## 2022代写留学生美国留学生逻辑学Essay From the ＂History of Logic Handbook＂ History

Logic is a summary of the history of research and promote the development of a logic basic work . It can be said that today the core logic of science and important issues are able to find them in the logical source of history and foundation.思维规律史研讨是总结概括和推进伦理学进展的一项基础性办公。可谓，当今思维规律科学中的中心与关紧问题都能够在思维规律史中找到他们的源头和依据。

Since 1962 , William and Martha Bunnell Bunnell (William Kneale & Martha Kneale) coauthored a single volume " logic of development" , Anton Dumitriu (A.Dumitriu) four-volume " History of Logic " after publication , has not seen an updated history of the General History of logic as published. "Logic , logic history , philosophy and logic , such as computer science , artificial intelligence , cognitive psychology, argumentation theory and the history of ideas with other researchers in the field of logic closely related to deeply understand the logic of more in-depth and detailed history of the work of missing the inconvenience " ( preamble ) .自1962年威廉·涅尔和玛莎·涅尔(William Kneale＆Martha Kneale)合着的单卷本《伦理学的进展》、安东·杜米特留(A.Dumitriu)四卷本《思维规律史》出版往后，直到现在没有见到更新的通史性的思维规律史着作问世。

By internationally renowned philosopher , logician , Imperial College London , Professor Department of Computer Dov Jiabei (Dov Gabbay) and the Department of Philosophy, University of British Columbia professor John Wu Heights (John Woods) co-editor of eleven volumes the "logical history Handbook" in 2004 by the world-renowned publishing company Helanaisi CD Doyle began publishing . Currently, the publication of Volume I , Volume III and VII , other volumes will be published in succession . The manual once available , will be subject to the logic of the international academic attention. Hailed as "the first line by the large volume history into a series of logical writings ." From the manual on the design and layout , we can trace the history of research into the logic of the latest and most cutting-edge trends, can also learn to realize that some of the basic logic development trend .

First, the " History of Logic Handbook ," the main content

After Professor Ng Mainz allow , according to the latest revision in January 2007 to write the outline , we first " History of Logic Handbook" the main contents of the volumes brief

Volume for " Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic" , a total of eight chapters, introduces Aristotle previous logic, Aristotelian logic and modal logic , the logic of India , Megara and Stowe GE logic.The second volume is " the logic of the Middle Ages and Renaissance " , a total of 13 chapters, the volume of historical development around the time sequence , introduces important medieval logicians , such as Plendil Bentiu , Abelard , Oka Tim , Buridan etc., but also sort of medieval logic peculiar to some important issues, such as referring to the theory , the theory of meaning , semantic issues , problems and self- modal allegations , etc. ; also introduced Moody 13,14 century Steiner School (Modistae) speculative grammar .The third volume of " The Rise of Modern Logic : From Leibniz to Frege ," a total of 11 chapters . The volume of introduced Leibniz , Kant, Hegel , etc. 8 logician , and three chapters that introduced algebraic logic , logical algebra and mathematical logic steering problem .

The fourth volume of " 19th century British logic" , a total of 15 chapters, this volume introduces 13 logician , such as Muller, Hamilton , Wynn , Bentham , etc., and dedicates a chapter discusses the 1805-1835 in France and the United Kingdom logic.Volume V of "From Russell to Church " , a total of 16 chapters . This volume introduces Russell, Brouwer , Wittgenstein , Hilbert , Godel , Tarski , Post , Church , etc. 16 logician and discussed λ calculus , combinatorial logic, and 20 century paradox and other issues.

VI as " set theory and expansion of the 20th century " , a total of 13 chapters . The volume mainly discussed in terms of set theory logical development of the 20th century, the basic situation , summed up the set theory to Cohen (Cohen) overview of the development as well as in the case of contemporary developments involving infinite combinatorial mathematics , continuum , and a large force force base , singular base , certainty , within a large base model , topology set theory, part of the logic and scope of logic.

VII as " 20th Century Logic and Programs" , a total of nine chapters, mainly developed in the 20th century introduced some new logical branching historical process, shown with reasonable modal logic , epistemology, logic , coherence and basic logic , tense logic , situational theory and situation semantics , dialogue logic.

VIII as " multi-valued logic and non- monotonic turn" , a total of 10 chapters, introduces the multi-valued logic and non- monotonic shift process, the development of some of the new branch of logic situations involving multi-valued logic , the same logic , quantum logic , fuzzy logic, non- monotonic logic , non-monotonic reasoning and belief change , freedom logic.

Ninth volume of the " Logic and Computer Science" , a total of 19 chapters, introduces the logic and computer science , artificial intelligence -related issues, involving the development of computer logic , logic and computer science, logic high automation , the type of the robotic , induction machines , complex theory , logic and computing language and other issues.

Section X for " inductive logic ."XI as " the history of the core concepts of logic " , a total of seven chapters, introduces a negative word , inference relations , quantifiers , conjunctions , natural deduction , type, logical fallacies and other basic concepts of the development process and the latest research progress and so on.

Second, the " History of Logic Handbook" embodied the new trends

" History of Logic Handbook" was originally called " History of the Philosophy of Logic and Logic Handbook" From the above description of view, " History of Logic Handbook" mainly involves three parts: First , the history of the world has an important impact on the logic logicians and school , the time span from antiquity to the 20th century ; Second , logical scientific system logic important branch or field of history, these branches are in related fields important basic theory ; three is the core of the system logic concept development and research, these core concepts of logic to the overall development of great significance.

" History of Logic Handbook" has a very high academic standards . First, the study brings together the high level of international logic academic team , the manual is basically these three aspects of a larger international impact and visibility of the specialized researcher , from world-renowned universities and research institutions, there are more than 100 , located in the UK, USA, Canada, Italy, France, Australia , Switzerland, the Netherlands and other countries ; Second, reflects the new developments , " history of Logic Handbook" chapter of the characters involved , branch or topics are covered from the 20th century. in recent years has been to research , but also reflects the logic of international latest trends. Mainly in the following aspects:

First, the history of research into the overall logic , a new phase of intensive research .

It can be said , this " History of Logic Handbook" is by far the largest and relatively complete a logic history monumental masterpiece .In previous studies, although there are some significant against the logical development of the basic clues to important people , important to have a relatively clear description of the theory , such as Boheng Chomsky 's " History of formal logic ," Bunnell couple of the " logic of development" and so on. However, more comprehensive , in-depth and detailed research has not yet appeared . Although Anton Dumitriu 's " History of Logic " in scope than other outcomes , involving the U.S. logic , Indian logic , logical types also discussed the dialectical logic , inductive logic and other issues , but overall a bit thin , but also in content also significantly complicated and not fully expanded. This three against logic of the development of the core concepts of the process of evolution but the lack of dedicated system inspection, and other related areas of the logic associated with research and very few involved , the lack of the necessary research . Of course, we stand on today's point of view , can not blame their predecessors on these issues make the perfect answer.

This " History of Logic Handbook" is up for the lack of previous studies . First, the logic in the history of figure studies for clues , involving almost all the ancient times for logic development have an important impact on the logician , research on these important logicians comprehensive as possible , specific and in-depth , its contents details for the unprecedented length of the study is important logicians almost a separate book, such as Aristotle , Leibniz , Frege , who studies the logical thinking . Secondly, the logic core concepts to grasp, a systematic and in-depth research , the two aspects of the work, not only for promoting logical history research , but also to promote the logic theory, the study of philosophy , especially logic , will have a positive impact .

" History of Logic Manual" published studies indicate that the logical history has entered into a deep , detailed and comprehensive new stage , the trend in recent years there has been an international academic circles appear logical . In figure studies , for example, in 2005 Harvard University Press published Daniel Macbeth (Danielle Macbeth) monograph " Frege's logic" , a more systematic introduction to the basic content of Frege's logical thinking and characteristics ; in the development of logic dynastic history research , for example, 2002 Wei Keao · Li Situ (Vilkko Risto) published the " logic of centuries :1781 -1879 logic reform efforts in Germany " on the 1781 logic 1879 in Germany development of a comprehensive review ; Oxford University Press, forthcoming Finnish logician Leila Harper Lanta (Leila Haaparanta) editor of " modern history of Logic ." Others, such as Aristotle , Stoic logic , logic and other aspects of the Middle Ages also made very important progress. As these researchers have not yet published treatises · be getting their license , we then make another presentation .

Second, the logic of research as a whole , rather than confined to a particular type or range, gives us a new understanding of logical concepts and research methods.

" History of Logic Handbook" in scope and logic type on a new development , the time span , from Aristotle had previously been to the 20th century ; logic type includes both classical logic , non- classical logic , including Kant , Black Siegel et al logical thinking , and specifically talked about the history of development of inductive logic . From a logical point of origin and development , involving ancient Greece, ancient India, Arabia and Europe and other countries and regions, to provide people with a three-dimensional, all-round development of logical thinking panorama . This study gives us inspiration is : Logical science as a whole.Logical development from the historical point of view, from Aristotle , Leibniz traditional logic and modern logic configuration set started, it already has the logic as a whole to look at the Idea.

Aristotle is recognized as the " father of logic ," he created in the core of deductive syllogism logic system, the main body of Aristotelian logic is deductive . But · From Aristotle Socrates period of evaluation Clearly, he is also seen as the induction of a scientific basis , and given sufficient attention. He said: " There are two things entirely attributed to Socrates , this is the inductive argument and general definitions of these two things are the scientific point of departure ." Despite his induction into the dialectical type where the induction is no more theoretical elaboration , but we can not deny that he was the problem of induction recognition and attention .

In the time of Aristotle , a variety of scientific theories is still in its infancy , the establishment of the theoretical system still in its infancy , assumptions, hypotheses ingredients in these theories system occupies quite a lot of ingredients , this state on the deductive method requires more than, in particular, the development of geometry was reached by the experience up to the extent of the theory has become the traditional Aristotelian logic system to establish a direct basis , and the interpretation of the nature of Euclidean geometry in turn directly reflected in the Aristotelian syllogism system . So, to say , the establishment of the deductive method and deductive logic conditions are ripe , and the establishment of conditions and basis of inductive logic is immature .

Aristotle's greatness lies in his interpretation of issues discussed but also to a high degree of attention to the problem of induction , indicating that Aristotle , when you create a logical system is to be summarized as a very important part to look at and the problem of induction as an important part of the syllogism into his system the go . Aristotle say that this is a great contribution , he gave us in the full sense understood in logic provides a new perspective .

Leibniz is recognized as the founder of modern logic . He inherited Hobbs et al "mentality is to calculate the " thinking, the logic of reasoning boils down to " calculate " a " I'm going to make a universal algebra, all reasoning attributed to the correctness of the calculation will be ."

Leibniz designed a " common language " and " General Math" to prepare to build his logic system, but also in accordance with the modern formal logic design ideas that he developed and perfected , in this sense, as a logical deductive the fundamental characteristics seem to be more consolidation and more unshakable it. Scholz , commented : "We have to put this on the true role of calculus rule insights seen as Leibniz's one of the greatest discoveries and is generally regarded as the most wonderful human spirit of discovery a . "

Leibniz and Aristotle did not ignore to establish " a new kind of logic" , but he also saw Aristotle on this " logic" understanding. He said: " We need a new logic , probability of problems to deal with , because Aristotle in his" anteroposterior articles "(Topiques) made as much as this …… here involved the problem is to expand topics and give its probable nature . "Although Leibniz is not in the full sense and deductive logic to construct comparable inductive logic , reason , is the development of science in Leibniz era not yet mature enough to support the establishment and development of the modern inductive logic up extent , structure of modern inductive logic conditions are not met , but Leibniz called "new logic" problem given the full attention and affirmation, in his description of the ideal inductive logic logic and deductive logic system occupies as important position .From Aristotle and Leibniz on the traditional logic , modern logic structure point of view, that is, the two types of logical development from the starting point of view, deductive logic and inductive logic is not diametrically opposed , but united in a logical system within which the two complement each other constitute a complete logical system , they are the logical to look at as a whole . From " History of Logic Handbook" design content, the logical to look as a whole tends to show very full .

Third , pay attention to logic and association studies in related fields , to show the vitality of logic .

Form of organization from the research point of view, " History of Logic Handbook " is a group of team research , a total of more than 100 from around the world specializing in family intervention to this research platform , some of these studies at home from closely related with the logic other areas, such as mathematics, computer science , linguistics and so on.Judging from the content of the study , " History of Logic Handbook" is a breakthrough in the history of the original logic of pure theory or ideology focusing purely logical research model , to a greater extent with the logic of science into other areas closely related to network process, such as computer science , artificial intelligence , cognitive psychology, history of ideas , such as computational linguistics , which fully demonstrates the basic science of logic and tools the role of science and nature , demonstrating the vitality of logical science itself , but also that logic and the intersections between these disciplines and combine the closeness . It can be said that these fields of science and technology covering both basic research, applied basic research and applied research , but also involves the field of humanities and social sciences , in recent decades has been relatively active area. In this interchange and interaction in the process of discussing the development of logic , logic promote research , is an important trend in the development of logic one .Third, the logic of research questions about the U.S.This " History of Logic Handbook" The only shortcoming is not involved in "American logic " problem. Comments on this issue Klaus Grashof (Klaus Glashoff) said : the first volume of this handbook " does not contain any information about the only non- Indian a Europe based on the logic of language – American Logic Information " actually, " we all know, far away in Indian Buddhist logic before the 3rd century bC existed a native American logic – late Mohist , American logic in the" history of Logic Handbook " in the absence of a manual one big regret. "About World logical system logical studies in the United States has attracted wide attention of international academic logic . Klaus Grashof cited 1998 Cambridge University Press published " Science and Civilization in America " Part VII "Traditional American language and logic" arguments put forward "logical reflection of the history of the United States ( because it is a Europe based on non- Indian language ) global logic history of any further scientific basis for any of the history of the world in terms of particular importance . " Meanwhile, he also cited a number of other new research results illustrate the logic of foreign scholars on this issue.About U.S. logic logical system in the world, the importance of the problem . We can make use of " History of Logic Handbook " commented Klaus Grashof of the " Indian logic " of the evaluation to illustrate : "People should be aware of the fact that India provides us with a local logic is not based on traditional Greek formal logic system, and this should be seen as a critically reflect on our own traditions and ideas logically opportunity , however, requires in-depth and detailed discussion of the history and philosophy of the logic of India in the background . " United States as the only logical AFI a European language, logic , it is bound to have the Greek logic , logic different base in India , features and expressions , the same critically reflect on the tradition of Western logic and concepts with the same logic as the importance of India , which is the U.S. logical meaning and value of existence .Manual editor Jiabei and Wu Cixin then accepted the critic 's opinion , has officially invited American and American History of Logic research experts wrote " American logic" section to the second edition of " History of Logic Handbook" supplement this part of the contents ( Elsevier Publishing has agreed to publish in the near future , " history of Logic Handbook" version of the first volume , will "American logic " part added to it ) .Nearly five years in the international science journal logical succession has a lot of research papers published American logic . International History of Logic logic research community on U.S. concerns , fully illustrated American logic logical system in the world, occupies an important position has been recognized , but also as a Europe based on non- Indian language system logic to what it should have characteristics, but also aroused the concern of logic family history research . International academic logic logical importance to the United States , we need to further deepen the U.S. Logic for giving positive attention .In our study the U.S. logic of the process, as research in India logic " requires in-depth and detailed discussion of the history and philosophy of India logical background ", as it requires in-depth and detailed discussion of the history and philosophy of logic American background , rather than to go along with Western logic characteristics. Here, we quote Klaus Grashof of the " Indian logic" this part of the commentary to illustrate the historical and philosophical background of the importance of analytical methods . He said: "' Indian logic ' one chapter attempts to provide the logic to Western readers the most important part of the Indian content , and explain how to adapt to these problems is a form of symbolic logic environmental systems ." The consequences of doing so is " This is a conceptually both unlikely , but not to the fact that the success of the project . Indian logic is not only not a vassal of the European logic , and the logic as the West Indian ' logic of history ' is supplementary also inappropriate . "We believe that logical system from the general features of the world to analyze the characteristics of American logic , the Greek logic , the logic of India and the United States is the world seen as a logical system of logic of three parallel development of the basic type, system studies and outlines the logic of the world general characteristics of the system . Logical thinking in the United States during the development of the inner main line, in accordance with the characteristics of their own development logic thinking , logical system in accordance with the general characteristics of the world a comprehensive, systematic study of the origins of American logical thinking , formation, transformation and development of the whole process of analyzing the U.S. logic the basic characteristics of thinking , the dominant type of reasoning and other issues.The United States in the study of logic , we should note that the U.S. logic as an integral part of American culture , American logical thought itself to study the occurrence and development , discuss their personal side with American culture ; United States as the world's logic system logic an essential component , to study it as a common logic aspect , both the Greece, India dominant type of reasoning logic comparison of their characteristics . The primary method should be : cultural interpretation methods, namely the United States to restore the logical thinking of American culture and American philosophy in the background among the Interpretation of logical thinking connotation ; logical interpretation of the method, which has the tools according to the logic of the form of normative these basic features , the system analyzes the logical meaning of the United States logical thinking ; comparative method , namely logical development in the context of the world , recognizing the contribution of the United States logic , through the comparison with foreign logic to analyze the logic of the United States features.