2022代写作文英国跨文化管理作业 Managing Across Cultures
Managing Across Cultures
Blackboard e-learning system: Copies of each session’s lecture notes and supporting materials will be placed on the Blackboard e-learning environment (http://bb.ncl.ac.uk/ )
WeekLectureIBM:9am-12pm1What is Culture: Perspectives and DefinitionsThursday 4 Oct2Communication and Co-operation in Multi-cultural TeamsThursday 11 Oct3Culture and Management ParadigmsThursday 18 Oct4Exploring Dimensions of Culture and ManagementThursday 25 Oct5Culture, Language and CommunicationThursday 1 November6Culture, Managerial Values and Cross-Cultural ManagersThursday 8 November 7Culture, Social Values and ManagementThursday 15 November8Course Review, Reflections on Group Processes and Assignment ClinicThursday 22 November
1.Course information notes
The notes for a related module state that “international business and global concerns dominate contemporary management thinking in enterprises of all kinds”. This forms the backdrop to the module, which will examine the importance of cultural differences as an influence on management thinking and practice. 2.Aims and Objectives
•To provide an overview of cross-cultural studies in social science and their relevance to business and management;•To enable some basic analysis of cross-cultural issues and problems;•To facilitate the understanding of cross-cultural behaviour at individual, group and organizational levels in work and consumer contexts;•To encourage students to critically analyze assumptions about universal management practice
Intended Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the course, you should be able to:•Understand issues in international managerial psychology;•Understand theories of interpersonal perceptions, cross-cultural psychology and related issues;•Analyze and diagnose specified problems, situations perspectives and contexts, including the ability to synthesize disparate sources and types of information to form opinions and prognoses;•Demonstrate awareness of appropriate behaviours when interacting with people of different cultures;•Demonstrate knowledge of methodological implications in the investigation of cross-cultural issues;
The Use of Core Texts
At Master’s level, it is important to make use of as wide a selection of texts (books and journals) as you can, rather than sticking to only one. When we assess performance in the module, one of the criteria we adopt is whether you demonstrate you have read widely within the subject and can apply this reading to the assessment tasks. Bear this in mind when planning your reading strategy for the module.#p#分页标题#e#
A) Set Book (recommended purchase)
Schneider, Susan C., & Barsoux, Jean-Louis, (2003) Managing Across Cultures (2nded). London: Financial Times-Prentice Hall.
B) Recommended Additional Readings
Beamer, Linda and Varner, Iris (2007), Inter-cultural Communication in the Global Workplace (fourth edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill Education Europe.
Samovar, Larry A. and Porter, Richard E. (Eds) (2006), Intercultural Communication: a Reader. (11th edition) New York: Thomson Learning
Samovar, Larry A. and Porter, Richard E. (Eds) (2006) Communication Between Cultures. New York: Thomson Learning
Deresky, Helen (2005) International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures (5th international edition). Indianapolis: Pearson Education ltd.
Trompenaars, Fons and Hampden-Turner, Charles (2004) Managing People Across Cultures. Oxford: Capstone Publishing
Gooderham, Paul N. and Nordhaug, Odd (Eds) (2003), International Management: Cross-boundary Challenges. Oxford: Blackwell.
Warner, Malcolm and Joynt, Pat (2001) Managing Across Cultures: Issues and Perspectives (second revised edition). London: Thomson Learning
Trompenaars, Fons and Hampden-Turner, Charles (1997) Riding the Waves of culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business. London: Nicholas Brearley.
Hall, Edward, T. and Reed Hall, Mildred (1990), Understanding Cultural Differences. London: Intercultural Press
Hall, Edward T. (1988), Silent Language. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc
C) Journals and other Published Sources of Information
Articles from academic journals provide a valuable learning resource for your study. The information is more current than that contained within textbooks, is of good quality, and presented in a few thousand words, rather than at more length. Journal articles can sometimes be difficult to work with, because they are aimed at an academic audience of scholars as well as students and their language reflects this constituency. However, if you persist you will be able to build up a deeper understanding of the subject by reading journal articles. The university subscribes to a wide range of journals, which can be easily accessed through the library catalogue. We shall refer you to particular articles during the teaching sessions from time to time. Articles from other kinds of publication (management magazines, newspapers etc) vary in quality and tend to be aimed at practitioners rather than students or scholars. Their focus is on providing news-type insights into current practice or issues that are important to international managers. Most will contain a strong editorial bias to the way in which they report information. As part of your background reading, they can be helpful, however if you want to use them as references for your assignment, you should consider their reliability as a source of information and whether or not the article provides good evidence for its arguments or conclusions.#p#分页标题#e#
Some journals and publications you might choose to look at include: Asia Pacific Journal of ManagementBritish Journal of ManagementCross-Cultural ResearchCulture and OrganizationEuropean Management JournalGroup and Organization ManagementHuman Resource ManagementInternational Journal of Human Resource ManagementInternational Journal of Cross-Cultural ManagementIntercultural CommunicationInternational Studies of Management and OrganizationJournal of International Business StudiesJournal of International ManagementManagement International ReviewManagement Learning
D) The Internet as a Source of Information
As an information resource, the Internet is very powerful and can quickly guide you to useful sites, if you carry out a disciplined search. The greatest value of internet information is its richness – anyone can deposit information about whatever they want on the world-wide-web. For students, however, this richness is also its greatest potential weakness. Web-based information is of highly varying quality and can at times be very misleading or even completely inaccurate. The information that you find might be aimed at any kind of audience, sometimes the general user, sometimes more specialized in nature. It is often difficult to identify which information is most suitable for your purpose. Always use web-information carefully. As with any source of information, take care not to assume that what you are reading is reliable and check out its origin. Finally, make sure that you cite the full web address with any information to which you refer in written work.
Weekly Work Schedule
WeekLectureActivityIndicative readings from core text(s) 1What is Culture: Perspectives and Definitions
Indicative content:- A brief history of the concept of ‘culture’, its relevance to business & management.Allocation of Working Groups; Group Formation Exercise
Introduction to Learning JournalsSchneider & Barsoux, chapters 1 & 2.2Communication and cooperation in multi-cultural teams
Indicative content:- An exploration of intercultural working processes and dynamicsVideo Case: Working in the Trans-national Team
Completion and Presentation of Group ChartersSchneider & Barsoux, chapter 83Culture and management paradigms
Indicative content:- investigating enculturation in the industrial paradigm of work and organization, the power of the English language and global convergenceArticle Evaluation:
Dong, Li and Glaister, Keith ‘National and Corporate Culture Differences in International Strategic Alliances: Perceptions of Chinese Partners’, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 24:2, 171-189#p#分页标题#e#
Hattrup, Keith, Ghorpade, Jai and Lackritz, James R. (2007) ‘Work Group Collectivism and the Centrality of Work: A Multinational Investigation’, Cross Cultural Research, 41: 236-260Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (2002); Schneider and Barsoux chapter 4, 94Cultural parameters and management
Indicative content:- introducing the work of Geert Hofstede and other major researchers on cross-cultural issues. Article Evaluation:
Hofstede, G. (1993) ‘Cultural Constraints in Management Theories.’ Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94
Fang, Tony (2006) ‘From “Onion” to “Ocean”: Paradox and Change in National Cultures,’ International Studies of Management and Organization, 35:4, 71-90Schneider and Barsoux chapter 2, 3, 45Culture, language and communication
Indicative content:- discussing the influence of culture in communicating in organizations, including the work of Edward HallArticle Evaluation:
Barinaga, Ester (2007) ‘”Cultural Diversity” at Work: “National Culture” as a Discourse Organizing an International Project Group’, Human Relations, 60: 2, 315-340
Bouncken, Ricarda, B. (2004) ‘Cultural Diversity in Entrepreneurial Teams: Findings of New Ventures in Germany,’ Creativity and Innovation Management, 13:4, 240-253Various in Samovar and Porter (2003);Hall (1973), Hall and Reed-Hall (1990); Beamer and Varner (2001); Schneider and Barsoux chapter 76Culture, managerial values and Cross-Cultural Managers
Indicative content:- Examining the role of managerial values and behaviour as a key variable in the interaction between national culture and organisational behaviour. Article Evaluation:
Woldu, Habte G., Budhawar, Pawan S., and Parkes, Carole (2006) ‘A Cross-national Comparison of Cultural Value Orientations of Indian, Polish, Russian and American Employees’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17:6, 1076-1094
Kalliny, Moses, Cruthirds, Kevin W., and Minor, Michael S., (2006) ‘Differences between American, Egyptian and Lebanese Humour Styles: Implications for International Management’, International Journal for Cross Cultural Management, 6:121-134Schneider & Barsoux, chapter 7.
7Culture, social values and management
Indicative content:- An exploration of whether ethical and social values can migrate between culturesVideo Case-study and group discussion: Ethics, Culture and Off-shoringGooderham and Nordhaug (2003); Barsoux and Schneider, chapter 10 8Course Review, Reflections on Group Processes and Assignment ClinicGroup Presentations: Reflecting on progress against the Group’s Charter
Personal Study and Student Participation
This is the most vital element of the course. You will need to carefully select the material you are going to study and manage your study time effectively. The learning process will be more useful – and fun – if everyone takes part actively. If you are prepared for each week’s session, you will find it easier to join in discussions and to answer questions.#p#分页标题#e#
Some people feel shy of talking in front of a whole group of people or answering questions. Remember, answering questions is not about being competitive with others in the group or being the “cleverest” person in the room. I will often ask you questions to find out a range of viewpoints on the subject under discussion and to see what opinions, information and experience you may have that can help us all with the learning process. There is no “correct” answer to any question in Business and Management studies, just a wide range of different opinions. Take part in the course actively and we will all benefit from each others’ experience, learn more and enjoy out time together better. Last but not least, it will be of great benefit to you in completing your assignment. NBS 8061, Managing Across Cultures: Module Assignment 2007/08
This assignment must be submitted to the Business School’s Postgraduate Office (2nd Floor, Armstrong Building) by 9am on Monday 10 December, 2007.
Your assignment has two elements: a Reflective Learning Log and the Evaluation of a Journal Article.
Groupwork and Learning Journal-keepingThe first element of the assignment is based upon your experience of multi-cultural working which is a major discursive theme throughout the module. In Week One, I will assign you to small learning groups comprising at least two different nationalities. You will carry out all of the weekly module activities in this group. The purpose of the groups is to give you direct experience of working in a multicultural setting, providing you not only an opportunity to work with people from different backgrounds but also a way in which to reflect on the challenges and benefits of doing so.
A.Reflective Learning Log:
For the first part of the assignment, you will be required to submit a 1500 word Reflective Learning Log, which will evaluate your key experiences of working in your learning group and the cross-cultural issues you have observed taking place each week against the literature about intercultural working that you have read over the course of the module. In order to complete this part of the assignment you will need to keep some reflective notes (or a journal) after each weekly session, discussing how the group develops, exploring how the class exercises progressed, assessing your and others’ contributions, group members’ styles of participation, what difficulties you encountered and your general orientations to the group work etc. These notes – which you should include as an appendix when you submit the assignment – will form the basis of a more critical evaluation for the assignment. When preparing the Learning Log for the assignment, it is important to remember that you will need to draw together and summarise the themes and issues that emerge from your analysis at the end of the module of your weekly notes, recording the successes and failures, the struggles and triumphs of your group work as well as an overall assessment of the key learning points that emerged for you over the course of the module. You will need to relate these reflections critically to the literature about intercultural group-working and communication, discussing the resonances between your experiences and theory and previous research findings in the field.#p#分页标题#e#
B.Evaluation of a Journal Article:
The second element of the assignment builds upon the first. You are required to prepare a 2,500 word critical evaluation of the following journal article:Masumoto, Tomoko (2004) ‘Learning to “do time” in Japan: A Study of US Interns in Japanese Organizations,’ International Journal of Cross Cultural Management research, 4:1, 5-17
Your evaluation should comprise three main themes: •An examination of the theoretical framework developed (and/or the literature drawn upon)•A discussion of the research approach adopted •An assessment of the wider implications of the article for individuals working in cross-cultural groups
This is an academic piece of writing, but – particularly in your discussion of the implications of the article for cross-cultural working – you should also draw upon the material in your reflective learning log to discuss whether the article is consistent with your experiences.
1.Answer the question! Think carefully about how you structure your work and ensure that it meets all the criteria set out in the assignment brief. Pay attention to the themes and issues set out and check that you have included everything that you need to when you submit the work.
2.Written presentation. Your work should take the form of a written essay of no more than 4,000 words. You should include a word count. Use headings, diagrams, brief tables if appropriate to illustrate points and to support your arguments. Ensure that these are relevant, based on your reading, and their significance to your argument is clear. Work that is more than 10% longer or shorter than the word allowance will not be successful.
3.Referencing. You should demonstrate your reading in the subject area through reference to or occasional direct quotations from appropriate sources. Do not simply reproduce diagrams or extensive general information from the textbooks or articles, however. You should assume that I know the workings of any basic theoretical or analytical models you use and will allocate marks for the way you apply them to the question or to clearly support a line of argument that helps you to answer the question. www.ukassignment.org 英国essay指导 Where you use direct quotations or show diagrams, try to keep them short and ensure that they make a direct and clear contribution to your argument.
4.Style and content. Your work summarizes your findings and evidence that is relevant to the questions answered. You do not need to make a complete listing of all the analytical and interpretative processes you went through. You should expect, therefore, to carry out more analysis in the process of exploring the question than you will use in your final work.#p#分页标题#e#
5.Combine practical information and organizational theory. I will give marks for a well-supported argument and discussion of the question that draws on evidence, applies the evidence intelligently and shows some insight in drawing conclusions. The aim of the assignment is to evaluate the issues embedded in the question, not to descriptively reproduce factual information on a topic area. This is particularly important in the Reflective Learning Log. Do not simply reproduce or summarise the weekly journal notes you have made but remember to apply relevant theory and research about intercultural working to your critical reflections. Your weekly notes are intended to contribute to the final log (as a way of reminding you of events and emotions when perhaps several weeks may have passed) but not to represent the final outcome.
6.Sources of research information. You will find information from a variety of sources, including academic and trade journals, press reports and company- or industry-produced information. Remember to consider the validity of the information and the writer’s viewpoint in the sources that you use in your final text. You should minimize the general descriptive information you include. You should focus on analysis and interpretation of the significant issues you identify, rather than describing them in excessive detail. Remember to credit all sources of information that you use, in your text and in the bibliography.
7.Structure and development. Try to ensure that the structure of your work follows a clear pattern and that the themes develop in a way that is appropriate to your line of argument. Ensure that what you write makes a direct contribution to the question and try to avoid including general or irrelevant information in your answers. I will not allocate marks to any particular format for the written work. However, please include appropriate headings, sub-headings and other ‘sign-posts’ so that we can see the direction of your thinking and analysis. As this is often the first time students have undertaken this kind of assignment, I have included an example of a possible structure/format below, but this is only a guide.
8.Appendices. You should attach your weekly notes to the assignment. You may also attach other appendices to your work, if you think them necessary. Appendices (including your weekly journal notes will not be included in the word-count or marked. They should not act as a ‘dumping ground’ for information you don’t know what to do with. You cannot use appendices to get round the word count limit e.g. saying ‘See Appendix 1 for the literature review’! In general for essays, appendices are of limited relevance.
Example Structure for the Evaluation of Journal Article Task
Introduction: Here you should outline what the essay is about, telling the reader how it is structured, and stating the conclusions you will draw. It is often useful to revise your introduction once you have completed an essay, to make sure it still describes the essay accurately.#p#分页标题#e#
Brief description of the paper being evaluated: Here you should – very briefly – outline the topic of the paper, the research undertaken, and the findings the researchers have made. This should take no more than a page, and is similar in style to an abstract. The importance of this section is a) it gives the reader a quick overview of the paper to be reviewed, and b) it gives you a useful check as to whether you understand the paper i.e. if you can’t summarise it, then you probably need to read it again!
Theory & Literature: Evaluate the main theoretical frameworks, and prior research studies, used by the researchers in developing their paper. You should NOT go through every reference cited, giving a detailed description of it. Instead, you should highlight the broad theoretical underpinning of the paper, perhaps going into greater detail where there are one or two specific models which are used a great deal by the researcher. Points you may wish to explore:
a) Are there models the researcher does NOT use, but which you think are relevant to the topic? Researchers are only human, and they may be inclined to cite references which support their ideas, and ignore references which might contradict them.b) Do you agree with the way in which the researchers have used the theories, models or previous research? For example, you may think they have misinterpreted a particular theory, or that a particular study they cite in support of their argument does NOT show what they claim it shows.
Research Approach: Briefly explore the research design and methods employed, before turning to a consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of this approach as a way of illuminating the research questions posed by the researchers. Discuss any limitations you can see in the method, substantiating your views with reference to the appropriate literature.
Researchers’ Findings & Conclusions: Evaluate the main findings, and the conclusions which the researchers present. You need to think carefully about whether these findings are valid, and whether the conclusions are justified. In part, you will need to refer back to the method adopted in the project – researchers sometimes use valid methods, but then draw over-ambitious conclusions. You will also need to assess how appropriately the researcher links the findings of the project with the literature presented in the literature review.
Implications for individuals working in cross-cultural groups: This section builds upon all the previous sections, and thus what you write here depends largely upon the points you’ve already made. For example, if you’ve argued that it’s a badly designed piece of research, drawing upon inappropriate theoretical frameworks, and with findings and conclusions which cannot be supported, then clearly it would be difficult to argue that the article’s findings have any implications for individuals. Equally, if you think the article has some flaws, but presents some interesting findings which might be relevant, then you need to discuss its implications – why would people want to know what the paper tells them, how might it affect their practice, how should it affect their practice, what implications does it have for the companies they work for, etc. This section also presents a useful opportunity for you to integrate the outcomes of your reflective learning log with your assessment of the article. You should discuss, for example, in what ways the article resonates with the conclusions you drew from your group-work experiences and whether it has anything to add to your broader considerations of intercultural working.#p#分页标题#e#
When you submit an essay, you sign to say it is your own work. This means that, except for those parts specifically referenced, you are claiming that you wrote this essay and did not take any or all of it from a book, a journal article, another student’s essay, the internet, lecture handouts, newspaper articles – or any other source.
We deal strongly with plagiarism, in two ways. Firstly, any piece of work which shows evidence of plagiarism will receive a mark of zero. Secondly, where appropriate we will refer the matter to the Registrar for consideration under academic regulations to determine whether any further action should be taken. In the most serious cases, a student will be expelled from the university. If you have ANY doubts about what constitutes plagiarism, you are advised to speak to your tutor BEFORE you submit your assignment.
PG Marking Scheme Guidelines
Grades (%)Assignments80%Outstanding•Worthy of retaining for reference.70 – 79%Excellent•Breadth or intensity of accessed data or literature plus an original or critical contribution or finding.60 – 69%Good•Thorough, clear treatment showing understanding of argument’s contribution and context. •Efficient use of data/literature.50 – 59%Satisfactory Pass•An adequate answer to the question based on a satisfactory comprehension of course material but with little originality.40 – 49%Condonable Fail •Very basic approach to a narrow or misguided selection of material. •Lacking in background or flawed/incorrect arguments/conclusions.<40%Outright Fail•No understanding of the basic concepts.•Evidence of serious misunderstandings.•Inadequate in depth and range.