A man lost in a desert, for example, may be obsessed by his need for water, devoting virtually all his attention to the research for it. When a supply of water is readily available but food is scare, he may take the former need for granted and may devote himself to gathering food. Once his food supply has reached a subsistence level, an individual may continue striving in order to pile up a comfortable margin of economic security; later, he may gradually shift his focus, coming to desire worldly goods as symbols of affluence.
“The Silent Revolution in Europe” was the first presentation of the intergenerational value change hypothesis. It reasoned that the publics of postindustrial societies are shifting from giving top priority to “materialist” goals such as economic and physical security to placing increasingly strong emphasis on self-expression and the quality of life.
If this hypothesis is true, quality of life issues should gradually replace class-based issues such as income redistribution and state ownership of industry as the main axis of political conflict. New type of political movement and parties should emerge to champion the new issues.
The implications are far-reaching, so it has great meaning to today’s political culture. By 2000, post-materialists outnumbered materialists in all six countries. It is a indicator of a much broader cultural shift from survival values to self-expression values. This shift is bringing changing values concerning gender roles, sexual orientation, work, religion, and child-rearing and it is conducive to the spread and flourishing of democratic institutions.
An Analytic Framework
As a result of changing conditions influencing their basic value socialization, transformation in advanced industrial societies altering the basic value priorities of given generations .the changes affect the stand one takes on current tendency to alter existing patters of political partisanship. Concerning these process, inglehart has presented evidence based on surveys from six countries.
The basic hypothesis is that given individuals pursue various goals in hierarchical order—giving maximum attention to the things they sense to be the most important unsatisfied needs at a given time.
And he believes that important groups among the populations of Western societies have been socialized during an unprecedentedly long period of unprecedentedly high affluence. For them , economic security may be taken for granted.
If this hypothesis is correct, it suggests that intergenerational political conflict is likely. Because people do tend to retain early-instilled preferences(inglehart cites the work of Abraham Maslow—“Motivation and personality(new york: Wiley,1963)” as a basis of the hypothesis.)
And argue that the best documented evidence of the persistence of early-instilled political preferences is found in the area of political party identification. In other words, the newly emerging type of value priorities likely to be linked with support for radical social change .
Degrees of Economic scarcity -> different political priorities (value changes)-> change in political party identification as (an phenomenon of intergenerational Political conflict)
How does it testified ?
These hypothesis concern changes in value priories over long periods of time, but very little relevant time-series data is available at that time, and it require a large-scale research program continuing over several decades. So author cannot test this interpretation directly. Instead of direct test, author subject these hypothesis to a variety of indirect test.
The author draws on cross-sectional age-cohort analysis which shows respondents’ educational level. And then let respondents choose their value Pairs which was consist of acquisitive values such as price, order and post-bourgeois values such as free speech, participation.
In this research, the author takes a survey of respondents’ Attitude toward student demonstrations, and their degree of support for European integration
After this cross-sectional age-cohort analysis, the author analyzes the economic history about the six-countries. These historical data, drawn from “The economist”, shows the economic growth rate of the six-countries and the decline in Britain’s relative economic position. With these two figures, the author makes five predictions. On the basis of his analytic framework, he combines with the indirect data drawn from cross-sectional age-cohort and other surveys for confirming his five predictions step by step.
Confirming these predictions, the author made An Empirically-based typology of value priorities clear and proved its expect relationship to economic history.
As the author says, while these tests did not provide a definitive validation or falsification, they may aid readers in forming a judgment concerning the relative plausibility of the interpretation, in the light of the total configuration of evidence. Because it has cited precise data from authoritative source, and its repeat measurement has increased the reliability of these test. 1, economic structure from commodity production economy to service-oriented economy of any country, along with the gradual industrialization, the productivity of each industry will change, which will inevitably produce most of the labor force to the development trend of manufacturing industry; With the increase of national income, there is an increasing demand for services; Accordingly, the Labour and shift to services. Post-industrial society, therefore, the first and most simple characteristics is: most of the workforce is no longer engaged in agriculture and manufacturing, but engaged in service industry. Service industry is in addition to the above two kinds of industry business, finance, transportation, health, entertainment, scientific research, education and administration work and so on.
2, professional distribution is characterized by the rise of technology class Difference between the second aspect of post-industrial society, is a professional distribution of change. The so-called professional distribution, not only refers to where people work, also means they are engaged in what kind of work. With the development of service economy, the work focus to office, education institutions and government departments, natural cause occupational shift to "white-collar workers". Take for the American occupational structure, it was not until 1956 that the first number of white-collar employees total more than blue-collar workers. Since then, the proportion of the two to further expand to 1970 has been more than five.www.ukassignment.org/mgessaydx.However, the change of the most surprising is the growth of the professional and technical staff, the growth rate of this part of the staff is 2 times the growth rate of the total number of employees. There is also a statistics more telling, this is the number of scientists and engineers. They are the key to the post-industrial society group. The growth rate of the whole technology class number is twice the growth rate of labor force, and the growth rate of science and technology personnel is 3 times of labor force growth.
3, the axis of principle is the theoretical knowledge has increasingly become the source of innovation and social policy and the basis Industrial society is the production of goods, coordinator of the phase relationship of social machine. Post-industrial society is about knowledge, for the sake of innovation and change, the implementation of social control and guide and organize social; It formed must be politically to management of the new social relations and the new structure.
Of course, the knowledge is necessary for the functioning of any society. But the difference of post-industrial society, lies in the characteristics of knowledge itself has changed. Occupy dominant position in theoretical knowledge, become to make decisions, to guide the change of decision power. Theory is more important than the experience, knowledge is encoded into the abstract symbol system (like an axiomatic system), make it can be used to describe a very different experience.#p#分页标题#e#
Any modern society, it depends on the innovation and to changes in social control. The implementation of social control, make plans and predict the needs of the society. It is precisely because people view with this change, the nature of innovation makes theoretical knowledge is very important. In the modern society, the development of an area, increasingly depends on the progress of the theoretical work. The theoretical work knowledge ordering (code), and points out that to verify the way with experience. In fact, the theory of knowledge has increasingly become the strategic resources of society which axis of principle. And schools, research institutes and intelligence department is increasingly becoming the new axis of social institutions.
4, and the future direction of technical control prediction model based on new technology and technical evaluation, post industrial society may be mastered to new methods of social change, this is to plan and control the development of the technology. When society relies on the higher the level of technology and innovation, in the social system of harmful "variables" also increases. However, a new method to predict and plan technology that could create a new phase of economic history, namely consciously plan of technological change in advance, thereby reducing the uncertain factors of the economy in the future.
5, decision-making way gives birth to the new "smart technology" with the development of the society, people have to deal with the problem more and more complex. Scientists in the 18th and 19th centuries to deal with problems are mostly bivariate or three variables, four problems. And the next stage of the scientific process, it is to a great deal of the whole sequence of argument, for example, the movement of molecules in the statistical mechanics, and insurance surcharge calculate the average life expectancy in the table, the genetic distribution, population genetics and so on. There is the question of "ordinary people" in social science a intelligence distribution, social mobility, and so on.
Knowledge and social issues in the post-industrial society, with the weaver metaphor, is "complex" organized, to have a lot of big argument of the interaction system for management, coordinate with each other in order to achieve specific goals. Management technology of this kind of system has at present. Since 1940, some new research achievements in the field of very applicable for processing complex "organized". Emerging disciplines including information theory, control theory, decision theory, game theory, ergonomics, random process, and so on. Thus also developed many specialized technology, such as linear programming, statistical decision method, the application of the markov chain, carlo randomization method and so on, and the biggest risk minimization of decision-making rule, used to predict according to the different points of different strategic situation use case to what the consequences. These technologies are collectively referred to as "smart technology". The application of "intelligence" can make people's decision-making activities of standardization, so as to realize the public social ordering. For a long time, some scholars of social type, function, composition, characteristics, has the profound research.www.ukassignment.org/mgessaydx Why but, for social change constantly, or some social elimination, boarded the stage of history in society, what kind of society acceptable get support has been well received, but into oligonucleotides. Pfund long-term commitment to research in social change, in his book "the theory of wealth" has profound analysis to the social change, make up the blank in this field at present.
In terms of macroscopic, the original social system is replaced by the slavery society, the slavery society replaced by the feudal social system, the feudal social system and social system of capitalism instead. From the microcosmic aspect, at the beginning of the capitalism, hire workers work day and night, later replaced by eight hours of work system, then replaced by 5 days a week, and so on. Each new social system of the marks in the evolution of human society, direction is the progress of the society. So, what factors promoted the social system constantly change? Value and improve the national "right to life", is the superior social system. That is to say, "attaches great importance to and improve the people's right to life" of the social system can get the support and support of people, on the contrary, "indifference and tread on people's right to life" society would be cursed and people. The right to life includes the right to survival and development, is life the rights of existence and development. Right refers to the individual shall have the right to life, the right to development refers to an individual to obtain information necessary to sustain the life and improve the quality of life.
For the social system change in common, it is not hard to see a red line always runs through the whole reform and development of human society, always dominates the institutional changes of human society. The red line is this: every moment in human society for the "right to life", the social system's duty is to achieve personal "right to life". Personal "pro-life" higher than the social and national interests, the perfect degree of the "right to existence and development", is a kind of social system to measure whether the criterion of progress.
Social existence on the basis of the existence of the individual, the realization of the interests of the individual and on the basis of personal life. People is the main part of the society, the society exists to man's existence, the perfection of personal life and development rights, govern the changes of the social system. Personal life is higher than the personal interests and personal interests above the improvement of the social and national interests, is the law of the social system change. That is to say, whether the system of a kind of social progress, measure standard should be: the individual life and property is protected.
People for the right to life, went to the trouble of looking for individual life is higher than the personal interests and personal interests above the social system of social and national interests. Personal life and interests are fully reflect the society is "acceptable" society. When the personal life and interests protected under the national flag cupidity, even proposes, such a society has ill, is at stake.
Personal life and interests first. As President of the Russian federation dmitry anatoly has dmitry medvedev said "the development of any country, any country's achievement, the pursue, has never lost in the suffering and people in exchange for life. Nothing can be higher than the value of human life." Today, premier wen jiabao advocated and promotion of "political reform", is not to "steal" by the society of freedom and democracy returned to the ordinary people? Don't is to further perfect "the individual's right to existence and development"? No it is the urgent needs of the social system change rule? Comrade deng xiaoping put forward the "three benefits", "three benefits" is complied with social institutional change rule, combining the personal, social and national interests, thus reflecting the strong vitality.
In June 1991, the United States a social problem research institute in Moscow, made a survey about ideology, the investigation object is in the hands of the high power of the party and government official. Investigation adopt the method of specific group discussion, the general investigation object with four to five hours of conversation, their ideas through conversation. Analysis result is: about 9.6% of people with a communist ideology, before they clear support reform of the former Soviet union socialist mode; 12.3% of people with democratic socialism views, embrace change, and hope that the socialist countries realize democratization; 76.7% of people think that capitalism shall be practiced.
Advocated "personal life is higher than the personal interests and personal interests above social and national interests," the "hearts and minds" of the social system, not to give up the "national interest", only "national interest" to get the basic safeguard, country to prosperity, people's ability to live and work in peace and contentment. Therefore, how to deal with the "personal interest" and "national interest" is a social power required courses.
"Personal life is higher than the personal interests and personal interests above social and national interests," the more perfect society, the more superior society, the progress of society, is the people support and social support. If military powerful Soviet defeat to no smoke of the battlefield is an intriguing puzzle, so "social institutional change rule" the key is to raise the mystery. Marxist view on the future that the development of human society is the productive forces and production relations, economic basis and superstructure contradiction movement process,  according to the objective laws of social development, the humanity will eventually towards communism, achieve datong world. No matter how tortuous road, how long time, the big trend in the development of the world will not change. Has its insurmountable antagonistic contradictions in capitalist society, the socialization of production and production material private possession of the contradiction between. At the same time, it also created the advanced productive forces and the destroyers of capitalism –, the proletariat, and overcome the strong spiritual weapon of marxism of slave Labour. This is the system of capitalism will be replaced by the socialist system of the most profound material root, root class, and ideological roots. The birth of a socialist country, the establishment of the socialist system, already open the route toward communism miles journey, to the road of the future are indicated.#p#分页标题#e#
Western bourgeois concept of the future that, the system of capitalism is the product of "rational" is the "most beautiful" social system. The capitalist system under specific historical conditions presented by a "prosperity" as the eternal, advocating capitalism has infinite self-regulation. With infinite potential, cannot be replaced. With the progress of science and technology and the development of productive forces, capitalism will continuously adjust its economic structure, political structure and management system, values and way of life, to adapt to the development of productive forces, without the need to change the bourgeois system of ownership. They also vigorously promote "two systems convergence theory", its essence is to put the "convergence" of socialism to capitalism's track.
Marxist view on the future, correctly pointed out the direction of the development of human society, reveals the trend of world development. At present, the cause of socialism rose up in the setback, revive in the process of reform, full of vigor and vitality.
Generational or Life-Cycle Interpretation ? ( main variable control)
With date from a single time point, it was impossible to determine whether these age differences reflected intergenerational value change or life-cycle differences(which implies that the young would eventually become just as materialist as their elders. So that no overall value change would occur).
To make Life-cycle interpretation no sense, author predict that relatively high levels of formal education are a stable characteristic of the younger cohorts, which is not likely to disappear as the individual’s age. By using many statistic date from six-countries, the author examined the relationships between value priorities and cohort differences, between value priorities and degrees of affluence.
With the attitudinal patterns of the respective age cohorts, and with those of given socioeconomic strata in samples from six nations; with the economic history of given nations and with cross-national differences in economic experience; and with what time-series data are available—with these wide variety of evidence, the author proved the hypothesis of intergenerational change in value priorities.
Value Priorities and Political Partisanship
The patterns of value preferences outlined above may represent a potential force for long term political change. They might encourage the development of new political parties, relatively responsive to emerging value cleavages, author said. To find relationship between value priorities and political partisanship, the author analyze surveys and data which shows a strong relationship between value and political party choice. At the last page of this part, the author proved his last hypothesis about political party identifications. And to justify his assumption that the value preference is an independent variable capable of influencing current party choice, the author examine the relationship between value priorities and current party choice, controlling for the political background in which the respondent was raised. Through this data, the author has completely controlled its other variables.
What should we learn from the article?
The author wrote this article when the postwar generation first became politically relevant around 1970. Of course, in that time point ,there were little direct data available for the research. And there were many variables to control because there was only one so-called “post-bourgeois” generation at that time. No one knows how they will be changed. This is why there are so many predictions in this article, and why the author use half of contents of the article as to borne out these predictions.
As the author says, the article has, no doubt, only scratched the surface in the analysis of intergenerational value changes within advanced industrial societies. Further efforts are needed in developing more accurate and more exhaustive measurements of such changes. But today, cohort analysis of data covering three decades demonstrates that the respective birth cohorts did not become more Materialist as they aged, they remained fully as Post-materialist as they had been in 1970. And today, the central issues of political conflict have shifting with the many life-style movement as Ingerhart hypothesized and predicted in 1971.
He analyzed the phenomenon of “the silent revolution in Europe” only with indirect data , historical figures and some basic survey technology. Not only the methodological analysis but the author’s insight did make this study possible. This article may let you know how to deal with problems when there are many restrictive factors instead of giving it up.