The Validity and Reliability Test有效性和可靠性测试
An important part of every research is the test of the validity and the reliability of the research instruments. Data reliability refers to the consistency of the data collection instrument to the extent that it can produce the same results irrespective of the number of time it is used and the different locations and timeframe and under the same circumstances. The validity of the data collection instrument on the other hand is a reference to the whether the questionnaire is able to measure what it claims to measure. In other to provide this assurance the researcher first administered the questionnaire to three persons at different regions and at different times to examine their responses. When the responses were examined the researcher again imposed the questionnaire on four other persons but this time they were chosen from the population but not the sample when the two sets of analysis were compare the researcher was convinced that the data instruments were reliable and proceeded with the collection of the data.每一个研究的一个重要组成部分，是研究工具的有效性和可靠性的考验。数据的可靠性是指数据收集工具，它可以产生相同的结果，而不论它是用来和在不同的位置和时间范围的时间的数量和相同的情况下的程度的一致性。另一方面，数据采集仪的有效性问卷是否能够衡量来衡量它所声称的是一个参考。提供这种保证在其他研究者首先管理的问卷至三人，在不同的地区，在不同的时间检查他们的反应。当反应进行了检查研究者再次判处四名其他人士的问卷调查，但这次他们选择了从人口，但没有样品时，两套分析比较研究员相信，可靠的数据工具，并着手与收集的数据。
It is also significant to note that during the process of data collection it was noted that some peculiarities of the sample had changed and that necessitated an addition to some parts of the questionnaire and a subtraction to other parts. Since these changes could affect the credibility of the researcher the researcher made a quick reference to the supervising Professor whose advice was enough to end the issue. The researcher proceeded with the process of data collection.这也是显著要注意，在数据采集过程中，有人指出，改变了一些特殊性的样品，需要除了一些地区的调查问卷和减法的其他部分。由于这些变化可能会影响信誉的研究员研究员作了指导教授的意见是不够的结束问题的快速参考。研究人员进行数据收集的过程中。
The Collection of Data数据的收集
The process of data collection took a considerable period of time. This was because the researcher had two sets of respondents to deal with and considering the fact that the respondents had their own arrangement changed even though there were a lot of efforts to have a convenient time. This was particularly so with the ten respondents who were expected to be interviewed. The above notwithstanding the researcher sent the questionnaire to the respondents through the research assistants who were recruited to facilitate the process of data collection.数据收集的过程花了相当长的时间。这是因为研究者有两组受访者来处理和考虑到受访者有自己的安排改变了尽管有很多努力有一个方便的时间。这是尤其如此与十受访者预计接受采访。上述尽管研究者把问卷的受访者通过研究助理被招募来促进这个过程的数据收集。
Five respondents opted to receive their questionnaires by email while another five had the questionnaires sent to them by express mail. During the three weeks that the questionnaires were with the respondents the researcher was in constant touch with the respondents to find out the areas where there were some misunderstanding and how but it could be addressed. In relation to the respondents whose views were collected by way of the interview the researcher made a prior appointment with them but for most of the time they were unavailable.五受访者选择通过电子邮件收到他们的调查问卷，而另外五个有快件发送给他们的问卷。在三个星期的调查问卷的受访者，研究者的受访者找出的地方有一些误解和如何在不断的联系，但它是可以解决的。有关研究者的采访做了提前预约，但大部分时间，他们无法收集受访者的意见。http://www.ukassignment.org/dxygessay/
The researcher was left with no option than to carry out the interview via a telephone conversation which proved to be very useful as it offered the researcher to ask as many questions as possible. After the expiration of the period allocated for collecting the primary research the researcher ensured that all the respondents had returned their questionnaire except in the case of three persons who did not respond neither did they make themselves for an interview.
Persistent effort by the researcher to get them led to the information that one of them passed away while two others had been transferred from their station to different regions The researcher sough the permission of the Supervisor to replace them and to ask for an extension of time but since the absence from the data was not necessarily going to affect the research findings the researcher proceeded with the analysis with only the successful respondents.
The Research Analysis研究分析
The data that was collected from the respondents were prepared before the analysis was carried out. In preparing the data the researcher was interested in finding out if the filling in of the questionnaires were done accordingly. It was noted that some mistakes had been committed by six respondents who were asked to correct the information provided before it was added to the rest. When this process was completed the researcher coded the questionnaires with pre-designed system of codification and personally keyed them into a computer manually. After this the researcher employed the Statistical Package for Social Scientist and the Microsoft Excel database to sort them out and extract frequency distribution tables and diagramme. These diagramme have been presented in the next chapter where they have been discussed accordingly.从受访者收集的数据进行了分析，前编制。在准备数据，研究人员找出如果填写问卷进行感兴趣。有人指出，六受访者被要求更正信息之前，它被添加到剩下的犯下了一些错误。当这个过程完成后，研究者预先设计的系统编纂编码问卷，并亲自到计算机中手动键入。在此之后，研究人员采用统计软件包社会科学家和Microsoft Excel数据库整理出来，并提取频率分布表和diagramme的。这些diagramme已经呈现在下一章中，他们已经讨论。