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2022代写商业计划书ESSAY OUTLINE:essay论文目录

By August 16, 2022essay代写

2022代写商业计划书ESSAY OUTLINE:essay论文目录

2022代写商业计划书ESSAY OUTLINE:essay论文目录

essay outline(essay提纲)

先看几个essay目录范例:

Outline[*1]

Thesis:[*2] Because the polygraph has been proved reliable, even under the most controlled[*3] conditions, its use by private employers should be banned.[*4]

I. Introduction[*5]II. Several Kinds of Cultural Difference that People May Come Across[*6] in advertisement Translation[*7]III. The Advertisement Translation from the Aspect of Cross-Cultural CommunicationA.[*8] The basic principle of advertising translationB. Ways of advertising translation towards kinds of cross-cultural communication.1. [*9]Literal translation2. Free translation3. Borrowing4. Rhetoric5. Cultural TransferIV. Conclusion

用A4纸打印,每页页边距:上、下页边距均为2.54厘米;左、右页边距均为2.5厘米。

页面下端居中打印页码,用小写罗马数字标i。

论文格式文件2Abstract[*1]

Ethics is [*2]endowed with power and life through expressing the spirit of times. In this materialized world, traditional ethical instructions do not conform to the existent reality in the circumstances where a new communication situation, new contents of living and new existing modes of life are emerging. Due to this, exploring more adaptable moral principles becomes a[*3] needed task in the context of the prosperity of […] human beings to go out of sexual confusion, fulfilling their literary mission and becoming literary canon.[*4]

Key words:[*5] cross-cultural communication cu[*6]ltural difference advertisement translation

英、汉语内容提要只能分别写一页

以下的内容提要有问题With the development of …world economy. This paper[*7] is to analyze the influence of cross-cultural communication … in the target country.

页面下端居中打印页码,用小写罗马数字标ii。

内容提要[*8]

随着[*9]我国经济的迅速发展,广告翻译对于推动我国企业在经济全球化环境下开拓国际市场具有重要而深远的意义。在广告的翻译过程中会遇到很多种的跨文化现象,在这些差异中,宗教信仰,风俗习惯,历史背景,价值 [……] 运用各种翻译技巧去体现深层次的文化内涵。[*10]

关键词:[*11]跨文化交际 文[*12]化差异 广告翻译

论文格式文件3共空4行[*1]I. Introduction[*2]With the [*3]development ….英语论文格式Advertisement”, means advertising and propaganda, namely, the activity that announces something to the public far and wild. American Marketing Association (AMA) defines advertisement as “the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media” (Zhao 10).[*4]Adv

ertising is[*5] something that we are all exposed to. It is also something that is likely to affect most of us in a number of different spheres of our lives. Advertising takes many forms, but in most of them language is of crucial importance. […] but more often, and more importantly, to persuade and influence. Advertising, moreover, not only influences any human society in which it is widespread but also reflects certain aspect of society’s values and that society’s structure.(Torben and Kim 33)[*6]Nowadays, advertisement plays a very important role in people’s daily life. When people turn on the TV and watch the programs they like, they may watch lots …III. Advertisement Translation in the[*7] …Advertisement is, a kind of persuasive and comprehensive artistic language that combined with literature, aesthetics, psychology, marketing sales, and rhetoric. It is not only important to respect the factors […] As Professor Jian Fangrui says, “后来主要问题逐渐成了如何巧妙的对付媒体 (more[*8] and more the chief problem is the tactful management of mass media—translated by this author)” (Jian 39).A. The basic pri[*9]nciple of …Famous translating theorist …B. Different ways of advertisement translationCultural differences make the advertisement translation difficult and challenging. The quality of the translated text determines whether the product information …1. Literal t[*10]ranslationLiteral Translation means that when conveying the meaning of original…

几个要注意的问题:1. 首页开始要打页码,从阿拉伯数字1开始排列,下端、居中2. 英文打印状态,每一个标点后空一个格。3. 如果句子以一个整句引文开头,原句后的句号应根据具体情况改成其他恰当标点符号,如:“He collects a winter store of bright summer moments,[*11]” wrote George Brandes about Wordsworth’s Way of writing poetry.如果原句以问号、感叹号收尾,引用时应保留原来的标点符号,并将其放在引号内,如:“What did the President know and when did he know it?” became the great question of the Watergate hearings (40).

论文格式文件3 共空4行[*1]I. Introduction[*2]With the [*3]development ….“Advertisement”, means advertising and propaganda, namely, the activity that announces something to the public far and wild. American Marketing Association (AMA) defines advertisement as “the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media” (Zhao 10).[*4]Advertising is[*5] something that we are all exposed to. It is also something that is likely to affect most of us in a number of different spheres of our lives. Advertising takes many forms, but in most of them language is of crucial importance. […] but more often, and more importantly, to persuade and influence. Advertising, moreover, not only influences any human society in which it is widespread but also reflects certain aspect of society’s values and that society’s structure.(Torben and Kim 33)[*6]Nowadays, advertisement plays a very important role in people’s daily life. When people turn on the TV and watch the programs they like, they may watch lots …III. Advertisement Translation in the[*7] …Advertisement is, a kind of persuasive and comprehensive artistic language that combined with literature, aesthetics, psychology, marketing sales, and rhetoric. It is not only important to respect the factors […] As Professor Jian Fangrui says, “后来主要问题逐渐成了如何巧妙的对付媒体 (more[*8] and more the chief problem is the tactful management of mass media—translated by this author)” (Jian 39).A. The bas

ic pri[*9]nciple of …Famous translating theorist …B. Different ways of advertisement translationCultural differences make the advertisement translation difficult and challenging. The quality of the translated text determines whether the product information …1. Literal t[*10]ranslationLiteral Translation means that when conveying the meaning of original…

几个要注意的问题:1. 首页开始要打页码,从阿拉伯数字1开始排列,下端、居中2. 英文打印状态,每一个标点后空一个格。3. 如果句子以一个整句引文开头,原句后的句号应根据具体情况改成其他恰当标点符号,如:“He collects a winter store of bright summer moments,[*11]” wrote George Brandes about Wordsworth’s Way of writing poetry.如果原句以问号、感叹号收尾,引用时应保留原来的标点符号,并将其放在引号内,如:“What did the President know and when did he know it?” became the great question of the Watergate hearings (40).

论文格式文件5 Acknowledgements[*1]

In the course [*2]of writing this thesis, I received a magnificent amount of help and support, and I would like to take the opportunity to express my gratitude to all who have given me …

页码置于下方,居中,承续上一页引用文献后的阿拉伯数字。

其实这里的论文提纲,也可以理解为广义上的论文写作提纲,包括整个论文创作过程所需要注意的写作构成。下面具体讲解。

一、论文各要素构成   第一、构成项目

  毕业论文包括以下内容:

  封面、内容提要与关键词、目录、正文、注释、附录、参考文献。其中“附录”视具体情况安排,其余为必备项目。如果需要,可以在正文前加“引言”,在参考文献后加“后记”。

  第二、各项目含义

  (1)封面

  封面由文头、论文标题、作者、学校名称、专业、年级、指导教师、日期等项内容组成。

  (2)内容提要与关键词

  内容提要是论文内容的概括性描述,应忠实于原文,字数控制在300字以内。关键词是从论文标题、内容提要或正文中提取的、能表现论文主题的、具有实质意义的词语,通常不超过7个。

  (3)目录

  列出论文正文的一二级标题名称及对应页码,附录、参考文献、后记等对应的页码。

一、留学生ESSAY主要类别:  为了探讨和掌握论文的写作规律和特点,需要对论文进行分类。由于论文本身的内容和性质不同,研究领域、对象、方法、表现方式不同,因此,论文就有不同的分类方法。  燕子期刊网提示按内容性质和研究方法的不同可以把论文分为理论性论文、实验性论文、描述性论文和设计性论文。  另外还有一种综合型的分类方法,即把论文分为专题型、论辩型、综述型和综合型四大类:1.专题型论文。  这是分析前人研究成果的基础上,以直接论述的形式发表见解,从正面提出某学科中某一学术问题的一种论文。2.论辩型论文。  这是针对他人在某学科中某一学术问题的见解,凭借充分的论据,着重揭露其不足或错误之处,通过论辩形式来发表见解的一种论文。3.综述型论文。  这是在归纳、总结前人或今人对某学科中某一学术问题已有研究成果的基础上,加以介绍或评论,从而发表自己见解的一种论文。4.综合型论文。  这是一种将综述型和论辩型两种形式有机结合起来写成的一种论文。简单分类:论文  a thesis; a dissertation; an essay; a paper毕业论文  a graduation dissertation; a graduation thesis博士论文  a doctoral dissertation  论文摘要  an abstract of a article; a synopsis of a thesis  论文答辩  (thesis) oral defense学期论文  a term paper学术论文  a thesis; a dissertation; a research paper; a scientific paper专题论文  a monograph; a disquisition专题论文集  a symposium

归纳为:(essay 小论文,随笔,assignment课堂作业(上完一章节留下的作业).Coursework 课程作业 ,thesis proposal, 研究建议,课题建议term paper 学年作业,research paper小的研究论文,book report读书报告dissertation (博士学位论文,大论文,专题论文))

二、留学生ESSAY格式:

Reference Harvard格式RGU: LIBRARYContentsIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2When to cite? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3What should a reference citation look like within my text? . . . . . . 3Reference citations for specific materialsA book by a single author / group of authors who have#p#分页标题#e#not written chapters separately (a monograph) . . . . . . 4An anthology, or a book where different authors have written different chapters . 4A thesis (print) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5An article in a journal, magazine or newspaper (print) . . . . . . 5Conference papers or proceedings . . . . . . . . . 6#p#分页标题#e#An exhibition catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . 6Where there is no author . . . . . . . . . . 7Committee reports . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Legal materialsCases . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . 9European Union materials . . . . . . . . . 10Bills and Command papers . . . . . . . . . 11Scottish Law Commission / Law Commission materials . . . . . 12In electronic formats only . . . . . . . . . . 12Figures, tables and illustrations . . . . . . . . . 12Original artworks . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Electronic resourcesIn fixed formats (e.g. on CD-ROM) . . . . . . . . 14Online books . . . . . . . . . . . . 14An electronic thesis . . . . . . . . . . . 15Online journal articles . . . . . . . . . . 15Webpages . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Films, videos, DVDs and broadcasts . . . . . . . . 16Conversations, letters or emails (personal communications) . . . . . 18Citing more than one source by the same author, and citing thesame source more than once . . . . . . . . . . 18Secondary referencing . . . . . . . . . . . 19Further information . . . . . . . . . . . . 20RGU: LIBRARYHOW TO CITE REFERENCES USING THE HARVARD STYLE2 RGU: LIBRARYWhy cite references?• To acknowledge use of other people’s work. Even if you cite someone else’s work only in order to disagree with it, you have made use of their intellectual property and you must acknowledge it.• To help readers of your work follow how your argument was assembled and what your influences are – to help them form their own opinions on your work.If you use someone else’s work without acknowledgement you risk facing charges ofplagiarism, which could damage your progress through University. This Guide is designed tohelp you apply good practice in acknowledging and citing your sources.How do I cite?There are different styles of reference prescribed by various organisations. Details about a particular style will normally be set out in a style sheet or style manual: these cover things like how quotations should be set out within your text as well as how your references and bibliography should look.The Robert Gordon University has approved the use of either the Harvard style or the Vancouver style for undergraduate use: check with your tutor or School which of these you should use in your assignments. Whichever style your School requires should be applied consistently throughout your academic work.#p#分页标题#e#This Guide is based on the Harvard style as set out in British Standard recommendations for references to published materials (BS 1629) – see the “Further Information” section for details.A guide to the Vancouver style is also available from the Library.#p#分页标题#e#Common to all st yles is th e us e of reference cit ati ons and of a reference list and/or bibliogr aphyReference citations give information on other sources used in your text, at the point at which you use them. In the Harvard system, the reference citation consists of a note, in brackets, of the author’s name and the date of the work, which enables the reader to find the full details in the reference list at the end. If you are quoting directly from your source the reference will usually indicate the precise place to which you are referring (e.g. the page number).The description of Glover’s education (McKay 1993) is based on several sources…In the reference list, all the sources you have cited (except personal communications) are listed in alphabetical order by author, and if there is more than one item by a particular author they are listed in order of year of publication. A separate bibliography, which would include items you have consulted but not cited in the text, is not required in the Harvard style.MCKAY, A., 1993. Scottish samurai – Thomas Blake Glover. Edinburgh: Canongate.RGU: LIBRARY 3WHEN TO CITE?Every time you quote directly from someone’s work:• make clear it’s a quotation (put it in quotation marks)• cite the reference in the body of your text• include the work it comes from in the reference list/bibliography.Every time you refer indirectly to someone’s work (e.g. summarise their argument, or paraphrasewhat they say):• make clear what you’re saying comes from another source (e.g. “I do not agree with Lapping’s claim that…”)• cite the reference in the body of your text• include the work it comes from in the reference list/bibliography.IMPORTANT NOTE: you should not rely too heavily on quotation and paraphrase of others’ workin work of your own. Readers of your work will be looking for evidence of your own thoughts and conclusions, and your own answers to the questions set – not just a patchwork of the ideas of others.Where you draw on the work of others it should be as evidence for or against your own conclusions, not as a substitute for showing that you have understood, and thought about, the resources you have looked at.Indiana University have some useful guidance online on what is and what is not acceptable in quoting and paraphrasing – see the “Further Information” section for details.WHAT SHOULD A REFEREN CE CITATION LOO K LIKE WITHIN MY TEXT?In the Harvard style, the author’s name and the year of publication are placed in brackets at the point of reference. If the author’s name has occurred naturally in the text you can omit it from the brackets.#p#分页标题#e#http://www.ukthesis.org/Thesis_Tips/If you are referencing a direct quotation you should also include the number(s) of the page(s) it is taken from in the brackets.#p#分页标题#e#Gorbachev (1988 p. 84) describes his concept of economic reform as “of an all-embracing,comprehensive character” and goes on to explain……and the “sombre, disturbing” aspects of Picasso’s art (Golding 1981 p. 63) are furtheremphasised…The description of Glover’s education (McKay 1993) is based on several sources…Even a brief discussion of informed consent (McHaffie 2000) points up a number of relatedissues…4 RGU: LIBRARYWHAT SHOULD A REFEREN CE LIST CON TAIN?Referring to a book by a single author, or by a group of authors who have not written chaptersseparately (a monograph)• authors/editors – all of them. In the Harvard style the name is laid out as surname followed by initial(s).o For organisations, it is usually best to put the name in full (e.g. Department of Health, notDoH).o The Harvard (British Standard) style as set out in BS 1629 requires the authors’ namesto be in capitals.• year of publication• full title, in italics• edition of the work – only if there has been more than one edition. If there has, you must saywhich one, as the page numbers and content may change between editions.• volume number – if the book is in more than one volume• place of publication (as given on title page – if there are several, use only the one relevant to the country in which this edition was published)• publisher (NOT printer) – if the publisher’s name is abbreviated on the title page it can beabbreviated in your reference (as in “HMSO”) but otherwise the name should be given in full.DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SOCIAL SERVICES INSPECTORATE, 1991. Purchase of services:practice guidance and practice material for Social Services Departments and other agencies.London: HMSO.GORBACHEV, M., 1987. Perestroika. expanded ed. London: Fontana/Collins.MCKAY, A., 1993. Scottish samurai – Thomas Blake Glover. Edinburgh: Canongate.Referring to a section in an anthology, or a book where different authors have written differentchaptersIf you have used the whole book as background reading, you should refer to it as a whole:• editor(s) of the volume, followed by “ed.” or “eds.”• year of publication• full title, in italics• edition, if there has been more than one• volume number, if there is more than one volume• place of publication• publisher.STANGOS, N., ed. 1981. Concepts of modern art. revised ed. London: Thames and Hudson.If you have cited a part of the book in your text, or if you have used only one part as background reading, you should refer to the part you have used. If you have cited more than one part in your text you should list them separately in the reference list:#p#分页标题#e##p#分页标题#e#• author(s) of the part or chapter (surname followed by initial(s))• year of publication• title of the part or chapter• “In:”, then details of the book. The book details are laid out as for a book citation except that the author name(s) will be given as initial(s) followed by surname. Note that this is different from the way authors’ names appear when they are at the beginning of the reference citation.• first and last pages of the chapter or part, preceded by “pp.”.RGU: LIBRARY 5GOLDING, J., 1981. Cubism. In: N. STANGOS, ed. Concepts of modern art. revised ed. London:Thames and Hudson. pp. 50–78O’DONOVAN, K., 1994. Management issues. In: T. HANSON and J. DAY, eds. CD-ROM inlibraries: management issues. London: Bowker Saur. pp. 23–37SMITH, R. 1981. Conceptual Art. In: N. STANGOS, ed. Concepts of modern art. revised ed.London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 256–270Referring to a thesisThere will be no publisher for a thesis, so you should indicate instead the degree for which it was submitted and the awarding institution. The date will be the year in which the final version was approved.RENCKEN, D.W., 1991. A quantitative model for adaptive task allocation in human-computerinterfaces. Unpublished D. Phil thesis, University of Oxford.A thesis which is available electronically is considered to be published – see the section below on electronic resources for details of how to cite it.Referring to an article in a periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper etc.)• author(s) of the article (surname followed by initial(s)). If there are more than three authors, list only the first one, followed by “et al.”• year of publication• article title• periodical title, in italics. Give the full title for the sake of clarity, rather than using abbreviations.• volume number, and part number in brackets• first and last pages of the article, preceded by “pp.”.HARRIS, S. and HYLAND, T., 1995. Basic skills and learning support in further education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 19 (1), pp. 42–48For newspapers and magazine-type periodicals with no volume number, give the date of the issue:TOYNBEE, P., 1995. Our unhealthy obsession with medical drama. Radio Times, 12 October, p.216 RGU: LIBRARYReferring to conference papers or proceedingsIf you are citing an individual paper from a volume of conference proceedings you should cite it as you would for a chapter in a book:• author(s) of the paper, laid out as surname followed by initial(s)• year of publication (note that this may not be the same as the year in which the conference washeld)• title of the paper• “In:”• editor(s) of the volume, followed by “ed(s)”, laid out as initial(s) followed by surname#p#分页标题#e##p#分页标题#e#• full title of the volume, in italics• “Proceedings of ”, and details of the conference (what number it was, if part of a series; the bodywhose conference it was) in italics• date the conference was held• place of publication• publisher• first and last pages of the paper, preceded by “pp.”.DOUKAKIS, I., PROCTOR, T. and PROCTOR, S. 2003. Creativity and advertising. In: R.BENNETT, ed. New challenges for corporate and marketing communications. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications. 7–8 April 2003.London: London Metropolitan University. pp. 54–63If you are citing the conference proceedings as a whole you should cite:• editor(s) of the volume, followed by “ed(s)”• year of publication• full title, in italics• “Proceedings of ”, and details of the conference (what number it was, if part of a series; the body whose conference it was) in italics• date the conference was held• place of publication• publisher.BENNETT, R., ed. 2003. New challenges for corporate and marketing communications.Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications.7–8 April 2003. London: London Metropolitan University.Referring to exhibition catalogues• artist or author – where the exhibition is of a single living artist’s work this will usually be the artist. Where there are a number of living artists involved it will usually be the gallery or sponsor.If the catalogue explicitly states it was written by someone other than the artist (e.g. where the exhibition is a retrospective, or is historical) use the name of the person who wrote or edited it.• publication date – the date the catalogue was published (this may be different from the date of the exhibition itself)• title of the catalogue, including any details of where the exhibition took place• exhibition dates, in the format e.g. “13 – 18 September 1989”• place of publication of the catalogue (not the location of the exhibition)• publisher.RGU: LIBRARY 7MCFADYEAN, J. 1989. Exhibition of paintings and sculptures. Catalogue of an exhibition atForum. 13 – 18 September 1989. London: The Scottish Gallery.TATE GALLERY. 1987. Art from Europe. Catalogue of an exhibition at the Tate Gallery. 15 April- 21 June 1987. London: Tate Gallery.Where there is no authorFor an unsigned article in a journal or newspaper (such as an editorial), the title of the periodicalshould be given in place of the author:European Journal of Cancer Care. 1999. Editorial. European Journal of Cancer Care, 8 (3),p. 127Other anonymous authors (for example of a poem or a cartoon) can be listed as “ANON.”#p#分页标题#e##p#分页标题#e#CommitteesOften a government committee report will be known informally by the name of the chairman/woman of the committee (e.g. “the Dearing Report”). When citing it you should give the full name of the committee as the author, but you may add “Chairman:” and the chairman/woman’s name in brackets after the title if this will help readers of your work to identify the report.NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO HIGHER EDUCATION, 1997. Higher education inthe learning society. (Chairman: Sir Ron Dearing). London: The Stationery Office.Referring to patents• applicant / assignee (NOTE: the Harvard style does not give the inventor(s) if they are different tothe assignee. If the patent is assigned to the inventor’s company or university only the companyor university is cited.)• year the patent was approved (applied for, if pending)• title• country / region (e.g. “European patent” for EP)• patent number, without region abbreviation but with full date.UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 2004. SQUID detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields. Europeanpatent 1474707 2004-11-10.REFERRING TO LE GAL MA TERIAL SBS 1629 does not give full guidance on these but the following notes adapt accepted practice in other styles to the Harvard approach.NOTE: in most instances we recommend that you do not use abbreviations in your citations (e.g. forjournal titles) as there is no single standard set of abbreviations and readers can be misled. In legal materials such as case reports and legislation, however, there are long-established conventions as to how some titles should be abbreviated, and these abbreviations may be used. There is a list of the most commonly-used legal abbreviations on the Library webpages at http://www.rgu.ac.uk/library/howto/page.cfm?pge=271488 RGU: LIBRARYFor legal materials such as cases which are available to you in print or electronic format, (for example, for a case report which is available both in the Library and on LexisNexis) you should cite it as if for the printed version. However if material is available to you online only you should cite the electronic version.Scottish and English casesi. Cases reported in law reportsThe reference citation within your text should contain the case name and year. It is usual to put the case name in italics.In the case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company (1893), however…Where the whole case is cited the reference list should contain:• the case name, in italics• the year• the case report series abbreviation• number of the first page of the case (note: do not use "p.").Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company. 1893. 1 Q.B. 256Where part of the case (either a quote or a point of law) is cited the reference list should#p#分页标题#e#contain:#p#分页标题#e#• the case name, in italics• the year• the case report series abbreviation• number of the first page of the case, followed by "at", followed by the number of the first page ofthe part quoted (note: do not use "p.").Lord Atkin stated in Donoghue v Stevenson (1932) that “you must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbour”.Donoghue v Stevenson. 1932. S.C. (H.L.) 31 at 44ii. Neutral citationsNew cases in the higher courts are now assigned a “neutral citation”. It contains the year, code for the court and the number of the case. Most of these cases will also be reported in a recognised law report series. Where a citation to such a series exists it should be given. However, if a case is very new and only a neutral citation is available it can be used. The neutral citation will begin U.K.H.L. for the House of Lords, U.K.P.C. for the Privy Council, E.W.C.A. for the Court of Appeal or E.W.H.C. for the High Court: for Scottish courts, H.C.J.T. for the High Court, H.C.J.A.C. for the Court of CriminalAppeal, C.S.O.H for the Court of Session (Outer House) or C.S.I.H for the Court of Session (Inner House).The recent case of Pinto v Brixton Prison Governor (2004) has highlighted…Pinto v Brixton Prison Governor. 2004. E.W.H.C. 2986RGU: LIBRARY 9iii. Cases ONLY available in newspapersWhere a case has ONLY been reported in a newspaper, and no citation to a law report series or aneutral citation exists, it can be cited as follows:• case name (not in italics)• year• title of newspaper, in italics• date, in the format dd month• page number(s), preceded by "p." or "pp."Webley v Department for Work and Pensions. 2005. The Independent. 13 January, p. 43iv. Unreported casesOccasionally details of a case not reported in any series of law reports, without a neutral citation (see above) and not available in any newspaper, may be available as a transcript or summary on WestlawUK or LexisNexis Professional, or in a textbook. Such a case should be cited as follows (name, court, date, unreported):• case name, in italics• court• date of judgement, in the format dd month yyyy• "(Unreported)".Hawley v Luminar Leisure Plc. Court of Appeal Queen’s Bench Division. 10 January 2005.(Unreported).LegislationWithin your text, the reference citation should take the form of the name of the Act etc. and the year it was enacted. The year is treated as part of the Act’s title, to distinguish it from acts with same title enacted in other years, so there is no need to repeat it in brackets.The provisions of the Copyright (Visually Impaired Persons) Act 2002 include…i. UK ParliamentActs or Statutes:• short title, in italics, including year of publication• "c." followed by chapter number (note: this is not a section number within the Act but the Act'sown chapter number within the session of its enactment)• if you are quoting a section, “s.” followed by the section number.Copyright (Visually Impaired Persons) Act 2002. c. 33, s.4.Statutory Instruments:• title and year, in italics• "S.I." followed by its number within the year of its enactment, in the format yyyy/(nnn)n.The Milk Marketing Board (Dissolution) Order 2002. S.I. 2002/128.10 RGU: LIBRARYii. Scottish ParliamentActs or Statutes:• short title and year, in italics• "a.s.p." followed by the Act's number.Tenements (Scotland) Act 2004. a.s.p. 11.Statutory Instruments:• title and year, in italics• "S.S.I." followed by its number within the year of its enactment, in the format yyyy/(nnn)n.The Fireworks (Scotland) Regulations 2004. S.S.I. 2004/393.European Union Materialsi. Cases• "Case" followed by case number. (Note: after Nov 1989, cases are subdivided into C (Court ofJustice) and T (Court of First Instance) series.)• case name, in italics• year• report series abbreviation• number of the first page of the case.Case 43/75. Defrenne v SABENA. 1976. E.C.R. 455.Case C–97/98. Peter Jagerskiold v Torolf Gustafsson. 1999. E.C.R. I–7319.ii. LegislationIn your text, these should be cited as “Council Directive Year/Legislation Number” or “CouncilRegulation Year/Legislation Number”, as appropriate….however the information contained in Council Directive 2004/83 (2004) and Council Regulation1612/68 (1968) suggests…It is acceptable when citing EU directives, decisions and legislation in your reference list to give onlythe following information, without giving a full Official Journal citation:for Directives and Decisions (all in italics)• institutional origin (e.g. "Council Directive")• year / legislation number / institutional treaty• "of" followed by the date it was passed• "on" followed by the title.for Regulations (all in italics)• institutional origin (e.g. "Council Regulation")• institutional treaty, in brackets• year / legislation number• "of" followed by the date it was passed• "on" followed by the title.RGU: LIBRARY11Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and Status of Third Country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons who Otherwise Need International Protection and the Content of the Protection Granted.Council Regulation (EC) 1612/68 of 1968 on Freedom of Movement for Workers within theCommunity.If you wish to include the Official Journal information it may be added in brackets at the end of the bibliography entry.Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and Status of Third Country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons who OtherwiseNeed International Protection and the Content of the Protection Granted. (OJ L304 2004; 30September, p. 12)Council Regulation (EC) 1612/68 on Freedom of Movement for Workers within the Community.(OJ L257 1968; 19 October, p. 2)Other (official and unofficial) papers and reportsi. Bills (U.K. Parliament)• short title, in italics• "H.C. Bill" (if House of Commons) or "H.L. Bill" (if Lords)• parliamentary session, in brackets• serial number.Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Bill. H.C. Bill (2004–05) 11.ii. Bills (Scottish Parliament)The leading authorities have yet to give examples, so we suggest the following, based on the formatfor UK bills:• short title, in italics• "S.P. Bill"• parliamentary session, in brackets• serial number.Fire (Scotland) Bill. S.P. Bill (2004–5) 24.iii. Hansard (UK Parliamentary debates)• "Hansard", in italics• year• "H.C." or "H.L." (depending on which House the debate took place in)• "Vol." and volume number• "col." and column number• date of the debate, in brackets.Hansard. 2004. H.C. Vol. 421, col. 1695. (27 May).RGU: LIBRARYiv. Command papers (UK Parliament)• originating committee or Ministry, in capitals• year• title, in italics• abbreviation and number of command paper.HOME OFFICE, 2004. Legislation on identity cards : a consultation. Cm. 6178.v. Scottish Law Commission / Law Commission (reports, discussion papers etc.)• name of commission as author, in capitals• year of publication• title, with report number in brackets, all in italics• place of publication• publisher (NOT printer) – if the publisher’s name is abbreviated on the title page it can beabbreviated in your reference (as in “HMSO”) but otherwise the name should be given in full.SCOTTISH LAW COMMISSION, 2004. Report on insanity and diminished responsibility (Report195). Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.Legal material only available electronicallyTreat this as for an electronic journal article:• author(s) of the article• year of publication• article title• periodical title, in italics• medium, in square brackets• volume and issue number• "Available from:" and the web address – if the web address for the individual article is very long,you may use the “front page” address for the journal or full-text database• "Accessed" and the accessed date, in square brackets.LEWIS, T., 2004. Democracy, Free Speech and TV: the case of the BBC and the ProLife Alliance.Web Journal of Current Legal Issues. [online] 5. Available from:http://webjcli.ncl.ac.uk/2004/issue5/tlewis5.html [Accessed 17 January 2005]Referri ng to figur es, tables and illustr ati onsWhere the figure or illustration is the author’s own work, or is not a substantial work in its own right(e.g. if it is a family snapshot used in a biography) you should cite the author of the article or book as author, as in this example:…Donnan’s graph (2000 p. 371 Fig. 30.4) shows that the majority of patients…If the figures or plates are numbered it is best to give the number as well as the page number: in the example above, and in the one which follows, there are two illustrations on each page cited, so you must let your readers know which one you mean.In his school photograph (Hiney 1998 facing p. 134 Pl. 2), Chandler appears…RGU: LIBRARY13In the reference list, the larger work from which the illustration comes will appear:DONNAN, P.T., 2000. Quantitative analysis (descriptive). In: D. CORMACK, The research process in nursing. 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science. pp. 365–382HINEY, T., 1998. Raymond Chandler: a biography. London: Vintage.However if the illustration is not by the author of the work in which it appears, and if it is a work in its own right (e.g. a painting), you may wish to cite it in its own right (for instance, if it is an example of the work of a painter you are writing about). In this case you should say in what type of medium the original is (e.g. Engraving, Photograph, Watercolour), and should give the place the original work can be found (e.g. the gallery it is in, for a painting) as well as the details of the publication in whichyou saw it reproduced:…while in Renoir’s painting of the Charpentiers (Renoir 1878) the figures are groupedinformally…RENOIR, A., 1878. Madame Charpentier and her Children. Oil on canvas. New York: MetropolitanMuseum of Art. In: M.R. BROWN, ed. 2002. Picturing children. Aldershot: Ashgate.IMPORTANT NOTE: the copyright laws restrict permission to “quote” illustrations, tables anddiagrams in your work more tightly than they restrict permission to quote small parts of text. If you wish to reproduce someone else’s illustrations(s) or table(s) in a work of your own (rather than just discussing and citing it) you may have to write to the author or publisher for permission. Check with your tutor/School about any material of this kind you want to reproduce.#p#分页标题#e##p#分页标题#e#REFERRING TO ORIGINAL ARTWORKSIf you are citing a work of art itself (rather than an illustration of it), you should cite:• artist(s)• date – this should be the year in which the work was first exhibited (or the year in which it is thought to have been produced, if it was not exhibited in the artist’s lifetime). It is acceptable to give an approximate date, in the format e.g. “c. 1470”.• title• format e.g “Oil on canvas” or “Multimedia installation”• place – this should be the town/city of the gallery etc in which it can be seen• institution – this should be the gallery, cathedral etc where the artwork can be seen.SARGENT, J.S. 1907. Lady Agnew of Lochnaw. Oil on canvas. Edinburgh: National Gallery ofScotland.RGU: LIBRARY14REFERRING TO MAP SA map which is contained in a larger work (e.g. a journal article) should be cited as for any other illustration (see above). For a map which is published separately in its own right your should cite:• cartographer (this may be a company or a corporate body such as the Ordnance Survey, theBritish Geological Survey, etc)• date of publication• title• scale, expressed as a ratio• series, if it is part of a series• place of publication• publisher.ORDNANCE SURVEY. 1990. Ballater, Glen Clova and surrounding area. 1: 50 000. Landranger.Southampton: Ordnance Survey.Referri ng to electr onic resourc esMaterials in electronic formats, even when posted free to the Internet, are still the intellectual property of the person or organisation who produced them, and you must acknowledge them as you would for printed materials.Because online (Internet) resources can move or change rapidly, in a way that print resources cannot,it is usual to give the date when you consulted them (the “accessed date”) as well as the other details.For electronic resources in “fixed” formats such as CD-ROM or DVD this is not necessary.Referring to electronic resources in “fixed” formats• authors/editors• year of publication – usually the release date of the disk etc.• title – if you are using an article from within a larger resource, the article title should be cited asfor a print journal, followed by “In:” and the details of the larger resource (as for print materials,above). Otherwise give the title of the CD-ROM (or other resource) as a whole.• format – e.g. “CD-ROM”, in square brackets• place of publication/production• publisherNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO HIGHER EDUCATION, 1997. Higher education inthe learning society. (Chairman: Sir Ron Dearing). [CD-ROM]. London: The Stationery Office.Referring to online books and journalsFor online resources that are based on their print counterparts (online journals or books) it is fairly straightforward to identify authors, dates etc. and the only difference is that you add the format, the web address and “accessed date”.For an online book by a single author/group of authors this will be:• author(s)• year of publication• title in full• medium e.g. “online” in square brackets• edition of the work – only if there has been more than one editionRGU: LIBRARY15• place of publication• publisher• “Available from:” and the web address• “Accessed” and the accessed date in square brackets.FRAZER, Sir J.G., 1922. The Golden Bough. [online] New York: Macmillan.Available from: http://www.bartleby.com/196/168.html [Accessed 28 August 2003]For a section or chapter in an edited work it will mirror the print format in the same way, with thesame additions.For an electronic thesis the details are given as for a print thesis, except that the word “Unpublished”is omitted and the medium, web address and accessed date are given in the same way as for anelectronic book.SETTERSTEIN, L., 1999. Critical thinking and participation in health behaviors. [online] PhDthesis, University of Wisconsin. Available from:http://www.library.wisc.edu/databases/connect/dissertations.html [Accessed 26 October 2004]For an article in an electronic journal it will be:• author(s) of the article• year of publication• article title• periodical title, in italics• medium, in square brackets• volume and issue number• “Available from:” and the web address – if the web address for the individual article is very long,you may use the “front page” address for the journal or full-text database• “Accessed” and the accessed date in square brackets.Martin and Pearce (2003) discuss a project which looks at institutional portals……and some artists draw attention to the symbolic significance of trees (Gsteu 2003)…GSTEU, M., 2003. The tree: a symbol of life. PSA Journal. [online] 69(1). Available from:http://www.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed 28 August 2003]MARTIN, R. and PEARCE, L. Just a distraction?: external content in institutional portals. Ariadne.[online] Issue 36. Available from:http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue36/justadist/ [Accessed 21 August 2003]16 RGU: LIBRARYReferring to webpages#p#分页标题#e#• author(s)/editor(s) – usually the person who posted the content you are citing. If the content isunsigned you can use the name of the website, or of the organisation it belongs to.#p#分页标题#e#• year of publication – if the author has not specifically dated the item you are citing, you could usethe “last updated” date of the page.• title of the webpage• format e.g. “online”, in square brackets• place of publication if this can be determined• publisher – if the website is hosted by a company or organisation you can use them as thepublisher. Otherwise the publisher may be the author. ISPs such as Freeserve are not normallycited as publisher, except for material on their own company webpages.• “Available from:” and the web address• “Accessed” and the accessed date in square brackets.in your textRick Hall (2003) summarises the controversy over the Atkins diet……recent lists of professional posts in the offshore industries (Institute of Petroleum 2003)include…in the reference listHALL, R., 2003. Atkins diet controversy: low-carb diet gets thumbs down from medical group.[online] New York: About Nutrition. Available from:http://nutrition.about.com/library/weekly/aa030203a.htm [Accessed 29 August 2003]INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM, 2003. Industry information: working offshore. [online] London:Institute of Petroleum. Available from:http://www.petroleum.co.uk/index.cfm?PageID=40 [Accessed 29 August 2003]Referri ng to fi lms, vi deos, DVDs and broadcastsIn most cases, these will be collaborative efforts and they should be listed in the reference list undertheir title (but see below for exceptions):• title• date – for films and videos this should be the year of release. For broadcasts it should be the year of first broadcast. If you are referring to a long-running series as a whole, there may not bea date – but see below for individual episodes• medium (e.g. Film, Video) in square brackets• for films you can add “Directed by” and the director’s name if you wish to• place of publication (normally the main offices of the studio or production company)• publisher (normally the film, broadcasting, or production company)….and Welles went on to direct Shakespeare (Macbeth 1948), though some critics complained……Kurosawa’s interpretation of the Macbeth story (Throne of Blood 1957) transposes it to mediaevalJapan……while in the Archers (The Archers) the “Lady Macbeth” character who seeks to realise herambitions through her husband is Susan Carter…#p#分页标题#e#RGU: LIBRARY17The Archers. [Radio series]. London: BBC Radio 4.Macbeth. 1948. [Film]. Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures.Throne of Blood. 1957. [Film]. Directed by Akira Kurosawa. Japan: Toho. [Video].London: Argos Films/British Film Institute.If a video, DVD or broadcast is clearly the intellectual work of a single person (e.g. an “opinion piece”#p#分页标题#e#written, produced and presented by one broadcaster) they should be cited as the author. You canalso use this type of format for feature films if you wish to highlight the fact that they are the work ofa particular director.KUROSAWA, A., director. Throne of Blood. 1957. [Film]. Japan: Toho. [Video]. London: ArgosFilms/British Film Institute.WILCOX, D. 2000. The battle for Docklands. [Video]. London: Desmond Wilcox Productions forDocklands Development Corporation.For individual episodes of a series you should give the number (if there is one) and the title (if thereis one) of the episode, and the date on which it was broadcast….when Susan’s husband resigns from his job (The Archers 2003) she is furious……in the very first episode of the series (Yes, Minister 1986), Jim Hacker is introduced to therealities of politics…The Archers. 2003. [Radio series]. London: BBC Radio 4. 20 AugustYes, Minister. 1986. Episode 1, The Ministerial Broadcast. [TV]. London: BBC2. 16 JanuaryFor an individual contribution within a broadcast (such as an interview within a larger programme)you should reference the individual and then the broadcast in which their contribution appears….the Chancellor, however, stated in an interview (Brown 2002) that…BROWN, G., 2002. Interview. In: Newsnight. [TV]. London: BBC2. 28 MarchRGU: LIBRARY18Referri ng to convers ati ons, lett ers or emails(pers onal communic ati ons)British Standard 1629 does not give specific guidance on personal communications. The followingnotes adapt accepted practice in other styles to the Harvard approach.If you refer in your text to a letter or email you have received from someone, or a conversation youhave had with them, you should cite it as a personal communication in the text of your work only.The reference citation should contain:• the person’s name (if that does not appear in your text) laid out as surname followed byinitial(s)• the words “personal communication” (for letters or emails you can add “by letter” or “by email” ifyou wish)• the date the communication took place (for emails or letters this will be the date on which it wassent to you)….Beryl Morris (personal communication. 12 August 2004) suggests training is often the firstactivity to be cut in times of financial stringency……while “training is often the first thing to suffer when funds are tight” (MORRIS, B., personal#p#分页标题#e#communication. 12 August 2004)……while the HR Director of XCorp claims the company has never needed a Staff Developmentpolicy (BLOGGS, J., personal communication by email. 13 August 2004)…Emails posted to a bulletin board, weblog or similar rather than sent to you personally should be cited#p#分页标题#e#as for other webpages (see the section on “Referring to electronic resources” for details).Letters which have been published in a newspaper or periodical should be cited as for newpaper orperiodical articles. Letters which have been published in book form as part of a collection (for example,the Collected Letters of a politician) should be cited as for a chapter within an edited book. Letterswhich have been quoted in a book by another person (for example, in a biography) should be cited assecondary references. See the relevant sections of this Guide for details of how to cite these.Referri ng to more th an one sourc e by th e same auth or,and referri ng more th an once to th e same sourc eReferring to more than one source by the same authorIn the Harvard style, the date is used to distinguish between different works by the same author. Ifmore than one work dates to the same year, letters of the alphabet are added.While some countries have moved towards national strategies on cholesterol (Oliver 1993a),problems with cholesterol-lowering approaches remain (Oliver 1993b). It has also been suggestedthat some sectors of the population, such as young women, have been neglected in the study ofheart disease (Oliver 1978)…In the reference list these will appear as:OLIVER, M.F., 1978. Coronary heart disease in young women. Edinburgh: ChurchillLivingstone.OLIVER, M.F., 1993a. National cholesterol policies. European Heart Journal, 14(5), pp. 581–3OLIVER, M.F., 1993b. Lowering cholesterol for prevention of coronary heart disease – problemsand perspectives. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapeutics, 7(5), pp. 785–8RGU: LIBRARY19Referring to the same source more than onceRepeated citations of the same work do not make any difference to the way the citation appears inthe text. A second citation of the Oliver book in the example above, for instance, would still appear inthe text as (Oliver 1978), and if it referred to a direct quotation it would also include the relevant pagenumber. The work should appear once only in the reference list.Referri ng to a sourc e which is referr ed to in anoth er sourc e(secondary referenci ng)It is best to quote from the original source, but sometimes you may have to quote a source as it isquoted in another (secondary) work. Where this happens you must make clear in your text both thesource you are quoting and the secondary source you are quoting from. However it is the secondarysource (the one you have actually looked at) that appears in the reference list.#p#分页标题#e#Clark discusses Lewin’s work on “action research” in some detail (Clark 2000)…Chandler, in a letter quoted by Hiney, claimed that most people could do without literature “farmore easily than they could do without coffee or whisky” (Hiney 1998 p.186)…#p#分页标题#e#In these examples, it is Lewin and Chandler respectively who are being quoted, but the referencesare to the works we quote them from (Clark and Hiney). Similarly it is Clark and Hiney who appearin the reference list.CLARK, J.E., 2000. Action research. In: D. CORMACK, The research process in nursing. 4th ed.Oxford: Blackwell Science. pp. 183–196HINEY, T., 1998. Raymond Chandler: a biography. London: Vintage.When reading about Loftus’s (1974) research in Eysenck (1998) you would cite as follows:in your text – report both original and secondary sourceParticipants in Loftus’s (1974) study reported that they had … (cited in Eysenck 1998).in the reference list – only report the secondary sourceEYSENCK, M. 1998. Psychology: an integrated approach. Singapore: Longman Press.Similarly, if you read about a study by Loftus (1960) in Roediger and McDermott (1995) you wouldcite as follows:in your textA study by Loftus (1960 cited in Roediger & McDermott, 1995) showed that …in the reference listROEDIGER, H.L. and McDERMOTT, K. B. 1994. Creating false memories, remembering wordsnot presented in lists. Journal of experimental psychology, 21, 803–804.RGU: LIBRARYFurth er informati onon plagiarism and related issuesThe Robert Gordon University’s Information for students on Academic Misconduct athttp://www.rgu.ac.uk/academicaffairs/committees/page.cfm?pge=7088includes the University’s statement on plagiarism.The Writing Tutorial Service at Indiana University has useful information on Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It athttp://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtmlon the Harvard stylehttp://www.ukthesis.org/Thesis_Tips/British Standard recommendations for references to published materials. 1989. London: BritishStandards Institution BS 1629:1989.on other stylesA Guide to the Vancouver style is also available from the Library, and on the Library Webpages athttp://www.rgu.ac.uk/library/howto/page.cfm?pge=25531For staff and researchers preparing papers for external publication, links to guides to other styles arealso available from the Library Webpages athttp://www.rgu.ac.uk/library/howto/page.cfm?pge=27218#p#分页标题#e#However, many journals have “in-house” styles which may differ from the major styles. It is usuallybest to check the homepage of any journal to which you are thinking of submitting an article, as mostgive details of their prescribed style under “Information for authors” or similar.PUTTING TOGETHER YO UR REFEREN CES –OB VIOUS BUT OFTEN -FORGOTTEN PO INTS• Keep notes as you go along – keep a list of the works you look at as you look at them, on indexcards or a database or even on a piece of paper.#p#分页标题#e#• If you write down a potentially useful quotation, write down the reference along with it.• If you photocopy something to read later, make sure that all the information you will need for yourreference is on the photocopy – if it isn’t, write it on now.• Never rely on memory for referencing. Check everything.• Never leave referencing until the last minute. If the work you’re referring to is not your ownpersonal copy you may not get access to it again to check details.• Make sure every source you cite is in the reference list.• Make sure your reference list is in the right order (i.e. alphabetical by author, then by year ofpublication if you cite more than one source by the same author).• Make sure you are using your style consistently. If you have imported references from elsewherethey may not conform to the required style – always check.• Allow plenty of time for final checking.

(三) APA格式

APA格式

APA格式是一个为广泛接受的研究论文撰写格式,特别针对社会科学领域的研究,规范学术文献的引用和参考文献的撰写方法,以及表格、图表、注脚和附录的编排方式。APA格式因采用哈佛大学文章引用的格式而广为人知,其“作者和日期”的引用方式和“括号内引用法”相当著名。   正式来说,APA格式指的就是美国心理学会(American Psychological Association)出版的《美国心理协会刊物准则》,目前已出版至第五版(ISBN 1-55798-791-2),总页数超过400页,而此协会是目前在美国具有权威性的心理学学者组织。APA格式起源于1929年,当时只有7页,被刊登在《心理学期刊(Psychological Bulletin)》。   另一种相当有名的论文格式为MLA格式(The MLA Style Manual),主要被应用在人文学科,如文学、比较文学、文学批评和文化研究等。

格式  虽然有些作者对于APA格式其中的一些规范感到不妥,但APA格式仍备受推崇。期刊采用同一种格式能够让读者有效率的浏览和搜集文献资料,写作时感到不确定的学者们发现这样的格式手册非常有帮助。譬如,手册中的“非歧视语言”章节明文禁止作者针对女性和弱势团体使用歧视的文字,不过使用APA格式的学术期刊有时也会为了让文章更有条理而允许作者忽略此规定。#p#分页标题#e#

标题  根据APA格式,标题是用来组织文章,使得其有层次架构。APA格式规定了文章内“标题”的特定格式(1到5级),此详细内容可参阅《美国心理协会刊物手册》第五版的第113页,级数和格式如下:   第1级:置中大小写标题(Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading)   第2级:置中、斜体、大小写标题(Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading)   第3级:靠左对齐、斜体、大小写标题(Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading)   第4级:缩排、斜体、小写标题,最后加句号(Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period)   第5级:置中大写标题(CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING)   根据APA格式,若文章标题有:   1个级数:使用第1级标题   2个级数:使用第1和第3级标题   3个级数:使用第1、第3、和第4级标题   4个级数:使用第1、第2、第3、和第4级标题   5个级数:使用第5、第1、第2、第3、和第4级标题   (按:2个级数以上以大标题→小标题方式使用)   注意:   目前并无六级以上的标题规定。 APA格式不允许“数字”和“单一字母”出现在标题之首。#p#分页标题#e#

文献引用  文献引用是在一篇文章的段落或文字之中“参考来源”的标注。APA格式使用哈佛大学文章引用格式,通常来说,一个引用包含了作者名和发表日期,以括号夹注(有时会再加上页数),放在引用文字或句子之后。   详细的引用或参考资料则放在位于文章最后的“参考文献”或“Works Cited”部分。APA格式明确的定义“参考文献”只放入文章内容引用的来源,所以有些文章才会有“参考文献(Reference)”和“Bibliography”的分别。(Bibliography另外包含了作者背景知识的来源,不一定是直接被引用的文献。)   单一作者   格式应为“(作者姓氏(非首字母),发表年份)”。若作者姓名在文章中已被提及,只需标出年份就好(若需要可加上页数),仍需使用括号。多位作者以上同理。   A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, 2005). Pauling (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.   两位作者   作者姓氏必须以他们的名字在其发表文章内的顺序来排序。若两个作者都在括号内引用,名字中间需加上“&”符号;若不在括号内则使用“and”。   A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling & Liu, 2005). Pauling and Liu (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.   3至5位作者   第一次引用时需列举全部的作者,往后若引用相同的文献,只需举出最主要的作者,再加上“et al.”。但是,在参考文献部分,全部作者的姓名皆须列举出来。   A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, Liu, & Guo, 2005). Pauling, Liu, and Guo (2005) conducted a study that discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism. Pauling et al. (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism. A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling et al., 2005).   6位作者以上   举出第一位作者即可,格式应为“(作者 et al.,年份)”。在参考文献部分,全部作者的姓名皆须列举出来。   Pauling et al. (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.   多篇文献,同一作者   若一作者有多篇你想引用的文献,只需用逗号来区隔作品的发表年份(最早到最晚依序排列)。若多篇文献在同一年内发表,请在年份后面加上a、b、c……等标注。(按:abc的使用需与参考文献部分有所对应,而这些文献的编排以标题名称的字母来决定。)   A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, 2004, 2005a, 2005b). Pauling (2004, 2005a, 2005b) conducted a study that discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism   多篇文献,多位作者   根据上一个的规则,并且使用分号隔开。排序先依照作者姓氏的字母,接着是发表年份。   A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Alford, 1995; Pauling, 2004, 2005; Sirkis, 2003)   直接引述   格式与前述无不同,一样为“(作者,年份,页数)”。   When asked why his behavior had changed so dramatically, Max simply said "I think it's the reinforcement" (Pauling, 2004, p. 69).#p#分页标题#e##p#分页标题#e#

参考文献清单  APA格式规定“参考文献”部分的人名必须以姓氏的字母顺序来排列,包括姓氏的前缀。譬如,Martin de Rijke应被改成“De Rijke, M.”;Saif Al Falasi则改成“Al-Falasi, Saif.”。(阿拉伯文名字通常在姓氏和前缀之间加上连字号“−”,所以姓氏和前缀自成一体。)纸本文献  单一作者著作的书籍:   Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego: Halstead.   两位作者以上合著的书籍:   Smith, J., & Peter, Q. (1992). Hairball: An intensive peek behind the surface of an enigma. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University Press.   文集中的文章:   Mcdonalds, A. (1993). Practical methods for the apprehension and sustained containment of supernatural entities. In G. L. Yeager (Ed.), Paranormal and occult studies: Case studies in application (pp. 42–64). London: OtherWorld Books.   期刊中的文章(非连续页码):   Crackton, P. (1987). The Loonie: God's long-awaited gift to colourful pocket change? Canadian Change, 64(7), 34–37.   期刊中的文章(连续页码):   Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Narnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54, 66–146.   月刊杂志中的文章:   Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.   报纸中的文章:   Wrong, M. (2005, August 17). Misquotes are "Problematastic" says Mayor. Toronto Sol. p. 4.   政府官方文献:   Revenue Canada. (2001). Advanced gouging: Manual for employees (MP 65–347/1124). Ottawa: Minister of Immigration and Revenue.线上文献  针对电子文献、网站和线上文章,APA格式的网站上有订定一些基本的规则,第一就是提供读者详细的文献内容来源,第二为提供其有效的参考来源。   网络文章的打印版本   Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white [Electronic version]。Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–124.   电子期刊的文章(只有网络版的期刊)   Blofeld, E. S. (1994, March 1). Expressing oneself through Persian cats and modern architecture. Felines & Felons, 4, Article 0046g. Retrieved October 3, 1999, from 网页地址   电子短信(newsletter)的文章   Paradise, S., Moriarty, D., Marx, C., Lee, O. B., Hassel, E., et al. (1957, July). Portrayals of fictional characters in reality-based popular writing: Project update. Off the beaten path, 7(3). Retrieved October 3, 1999, from 网页地址   单篇线上文献(无作者及著作日期)   What I did today. (n.d.). Retrieved August 21, 2002, from 网页地址   从大学课程或系上网站取得的文献   Rogers, B. (2078). Faster-than-light travel: What we've learned in the first twenty years. Retrieved August 24, 2079, from Mars University, Institute for Martian Studies Web site: 网页地址   从数据库搜寻的期刊文章的电子复制版本(3至5位作者)   Costanza, G., Seinfeld, J., Benes, E., Kramer, C., & Peterman, J. (1993). Minutiæ and insignificant observations from the nineteen-nineties. Journal about Nothing, 52, 475–649. Retrieved October 31, 1999, from NoTHINGJournals database.   电子邮件或其他个人通讯(限定文字)   (A. Monterey, personal communication, September 28, 2001).   储存于光碟的书籍   Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [CD]。New York: Random House/Listening Library.   储存于录音带的书籍   Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [Cassette Recording No. 1999-1999-1999]。New York: Random House/Listening Library.#p#分页标题#e##p#分页标题#e#

(四) MLA格式Modern Language Association简介

  MLA 是一种常用的引用格式,由于在外国,文章中即使是一小句也不可以随便不加任何注释的引用,所以MLA 格式很严紧,也有很多,,看看吧…  MLA引用格式  Modern Language Association为美国现代语言协会制定的论文指导格式,在一般书写英语论文时应当使用MLA格式来保证学术著作的完整。  一. MLA引用格式  MLA.《研究论文作者手册》(MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers),第4版  书  Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History  of the Future. New York: Pocket Books, 1993.  期刊文章  Wilcox, Rhonda V. "Shifting Roles and Synthetic Women in Star  Trek: The Next Generation." Studies in Popular Culture 13.2 (1991):  53-65.  报纸与杂志文章  Di Rado, Alicia. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore Modern  Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles Times 15 Mar.  1995: A3.  百科全书文章  Sturgeon, Theodore. "Science Fiction." The Encyclopedia Americana.  Ed. Patricia Bayer, et al. Danbury, CT: Grolier Incorporated, 1995.  书中的文章与章节  James, Nancy E. "Two Sides of Paradise: The Eden Myth According to  Kirk and Spock." Spectrum of the Fantastic. Ed. Donald Palumbo.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988. 219-223.  EKIC 文件  Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn. Sibling Communication in Star Trek: The Next  Generation: Conflicts between Brothers. Miami, FL: Speech  Communication Association; Springfield, VA: ERIC Document  Reproduction Service, 1993. ED364932.  网站 (see MLA's official site for more details)  Lynch, Tim. "DSN Trials and Tribble-ations Review." Psi Phi: Bradley's  Science Fiction Club. 1996. Bradley University. 8 Oct. 1997.  互联网上的报纸与杂志文章  (see MLA's official site for more details)  Andreadis, Athena. "The Enterprise Finds Twin Earths Everywhere It Goes,  But Future Colonizers of Distant Planets Won't Be So Lucky."  Astronomy Jan. 1999: 64. Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe. B. Davis  Schwartz Memorial Library, Brookville, NY. 7 Feb. 1999.  注意:  ·双倍行距。  ·第二行行首缩进5个字符(或半英寸)。  ·如果没有作者,从文章名开始  ·缩写全部月份名称,除了May Jane和July。  ·如果百科全书未按字母顺序排列文章,将其视为一般书籍文章。  ·网站:包括网页名称,网站全名及其建立者(此往往与网站名称相同)。此外,还包括#p#分页标题#e##p#分页标题#e#  文章创建及存在的日期(日、月、年)及你见到此文的日期。  ·互联网杂志文章:包括提供数据库服务的公司极其网址;文章的完整日期(日、月、年)及你见到的日期;还有为你提供网络服务的图书馆或组织机构。如果引用的是期刊而不是杂志的话,还应有期刊的日期、卷册等。

assignment 格式英文assignment的写作细节(请各位愿意长期合作的朋友,尽量仔细阅读,在行文中注意这些要求)我们的assignment通常分为两种形式,一是essay, 一是report.二者在形式上有所差别,,但大体相同。一篇assignment上面会对写成essay还是report格式作出明确要求。在阅读题目时,请尽量仔细。相同点:1、 字体:Times New Roman, 字号:小四, 行距:1.5倍。请有写作之前就把这些格式调好,以避免写好后再调会出现一些意相不到的情况。2、 段与段之间隔行。每段不要求像中文写作那样空两格,而是直接顶格写。下面还有一些相同点,我在两种文体分开讨论时,再涉及。

assignment 格式区别:Essay: 本Assignment由指导Assignment网www.51lunwen.org提供Essay的写作相对report要简单一些。通常只包括三个部分,Introduction, Main Body, Conclusion. Introduction 包括topic的背景介绍和文章要解决的主要问题。一般占总字数的10%左右。Main Body是主体部分,占总字数80%左右。如果题目中作了具体要求,就根据题目提到的几个方面来逐一讨论就可以了。有的题目没有作具体要求,就根据自己的构思来写。但要求有逻辑性。Conclusion也是占10%,在这一段里把文章中的主要观点用一到两句话概括出来。Essay 可以不写题目,不要把小标题加粗。Reference的写作是两种形式都要涉及的,我放在最后来详细说。

Report 格式:它的写法大体上和essay差不多,但要求要严格一些。Assignment指导第一:标题页:包括标题和executive summary. 在Executive summary中是对文章的摘要。这个大家都知道怎么写我就不多说了。这两个东西一般是单独占一页第二:主体部分。Report的主体部分,前三个和essay差不多,只是在conclusion后还有一部分就是recommendations.是对提出的问题的建议。如果题目中没有单独要求,一般就按照这几部分来写,但有的题目会作出 规定。请按题目要求写哪几部分来写。下面来说referenceReference 是老师最看重的,所以请一定注意。1、 不管前面的主体部分最后一页剩多少空格,reference都要另起一页写2、 每条reference之间要空一行。如果一条reference一排写不完,那么下面的几排提行时要和第一排三格。基本格式请参照我发过来的referencing 里面的要求。#p#分页标题#e#3、 References 的排列要按字母顺序排列。可以用网址的reference放在最后。4、 H引用分为直接引用和间接引用。直接引用就是用了文章或书中的原话。请在出现的作者后面以(年代,页码)的形式标注。没有出现作者就在引用的句子后面用(作者名,年代,页码)的形式标注。间接引用就是参照发文章或书中的观点,引用方法与直接引用形式一样,只是不需要标注页码。本Assignment由指导Assignment网www.51lunwen.org提供总之referencesq绝对不能出现编造的情况,一定要真实。国外对这个问题查得很严。一旦查出有作假或抄袭情况,客户就要被开除学籍,而我们就要赔款。弄得顷家荡产哦。另外还有一些更细节的要求,我附在下面,请仔细阅读。

留学生assignment 格式

写作注意事项:Assignment指导

 文章里禁止用缩写,例如:can’t, don’t, didn’t, wouldn’t 应该写成cannot,do not,did not, would not。 每段之间空一行,首句不空格 避免用口语词汇和表达方法,例如:a little bit,well…I will talk about…. 避免使用太过生僻的赐予,但用词要专业 不要从句套从句,句子如果过长,就改成短句,这样意思表达更清楚 文章的INTRODUCTION要阐明自己的观点和立场,也就是你的THESIS STATEMENT,尽量不要在文章或段落的开头使用问句。 专业知识和词汇使用要正确 文章字数控制在规定字数内,不得多于或少于150 举例非常重要,但是要符合论点本Assignment由指导Assignment网www.51lunwen.org提供 按照文章要求写,没有要求Abstract或者标题的就不用写。 行距1.5倍,Basic Font:Times New Roman 12pt 文章里禁止使用第一人称或第二人称,保持论证的客观性

Reference的重要性

国外对于版权和他人的知识版权的保护非常重视,如果非法摘抄他人的作品肯能会引起法律责任。

公司会有一个扫描文章系统,收到的文章都要上传到公司的网上然后由工作人员统一进行扫描。扫描系统非常庞大,它连接了各个国家的主要电子图书馆,所以一般你能抄到的东西,他都可以扫描出来,如果扫描结果显示你抄袭的文章字数超过你文章总数的10%,责证明你整篇文章都是抄袭的。比如你文章字数是1000字,那么如果扫描由101字是抄的,则证明你整篇文章都是抄的。

什么是抄袭?Assignment指导

引用和摘抄他人的idea,文章(就算一句话),没有做references的或者格式错误的reference都算抄袭!

Reference个种类

我们要做的reference有2种,一种是in-text reference 也就是在文章里的reference,一种是在文章最后出现的reference, 也就是reference list。写一篇论文,2种reference都要出现,也就是说做完in-text reference,还要做最后的reference list。#p#分页标题#e#

Reference的格式

详见英文版。

Reference wizard 网站:http://www.stylewizard.com/apa5/apawiz.html

进入个网站,只要按照他要求的内容输入,他的系统会自动生成一个完整的reference,不过那只是reference list,不是in-text reference. In-text reference 还是需要自己完成。另外那个网站只能提供简单格式的reference,复杂的reference还是需要参考英文版文件。

一般来说一份1000字的文章,至少需要8个references,2000字需要12-15个左右,因为国内的英文出版物有限,各位可以到国外大学图书馆的网站上照着相关的书,然后安上去就好了。(关于这个数量问题,根据我的经验,可以不一定严格要求,但不能太少。一般1000字的写4个或5个,2000字的写10个左右。当然如果你本来就有这么多个的话就更好了。我这里说的是最少情况)

再次强调!!!引用他人的任何东西一定要做好references!!!

论文写作要求Assignment指导

格式要求 行距: 1.5倍 页边距: Word 默认 字体: Times New Roman 字体大小:12(小四) 标题字体可加粗 每段落之间空一行 每段直接写,无需空格 在每页的右下角插入页数

写作要求Abstract (序) 1-2段Assignment指导 字数为文章的的10-15%,例如,一篇文章要求2000字,那么abstract一般写200-300字, 除非特殊要求 Abstract的目的就是让读者知道你的在你的文章里写了些什么 Abstract的开头要用1-2自己的语言总结和解释文章的题目,简单来说就是用自己的话把文章的题目写一遍 Abstract细节是概括你在你的文章里都写了什么,每个论点就用2-3句话总结 Abstract的结尾就是写总结和延伸你的所有论点和整个的大标题 不是每篇作业都要求写abstract,一般情况下都不要求,除非公司特殊写明要写abstract。

Introduction(开头) 字数为文章总数的10%,例如,一篇文章要求2000字,那么introduction一般写200-250字 Introduction只用一段即可,不可以分成2段写 Introduction的第1-2句是解释文章题目,单来说就是用自己的话把文章的题目写一遍 接下来的用2句话左右介绍一下文章题目的背景 Introduction主要是写你将要在你的文章里写些什么,用2-3句话来概括所有的论点,每个论点用几个词即可,例如:In this easy, firstly, I will discuss…, and then I will…, thirdly, I will… 一般来说,公司给的题目都很宽,可以写很多方面,但是你要选其中一点来写,这样文章才能讨论的深入,如果文章写的很笼统的话,肯定会不合格 Introduction最后不需要总结句Assignment指导#p#分页标题#e#

Body(文章的讨论部分,也是文章的主体) 每一个论点都必须用一段来写,换句话说,每个段落只能出现一个论点,出现2个会被扣分 在body的部分里不能出现I,he,she等人称,除在举例中。 每一段话都有要introduction,explanation,examples。接下来重点讲这4部分如何写: Introduction:用1-2句写你这段的主要的论点或者是idea Explanation:用1-2句解释你的论点 Examples:举例支持你的论点,这部分要重点写,举例在文章中很重要,举例可以用名人说的话,专业的文章里例子,或者自己的亲身经历。有时公司会要求要用自己的亲身经历作为例子 Body一般有3-6个论点,如果文章的字数在1000-3000字,所以body就一般有2-6段 每段最好是有联系,层层深入

Conclusion 字数 字数为文章总数的10%,例如,一篇文章要求2000字,那么conclusion一般写200-250字 Conclusion只用一段即可,不可以分成2段写 Conclusion的第1-2句是解释文章题目,单来说就是用自己的话把文章的题目写一遍 Conclusion主要是总结你文章中的论点,每个论点要用一句话Assignment指导 Conclusion最后一句要延伸一下,但是在conclusion里不能出现新的论点

Introduction和conclusion的区别 Introduction是讲你在文章里要写什么东西,所以只要用几个词概括你个论点 Conclusion是用1句话总结你的每个论点,要比introduction详细些 Introduction需要介绍题目的背景,conclusion责不用,只需要概括总结题目

Recommendation Recommendation是写文章标题的缺陷 一般只要写一个论点,提出解决办法,如何消除这个弱点,格式和body段落的要求是一样的:introduction,explanation,example和用一句话做个conclusion 一般都不写recommendation,除非公司特殊要求。另外,我每种格式各发一篇范文,请大家灵活参考。一定要保质保量。交单时间一定要遵守。

Assignment的种类,以及各自各式异同(http://www.ukassignment.org/daixieAssignment/)

一般欧美国家作业(Assignment)通常分为两种形式:一种是文章(Essay), 一种是报告(Report)格式。二者在形式上有所差别,但大体相同。通常学校发的论文写作规定会对一篇Assignment写成事Essay还是Report格式会作出明确要求。所以在阅读题目要求的时候,务必尽量仔细,否则会因为格式扣分。两种格式的相同之处:1、字体:Times New Roman,字号:小四,行距:1.5倍。请有写作之前就把这些格式调好,以避免写好后再调节,会造成不必要的麻烦。2、段落之间空一行,每段不要求像中文写作那样空两格,而是直接顶格写。#p#分页标题#e#下面还有一些相同点,我在两种文体分开讨论时,再涉及。两种格式的不同之处:一、Essay:Essay的写作相对Report要简单一些。通常只包括三个部分,绪论(Introduction),主体(Main Body),结论(Conclusion)。绪论(Introduction)包括选题(topic)的背景介绍和文章要解决的主要问题,通常占总字数的10%左右。主体(Main Body)占总字数80%左右。如果题目中作了具体要求,就根据题目提到的几个方面来逐一讨论就可以了。有的题目没有作具体要求,就根据自己的构思来写。但要求有逻辑性。结论(Conclusion)也是占10%,在这一段里把文章中的主要观点用一到两句话概括出来。Essay 可以不写题目,不要把小标题加粗。Reference的写作是两种形式都要涉及的,我放在最后来详细说。二、Report:它的写法大体上和essay差不多,但要求要严格一些。1、标题页:包括标题和executive summary. 在Executive summary http://www.ukassignment.org/daixieAssignment/中是对文章的摘要,这两个部分一般是单独占一页。2、主体部分:Report的主体部分,前三个和essay差不多,只是在conclusion后还有一部分就是recommendations.是对提出的问题的建议。如果题目中没有单独要求,一般就按照这几部分来写,但有的题目会作出 规定。请按题目要求写哪几部分来写。下面来说referenceReference 是老师最看重的,所以请一定注意。1、 不管前面的主体部分最后一页剩多少空格,reference都要另起一页写;2、 每条reference之间要空一行。如果一条reference一排写不完,那么下面的几排提行时要和第一排三格。基本格式请参照我发过来的referencing 里面的要求;3、 References 的排列要按字母顺序排列。可以用网址的reference放在最后;4、 H引用分为直接引用和间接引用。直接引用就是用了文章或书中的原话。请在出现的作者后面以(年代,页码)的形式标注。没有出现作者就在引用的句子后面用(作者名,年代,页码)的形式标注。间接引用就是参照发文章或书中的观点,引用方法与直接引用形式一样,只是不需要标注页码;总之referencesq绝对不能出现编造的情况,一定要真实。国外对这个问题查得很严。一旦查出有作假或抄袭情况,客户就要被开除学籍,而我们就要赔款。弄得顷家荡产哦。另外还有一些更细节的要求,我附在下面,请仔细阅读。写作注意事项:1、文章里禁止用缩写,例如:can’t, don’t, didn’t, wouldn’t 应该写成cannot,do not,did not, would not。2、每段之间空一行,首句不空格3、避免用口语词汇和表达方法,例如:a little bit,well…I will talk about….#p#分页标题#e#4、避免使用太过生僻的赐予,但用词要专业5、不要从句套从句,句子如果过长,就改成短句,这样意思表达更清楚6、文章的INTRODUCTION要阐明自己的观点和立场,也就是你的THESIS STATEMENT,尽量不要在文章或段落的开头使用问句。7、专业知识和词汇使用要正确8、文章字数控制在规定字数内,不得多于或少于1509、举例非常重要,但是要符合论点10、按照文章要求写,没有要求Abstract或者标题的就不用写。11、行距1.5倍,Basic Font:Times New Roman 12pt12、文章里禁止使用第一人称或第二人称,保持论证的客观性Reference的重要性:国外对于版权和他人的知识版权的保护非常重视,如果非法摘抄他人的作品肯能会引起法律责任。公司会有一个扫描文章系统,收到的文章都要上传到公司的网上然后由工作人员统一进行扫描。扫描系统非常庞大,它连接了各个国家的主要电子图书馆,所以一般你能抄到的东西,他都可以扫描出来,如果扫描结果显示你抄袭的文章字数超过你文章总数的10%,责证明你整篇文章都是抄袭的。比如你文章字数是1000字,那么如果扫描由101字是抄的,则证明你整篇文章都是抄的。什么是抄袭?引用和摘抄他人的idea,文章(就算一句话),没有做references的或者格式错误的reference都算抄袭!Reference几个种类我们要做的reference有2种,一种是in-text reference 也就是在文章里的reference,一种是在文章最后出现的reference, 也就是reference list。写一篇论文,2种reference都要出现,也就是说做完in-text reference,还要做最后的reference list。

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