Research background and Methodology研究背景和方法
Based on the previous studies on ports competition and cooperation, the research paper will use an in-depth qualitative analysis approach to investigate the competition and cooperation between ports. The paper will choose Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port as case studies and take a insight of these two ports based on the objectives and aims of the research.基于港口上的竞争与合作在以往的研究中，研究论文将使用一个深入的定性分析方法，调查港口之间的竞争与合作。本文将选择在香港港口和深圳港作为案例研究，需要了解这两个港口的基础上研究的目标和宗旨。
According to Yin (2003), case study is a preferred strategy for research when a ‘how’ or ‘why’ question is being asked about a contemporary set of events, over which the investigator has little or no control”. A qualitative research is required by case study. Because qualitative research provides insight and understanding of the problem setting and solving, it enables researchers to map and analyze the economic viability of an overall by collecting industry-sensitive data. (Saunders et al., 2003).This research is to investigate the current competition between ports through analysis of their existing resources, and then to propose how ports can cooperate with each other from the supply chain collaboration point of view. Thus, case study is the suitable strategy for this research.据Yin (2003)，案例研究是一个首选策略研究被问及当代的事件，研究者有很少或根本没有控制“当一个'如何'或'为什么'问题。质性研究是必需的案例研究。因为定性的研究提供了设置和解决问题的洞察和理解，它使研究人员通过收集行业的敏感数据映射和分析整体的经济可行性。 （Saunders等，2003）。这项研究是调查目前港口之间的竞争，通过分析他们现有的资源，然后提出港口如何可以相互配合，从供应链协作的角度来看。因此，案例研究，这项研究是合适的策略。
The reasons why the paper will choose Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port as the object of case studies contain the following factors:究其原因，本文将选择香港港口和深圳港作为案例研究的对象包含以下几个因素：
The significant market position of these two ports这两个港口显著的市场地位
Hong Kong and Shenzhen ranked 2nd and 4th of busiest port in the world in 2005. Shenzhen has an outstanding growth rate in the past decades and threatening the market position of Hong Kong. They are playing critical role in the economic development of the region.
The proximity of location of these two ports这两个港口位置邻近
Both Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port are adjacent to Pearl River Delta area and sharing the common hinterland in this region. Recall to the map of figure 1, their strategic location determines the competition existing between these two ports.
Differences of development stage in two economic systems两个经济体系下发展阶段的不同
Hong Kong port is a well-developed port and under the management of capitalism economic. However, Shenzhen port is booming since last decade and taking advantage of mainland China’s resources and policies. These two ports have their own significant characteristics in tangible and intangible resources and capabilities.
Development opportunities by cooperation合作发展机遇
Owing to high growth rate in China’s GDP and low level of containerization in China’s cargoes, huge opportunities are presented for these two ports further development. The key point is how they can collaborate with each other to form a complementary relationship.
Considering the above reasons and backgrounds, Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port can be typical cases in regards of the ports competition and cooperation. Thus, the research paper chooses these two ports as objectives of case studies.考虑上述原因和背景，香港港口和深圳港的港口竞争与合作方面的典型案例。因此，研究论文选择这两个港口作为个案研究的目标。
Data Collection and analysis数据收集与分析
In order to evaluate the factors that contributing to port competition and what are the competitive advantages and disadvantages of Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port, questionnaire survey and personal interview will be utilized.为了评估的因素，促进港口竞争将利用香港港口和深圳港的竞争优势和劣势是什么，将利用问卷调查和个人访谈进行。
Questionnaire survey is a feasible approach of collecting both quantitative and qualitative information from people without an actual talking to every respondent (Walliman, 2001).
Questionnaire survey will be used to investigate 30 shipping lines and 30 freight forwarders those are involved in the business with these two ports currently (list refer to Appendix). Shipping lines and freight forwarders are the major participants of maritime industry in terms of port choices. They become actively arrange the goods transfer and delivery in door-to-door services. This has the direct affection of shippers’ selection of port. Furthermore, they arrange the routes of the cargoes transferred by inland transport modes (by truck, rail etc) through the ports they serve. Thus, they have the most relevant decision makers influence the port choices (Ha ,2003). The respondents will be the key business person in shipping lines and freight forwarders who direct involve in logistics operation.问卷调查将用于调查30航运公司和30个货运代理那些被涉及的业务，目前这两个端口（名单见附录）。船公司和货运代理公司是航运业的主要参与者在端口选择。他们成为积极安排货物转让及交付送货到门服务。这有直接的付货人选择港口的感情。此外，他们还安排内陆运输模式（通过卡车，铁路等），通过服务端口的货物转移的路线。因此，他们有最相关的决策者影响的端口选择（哈，2003年）。受访者将是关键的人直接涉及物流运作的航运公司和货代业务。
In order to identify the previous assumptions derived from the literature and expand the studies, The questionnaire survey will contain two parts: 1) Identify and confirm the previous assumptions derived from the literature for which will influence their choice of ports (implication of the factors responsible for port competition). 2) What are the competitive advantage and disadvantages of these two ports from the view of ports’ partners (shipping lines and freight forwarders). The details of part 1 and part 2 will contain the following factors of investigation besides the basic background information.为了识别来自文献和以前的假设展开研究，问卷调查将包含两部分：1）识别和确认先前的假设来自文献，因为这会影响到他们选择的端口（蕴涵的因素负责港口竞争）。 2）什么是最大的竞争优势和劣势这两个端口的从端口的合作伙伴（船公司和货运代理公司）的观点。第1部分和第2部分的细节将包含以下因素除了基本的背景资料调查。http://www.ukassignment.org/dxazessay/
Part 1of questionnaire:Part 1 is to identify what factors that responsible for shipping lines and freight forwarders to choose a port. The contents cover the following perspectives:第1部分是要找出哪些因素，航运公司和货代负责选择一个港口。主要内容包括以下观点：
Table: Questionnaire contentsFactor GroupsDetailsPort facilitiesAvailability of container yardsAvailability of container handling equipmentAdditional berth for unexpected circumstancesAutomation of cargo handling systemPort location Convenient for container ships entry/exitLocation that convenient to connect with other transport mode(truck & rail)Transshipment centerPort costPort chargesTerminal handling charges(THC)Charges for container demurrage and detentionPort-related servicesEfficiency in operation of customs clearancesCargo tracing systemEfficiency in door-to-door serviceSettlement of customers dissatisfaction and claimPort managementShip congestion in portEfficiency and accuracy in on-dock handling of containerPort safety managementPort workers performanceRemark: Factor groups and contents may be expended
Part 2 of questionnaire:问卷的第2部分：
Part 2 will focus on Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port to conduct a complemented survey. The questionnaire will designed as open-ended questions to explore respondents’ views on Hong Kong ports and Shenzhen ports advantages and disadvantages. Each respondent will be asked to answer three questions:第2部分将集中在香港港口和深圳港口进行补充调查。问卷设计为开放式的问题来探讨受访者对香港港口和深圳港口的优势和劣势。每个受访者会被要求回答三个问题：#p#分页标题#e#1)What are competitive advantages of Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port respectively and why?香港港口和深圳港的竞争优势分别是什么，为什么？2) What are disadvantages of Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port respectively and why?香港港口和深圳港的缺点分别是什么，为什么？3) What sort of improvement is necessary for both Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port respectively?为香港港口和深圳港分别需要什么样的改善？
The questionnaire will be designed by the writer and sent to respondents by email or post. Due to common shortcoming of low response rate to questionnaire survey, three reminder letters will be sent out for boosting the response rate. Meanwhile, survey by telephone calls can be considered if the contact numbers are available of the respondents.