2022代写服务英国埃塞克斯大学University of Essex Essay:怎样看当前的贸易保护主义
(A) the evolution of the basic rules of trade protectionism（一）贸易保护主义演进的基本规律
Since the international market since the formation of the world's trade policy can be divided into two distinct categories: free trade policy and protection of trade policies. Development of international trade along the track all the way to find, we can see that free trade policy and trade policy protection go hand always. From the perspective of the global economy, when the world economy on an upward track, when free trade prevailed, when the world economy is in a downward track time, especially in the stage of entering a state of crisis, to protect trade in power. From the national point of view, when increasing a country's international competitiveness, it is often the defenders of free trade, when a country's international competitiveness deteriorated, it will be transformed into the vanguard of trade protection. In a country, for a strong industry, government tend to implement free trade policies, while at the same time, for the weak industries, governments often tend to protectionism. World economic development today, no matter what stage, which country, which industry, trade protection, the characterization of no exceptions. Thus, there is no hard and fast free trade and protection of trade, only immutable national interests.
(Two) the main features of trade protectionism（二）贸易保护主义的主要特征The process of developing international trade shows trade protectionism has two prominent features: on the one hand, trade protectionism with the world economic development and constantly changing its ways and means; the other hand, trade protectionism in the regional and global freedom trade framework has been effectively controlled.国际贸易发展的进程显示贸易保护主义有两方面突出特征：一方面，贸易保护主义随世界经济发展而不断变换着它的方式和手段；另一方面，贸易保护主义在区域性和全球性的自由贸易框架下得到了有效的控制。First, trade protectionism means endless. Under the framework of the WTO, to protect the international trade fair, orderly and sustainable development, WTO allows members to take trade remedy measures, technical trade measures and environmental trade measures. However, once these legitimate trade measures are overused, they become trade protection measures. Among them, including anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguard measures, including trade remedy measures have established rules and procedures, is remarkable in the traditional trade protection measures, while including technical regulations and standards and conformity assessment procedures, including technical trade measures, and including environmental technical regulations and standards, product inspection and quarantine system and measures, green packaging and labeling requirements, including environmental trade measures, is more flexible, subtle, members of the party can be continuously changing economic and technological development trend, continuing to adopt technical and the environment, new initiatives, new standards, thus effectively blocking his country's products outside the gates. This dynamic change and widespread technological and environmental trade measures are called new trade protectionism, they gradually become the mainstream of the current international trade protectionism. WTO operation since the direction of WTO members informed of new means of trade protection has affected 80% of global trade.Second, trade protectionism, free trade is subject to the constraints of the framework. Since the end of World War II, free trade is the contemporary dominant force in international trade policy. In the multilateral field, with the end of 2011, Russia's accession to WTO, more than 98% of the global coverage of international trade under the multilateral framework of the WTO. At the same time, the world set off another round of symbiosis with the multilateral framework of regional free trade agreements. According to WTO statistics, as of 2010, the global effect of nearly 300 regional trade agreements, the average WTO members to participate in a regional agreement for up to 13. Whether regional group members or members of the multilateral trading system, the world's economies are strictly necessary for regional and multilateral institutional commitment to regional and multilateral institutions to comply with the free trade rules. The further development of regional economic groupings and the multilateral trading system continues to expand into an international system of protection of trade liberalization.Post-crisis development trend of trade protectionism(A) the development of new trade protectionismBased on the evolution of trade protectionism and features of the basic law judge, after the crisis, trade protectionism due to the slump in the world economy and if shrouded in clouds like the world market in the global economy, regional and national economies into recession sometimes sharply increased the edge of recession, it will as the world economic, technological and environmental development and innovation, the global economic recovery and the consequent upward jolt uncertain, faltering.Post-crisis period highlight new developments in trade protectionism reflected in three aspects.First, trade protectionism and climate issues are closely linked. The past two years, the global response to the challenge of climate warming process, the developed countries have found a new class seems to be more protectionist tool for very good reason, it is the name of a low-carbon sorts of pretexts, the implementation of trade protection. Carbon tariffs and carbon labeling is that such means of protection representative.The so-called carbon tariffs, is a country on imported products at the import stage their carbon emissions levy taxes and other border adjustment measures, due to the increased cost of imported products, which acts as tariffs. 2012 since the implementation of the EU aviation carbon tariffs carbon regulation is representative. Despite being the world's countries to boycott the EU has not only not ready to close hand, but also the desire to control the carbon from the air extended to the navigation. It is estimated that the world's airlines will vary and the new EU carbon control cost € 2.4 billion, profit fell 78%. Chinese airlines will be additional losses in 2012 only 800 million yuan in 2020, this loss will exceed 30 billion yuan. Obviously, through a carbon tax, the EU will not only change the distribution of costs and benefits of the global economy, combating trade partner countries, but also for the debt-ridden that they have gained a high income.Secondly, the growing trade protectionism within the boundaries extend. Under the framework of the WTO, along with the traditional border measures such as tariffs decline in effectiveness, the developed members of the party have succeeded in the field of international trade rules from the trade itself extended to trade-related technical standards, environmental standards and investment measures. Since the new century, in the developed members of the party, driven by international trade rules are trying to break the original region into a growing number of related areas, including labor standards, economic security, social security, poverty and even diplomatic relations and geopolitics, showing a wide coverage of trade rules and versatile features. With the wide coverage of trade rules and multifunction development, trade protectionism in developed countries beyond the traditional boundaries of trade measures, the steady expansion of the policy areas within the boundaries of the developing countries of the domestic policy areas, including intellectual property rights, government procurement , innovation, enterprise reform, competition policy, deregulation, and so on, and the developed countries due to differences in trade frictions and trade is increasingly becoming the focus of the dispute, trade protectionism is focused and trying to change the system within the developing countries and policy framework measures to autonomous decision-making and development of developing countries to form a new challenge.