying treatment but as a general rule the ordering of material follows a logical argument. A general introduction should be written, explaining how the subject will be treated and the content organised, the relevance of historical background (where appropriate) and methodology. The main body is concerned with the presentation of facts, data and analysis to support the arguments presented. This is divided into a number of sections which should be effectively linked. It should be remembered that facts of and by themselves have limited value but they are necessary to support the ideas and arguments presented. The essay should end with a concluding section recapitulating the important points made in the main body and stating the author’s conclusions.
Assessment will thus focus on such factors as the logical development of an argument, the marshalling of facts and use of sources. Assessors will thus look, on the basis of the above criteria, for evidence of insight and originality in treating the subject. Overall presentation will also be assessed in terms of such factors as spelling http://www.ukassignment.org/daixieEssay/meiguoessaydaixie/and grammar.
In summary:-A contents page-An introduction -Main body (broken down into sections with sub-headings as appropriate)-A conclusion -A bibliography
INTRODUCTIONThe introduction should:(i)clearly state the aims and the limitations or boundaries of your essay;(ii)outline the content of each section;(iii)explain how you have approached the material.It may also include a short description as to why you chose the particular topic (relating your personal interest to its general importance or relevance – though you should avoid using the first person (‘I’))
THE BODY OF THE ESSAYFollow the outline provided in your introduction: don’t say you plan to do something and then do something different!
Remember that you need to keep the reader with you and on your side as she/he reads through the results of your hard work. Each section should therefore begin with a signpost paragraph or sentence which directs the reader into what follows. Don’t be afraid to use fairly obvious devices such as “the next section shall be considering … and compare it with …” / “having seen that …; the next question that must be addressed is…” / “On the basis of this evidence it is clear that…” and so on.#p#分页标题#e#
Bare in mind who yourhttp://www.ukassignment.org/daixieEssay/meiguoessaydaixie/ intended readership is (if appropriate, detail this in the introduction).
CONCLUSIONRemind the reader of your main points and show how and why the evidence you have presented leads to your conclusion.
Remember the Joe Fortuna principle:1.Say what you are going to do2.Do it3.Say what you have done.
FOOTNOTESFootnotes should be kept to a minimum. When used, they should be numbered and then either listed at the end of the chapter or given at the bottom of the page on which the reference appears.
Footnotes are not the same as references. References are there to show where you obtained information from. Footnotes provide additional information about the subject, but which you do not want to include in the main body of the text.
Footnotes should be counted towards your word count.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSIt might be appropriate to include an acknowledgements page at the beginning of your essay. This is particularly important when information has been obtained from doing a work placement, for example.
LANGUAGE AND SPELLINGAvoid using unusual or pretentious terminology in an effort to give your paper an ‘intellectual’ or ‘academic’ cast. Avoid using slang. If you must use slang, limit this to making the occasional ironical point. Avoid the use of contractions (don’t, can’t, etc.) Avoid giving gender to inanimate objects (ships, planes, etc.) or to political entities (countries). Maintain the conventional distinction between "its" and "it’s”. Use a range of synonyms for "a lot of."
Do not rely solely on a word processor spelling checker for proof reading. Most programmes will pass "soul" for "sole" or "meat" for "meet."
You should not expect your supervisor to help you with your English during the course of the module – ELSIS can provide help to both native and non-native speakers of English.
JAPANESE NAMESJapanese names are usually given in their natural order: surname followed by given name (e.g. Nakasone Yasuhiro). Be aware that pre-modern Japanese are often known by titles that cannot be split up (e.g., Sei Shonagon). It is best to make it clear that you are going to follow this convention either in a footnote when a Japanese name is first used or a page ‘Notes on Style’ that can appear after the Contents page.
CURRENCYKeep figures in their original format. If you want to convert to pounds (£), for example, be sure to give the rate that you are using and the date when that rate was appropriate (again this information can be provided in a ‘Notes on Style’ page).
DATESBe careful of writing things such as ‘last year’ as your work may be read by someone at a much later date, try to give the exact date or year whenever possible.#p#分页标题#e#
JAPANESE TERMINOLOGYJapanese terminology should only be used when there is no good English equivalent. Japanese terminology that is not commonly known in English should be italicised or underlined. http://www.ukassignment.org/daixieEssay/meiguoessaydaixie/Vowel marks (macrons) should be used with Japanese terminology, except for words which are commonly used in English. For example it is OK to write Tokyo, but you should write Tōhoku rather than Tohoku. If your computer cannot write macrons (free fonts are available from the Microsoft website), then use a circumflex or write it on yourself afterwards.
SOURCESYou should seek to demonstrate a critical faculty through examination of a wide range of sources. Do not rely on one book or article alone, however conclusive it may appear at first sight. In using the assigned sources, you should always try to be aware of their limitations and avoid excessively broad generalisations. Any source including (and especially) those that claim to be ‘objective’ in fact has a ‘bias’ or ‘viewpoint’. You must be aware that no source covers every facet of a subject or every possible viewpoint. Part of your task is to read and think about the sources carefully enough so that you can recognise the most obvious limitations. This means you must have some sense of who wrote the book/article, when, why, and to whom. To answer some of these questions, you may have to consult the survey textbook, look at the introduction to the source, or ask the instructor.
When you read you must always ask yourself such questions as ‘Did the author really know what he or she was talking about?’, ‘Did the author have some reason for distorting his or her account?’, etc. Often you must read between the lines and ‘psyche out’ the author to find out what he or she was trying to do. Although you cannot have the detailed knowledge of the specialist, you can learn to apply common sense and a healthy degree of scepticism to your reading.
Avoid making sweeping generalisations that contrast Japan with ‘the West’. Do not assume that your impressions or understanding of your own society and country are a sufficient basis for ranking or judging some aspect of Japanese history or society. Do not assume that the UK (or any other country, including the US) as you imagine it to be is either equivalent to ‘the West’ or that it is the standard by which some aspect of Japan is to be measured. Before you attempt any comparative generalisation, make sure you have studied the references.
It is extremely important in an academic paper to back up your statements with sources. There is a case for saying that an academic essay must be based on checkable sources, just as a scientific paper must describe procedures and experiments that can be replicated by others.
However, we would say that personal experience can be used with circumspection. Somebody who had attended a political rally at which they had heard a prominent figure express a particular view and had noted it down at the time would be entitled to cite this in support of a contention that this person held that view at that time if the general point was supported by, for example, their published writings. ‘Oral history’ depends on faulty memory, inadequate information, etc., and an author citing personal experience is using him or herself as an oral history source. Just as the oral historian needs to weigh the value of the client’s testimony by checking it against other testimony, the printed record, etc., so an author needs to treat his or her own experience as the same kind of evidence. An example of a good use of interviews and experience within the community, supported by rigorous analysis of the ethnographic data is Sonia Ryang’s North Koreans in Japan (Westview Press, Boulder, 1997. ISBN 0-8133-3050-5)#p#分页标题#e#
Remember that sources don’t necessarily have to be academic works — these could be newspapers, popular magazines, leaflets, TV programmes, etc.
CITATION OF REFERENCESIt is important that consistency is maintained in the citing of references, that is, sources read in the preparation of essays/assignments. The Harvard system of referencing is very simple and is recommended. Unlike other systems, with the Harvard system you only have to write the full details of a publication once, in a bibliography at the end of the essay. In the body of your essay, you need only cite the author’s surname, the date and the page number if relevant. For example……… as Minami (1994) has stated, http://www.ukassignment.org/daixieEssay/meiguoessaydaixie/………OR A number of studies have focused on this issue (e.g. Minami, 1994), ……..
Short quotations of two lines or less may be included in the text (not indented) and placed between single quotation marks. For example:
….. This was evident when Nakasone expressly linked the issue of education reform with constitutional revision when he remarked in that sphere would ‘also be a way of dealing the constitutional problem.’ (Schoppa, 1991:57).
If there is a quotation within the quotation, use double quotation marks.
Longer quotations should be indented and do not require quotation marks. For example, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Hood 2001: 147).
Where you wish to cite two or more works by one author in the same year, distinguish these as 1996a, 1996b, etc.
CITING FROM THE INTERNETWith an internet source you may not know either the name of the author or the date of publishing, which means that you would not be able to follow the Harvard system. The main thing is to be as clear as possible. In the case of a newspaper article with no specified author, give the name of the newspaper and the date in the text, as well as in the bibliography. With internet sources, refer to the guidelines laid out at <http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/service-depts/lis/LIS_Pub/harvardsystinte.html>.
In essence you should treat an internet source as any other.
Using the example of citing Wikipedia webpages.In the text (Wikipedia 2008a), (Wikipedia 2008b).In the bibliography:Wikipedia, 2008a, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_airlines_123#p#分页标题#e# accessed 8 January 2008.Wikipedia, 2008b, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shinkansen accessed 9 January 2008.
It is very important that you show the date on which you accessed the page. Also, you should keep a copy of the page (ideally a hard copy) in case the page is removed at any stage prior to you completing the research or the dissertation being marked. If you cannot provide all the information normally required, include as much detail as possible.
Do not rely on internet sources – they are unreliable. Without appropriate use of other materials, your maximum mark is likely to be limited.BIBLIOGRAPHYAt the end of the essay a bibliography of all the works cited in your essay should be provided arranged in alphabetical order. This will also include books/articles referred to in the preparation of the essay. In the bibliography the author’s name is followed by the date in brackets, then the title of the book or article is given. This in turn is followed, in the case of a book, by the place of publication and the publisher. For example:Minami, R. (1994) The Economic Development of China, London: Macmillan Press.For chapters in edited books the order is author, date, title of chapter, editor(s), book title, place of publication, publisher. Jencks, H. W. (1992) China’s Army, China’s Future’ in Goodman, D. S. G. and Segal, G (ed), China in the Nineties, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Journals are listed by date, volume and page numbers. Mitchell, K. (1994) ‘APEC and the New Global Economy’, Journal of Far Eastern Business, 2 (Winter), 80-85.Italicise or underline the titles of the books and journals. Titles of chapters of books and articles in journals should be enclosed in single quotation marks.
NEWSPAPERSGive the name, place of publication and the date of the newspaper in the text. In the bibliography, just list the names and the places of publication of all the newspaper sources you used.
PLAGIARISMOver recent years, there has been growing concern about issues surrounding plagiarism, collusion and more generally incidents of unfair practice. With a view to maintaining academic integrity and improving academic standards, the use of plagiarism detection software known as Turnitin® has been agreed. A handout detailing information for students about the software can be found on Blackboard.
On certain modules/courses you will be required to submit coursework electronically as well as in paper format. Full information on how to submit this coursework electronically and the exact format of submission etc. will be given out by module co-ordinators. You should also, as a matter of course, receive information on correct referencing procedures and additional material is available in all libraries to assist you in referencing correctly.
The work submitted will be uploaded and stored electronically in Turnitin®. The work will then be compared to 4.5 billion web pages, a database of previously submitted material at this institution and other UK institutions, and selected subscription services. Should instances of plagiarism be detected, further investigation may be undertaken which could ultimately lead to disciplinary procedures.#p#分页标题#e#
It is therefore essential that you familiarise yourself with the University’s Unfair Practice Regulations and the Business School Unfair Practice booklet is provided at enrolment for this purpose. If you have mislaid a copy of this booklet then you can pick up a copy from the Undergraduate Office (P28) or via the Business School web pages.
FINAL PIECE OF ADVICEReread this document after you think you have finished writing your essay to make sure that everything has been done properly.ESSAY SURVIVAL GUIDE PODCAST
The University Library Service, in conjunction with Xpress Radio, is releasing a 6-part pilotpodcast called *The Student Survival Guide to Writing a Good Essay*.
Each 5-minute podcast features tips and advice from academic staff and librarians on:
•What makes a good essay?•Quality control: information to use and avoid•Going beyond the reading list: finding good web sites•Going beyond the reading list: discovering books and journals•Getting your references in order•Meeting the deadline
Students can listen online or download the series to their MP3/4 players athttp://www.xpressradio.co.uk/survivalguide SOME OF THE POINTS THAT ARE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT WHEN MARKING
Introduction – Has the introduction made it clear that you understand the title/topic to be discussed? Has the introduction set out the structure of the essay and what areas of the topic are going to be covered or not going to be covered, and why these areas are covered or not covered?
Logical Development – Does each paragraph and point follow on clearly from the previous one? Does the essay make it easy for the reader to follow the argument or does it make assumptions about their understanding or views on the topic?
Accuracy – Are there mistakes regarding information? Is an appropriate amount of data presented in the essay?
Research – Has the essay been wellhttp://www.ukassignment.org/daixieEssay/meiguoessaydaixie/ researched?
Analysis – Does the essay include sufficient analysis or does it merely present facts and information?
Conclusion – Does the conclusion fit with the material that has been presented before it in the essay?
Bibliography – Is there sufficient evidence of research being done? Are the materials up-to-date? Have Japanese sources, where appropriate, been used? Is everything listed that has been read?
Referencing – Is the style consistent throughout the essay? Have references been given to indicate where all information has come from? Are sources mentioned in references also listed in the bibliography? No refererences means your maximum mark will be capped at 59%.
Grammar – Is the grammar and spelling (of both English and non-English words) in the essay correct?#p#分页标题#e#
Structure – Has the essay been structured properly – for example, introduction, background, main body of essay, conclusion, bibliography, appendix?
Style – Is the essay written in an academic way, avoiding contractions (don’t, can’t, won’t), slang, and ironic or simplistic ‘throw-away’ comments?
Length – Is the essay too long or two short? Remember, essays that are too long may be penalised.
STATEMENT BANK USED BY DR HOOD1.The reference should show exactly where the information came from – for example, page 147 of Tanaka’s 2001 book would be (Tanaka 2001: 147).2.Make sure the source quoted is appropriately listed in the bibliography. If it is a secondary source, you need to make this clear in the text, e.g. (Gotoh in Tanaka 2001: 147)3.Be careful of making sweeping generalisations – not all people may fit into the stereotype. Make sure you either avoid the generalisation or can support your view or comment with appropriate data.4.When mentioning author names in relation to their views, you should link it to the bibliography – for example, ‘Tanaka (2001) believes that…’5.Where did you get this information from? You need to give a reference, e.g. (Tanaka 2001: 147), so that the reader can read it in full for themselves, if they wish.6.Do not assume the reader understands the topic fully – explain important names, terms and ideas, either in the main text or in a footnote.7.Try to avoid subjective or emotive language – there may be some who have a different view point, and so you have to be careful not to alienate those readers before presenting all your information and conclusion.8.Check use of English.9.Try to avoid making simplistic comments – make sure you have given appropriate analysis to each point that you make. Although there may be truth to what is written, there may be some who are not convinced by the view you present, and so you have to be careful not to alienate those readers before presenting all your information and conclusion.10.Be careful of typing errors – be sure to re-read your work after completion (and if possible ask someone else to read it, as they are likely to see things that you have missed).11.Website references should be included in the bibliography and include the date on which you accessed the information (you should also keep a copy (either printed or on disk) of the page in case the page is removed prior to the completion of your research (and you want to re-read it) or prior to marking (and the marker wants to read it in full)).12.Be consistent in usage of terms, capital letters, etc.13.This section is so small it may have been better to combine it into another part of the essay or to leave it out altogether, or to develop it further.14.Japanese words – other than those that would be found in an English dictionary – should be written in italics.#p#分页标题#e#15.It is usually best to avoid using possessive pronouns – i.e. rather than ‘our taxes’, it is better to write ‘Japanese taxpayer’s money’.16.Check the accuracy of this information.17.Avoid contractions (don’t, can’t, won’t, etc.) in academic writing.18.Be sure to give examples (through reference to them listed in your bibliography) to demonstrate your point.19.This information can be put in a footnote to avoid distraction in reading the main text.20.Avoid using kana or kanji – it is distracting for those that cannot read it, and unnecessary for those who can.21.Try to find more up-to-date information.22.It is normal to give Japanese names in Japanese word order (e.g. Tanaka Tarō), though a footnote should be given to this effect for the first time it is done.23.It is normal to use macrons (e.g. for Tarō) to show long vowels on Japanese words (other than names such as Tokyo), though a footnote should be given to this effect for the first time it is done.24.Give a footnote to explain the custom you are using for someone who may not be familiar with Japanese practices.25.This point needs to be developed further to show its importance.When marking essays, I use this list of common mistakes and problems. The comments are more detailed than just a one word comment, which many markers still tend to write. If you have made one of these mistakes or the essay has one of these problems, I will mark the appropriate number in the margin by the relevant point. You can then use the list to see what my comment was. The list is in no particular order. Any specific comments on your essay not covered by any of the points in the Statement Bank will be still be made as appropriate. As the Statement Bank is a list of possible comments, it is possible that your essay may not have many, or indeed any, of the particular numbers marked in the margin in your essay. Poorer essays, on the other hand, are likely to include many of the numbers, or many of the same number repeated (until I reach a point when I think you should now be aware that the problem is recurring throughout the essay).