挪威斯塔万格大学管理专业留学生硕士毕业论文格式范文-Intelligent fields work processes and Work optimization: Transforming Data to good quality Decisions and Actions2. Background information2.1 The definition of the intelligent oilfield and its development history2.1.1 The definition of the intelligent oilfieldThe intelligent oilfield was also known as digital oil fields; it can achieve real-time monitoring, real-time data acquisition and finish the implementation of the decision-making and optimization of the closed-loop. The intelligent oilfield also can link and co-ordinate the operation and management the oil well, oil field and related assets to each other which benefits to improve the harvest of the rate effective way and direction of development. In particular, it is more efficiency in the case of more expensive Injecting. 2.1智能油田及其发展历史的定义2.1.1智能油田的定义智能油田也被称为数字油田领域；它可以实现实时监控，实时数据采集和完成闭环系统的决策和优化的实施。智能油田也可以联系和协调运作和管理油井，油田及相关资产为彼此利益的提高率的有效途径和发展方向的收获。特别是，它是更昂贵的注射的情况下，更高的效率。At present, with the development of the reservoir dynamic monitoring technology, horizontal wells, the wells management, and the improvement of management technology in horizontal wells, the recovery prospects of the intelligent oilfield improve oil are very certain. The intelligent oilfield show the oil and gas field development will enter a new stage of intelligent automation, visualization, real-time closed-loop (Nidia, etal, 1998). Various assets benefits for the working and development of the intelligent oilfield, such as the oil, gas reservoirs and other physical assets which includes the data assets with variety of models, plans and decision-making. Finally, the basic concept and development of intelligent field direction is related to oil and gas operations through a variety of actions (data acquisition, data interpretation and simulation propose and evaluate a variety of options, implementation, etc.), organically unified in a value chain, forming a virtual reality representations intelligent oilfield system. People can be observed in real time to the oil fields of the natural and cultural information, and interact.目前，随着油藏动态监测技术的发展水平，威尔斯，威尔斯和威尔斯的管理水平，管理技术的提高，对智能油田的复苏前景改善油一定非常。智能油田的石油和天然气领域的发展将进入一个新阶段智能自动化，可视化，实时闭环（多，等，1998）。各种资产收益的智能油田的工作和发展，如石油，天然气和其他实物资产包括数据资产的各种模型，计划和决策。最后，对智能化领域的基本概念和发展方向是通过各种措施，石油和天然气业务相关的（数据采集，数据的解释和模拟，提出并评估各种选项，实现，等），有机地统一在一个价值链，形成一个虚拟现实表示智能油田系统。人们可以实时观察到的自然和文化信息的石油领域，互动。The oilfield digital management is in the forefront of production of the overall information technology architecture, it mainly aims to the production of the basic unit of production wells, stations, pipelines and other process monitoring, completion of data acquisition, process monitoring, dynamic analysis, identify problems, to solve the problem to maintain normal production; A1A2 establish a unified data interface, data sharing which mainly in production process management information system. And it is an extension and expansion of the company's information systems. (A1A2 explanation: Chinese petroleum geosciences and drilling system referred to as A1, upstream information system referred to as A2. explain: exploration and production data management system referred to as A1, oil and gas the wells production data management system referred to A2)The oilfield digital management system makes full use of the automatic control technology, computer network technology, reservoir management technology, oil and gas technology, surface technology, data integration, data sharing and exchange of technology, video and data intelligence analysis technology, electronic patrol wells, accurately determine the exact location, strengthen the control and management of the production process (Grinrod, etal,1988).2.1.2 The development history of the intelligent oilfieldBased on the study of the history of the intelligent oilfield, it is clearly that the development of the intelligent oilfield is complex and winding. If the first upsurge in the 1980s improve oil recovery research and application craze, it also promote the various EOR technology advances and mature, then the Statord oil field was reservoir modeling, reservoir monitoring, horizontal wells and reservoir management is a combination of enhanced oil recovery technology. It has set off in the early 2000s the intelligent oilfield marked the second study and application of enhanced oil recovery technology craze.Norwegian waters of the North Sea region is the highest degree of utilization of smart oilfield technologies which off in the region shore platforms and its all connected by fiber optic cable. The region's largest oilfield——Statord oil field is the representatives of the contemporary intelligent oilfield development. And the development later is through intelligent oilfield development technology, such as: real-time data transmission, extensive use of four-dimensional seismic technology to improve reservoir representation level, effectively to improve oil recovery in a multi-branch Inoue installed flow controller to achieve the sustainable development of the oil fields. In addition, North Sea oil fields (Gullfaks) is a combination of developing peripheral oilfields which using down hole monitoring and control system and the multilateral well technology. Due to the establishment of land drilling production center, (Ekofisk) field RECOVERY from 46% to 50-60%. These fields are all making the technologies practice in the intelligent oilfield. 2.1.3 The key technology of the intelligent oilfieldAccording to the analysis and the study of the intelligent oilfield, the key to promoting the development of intelligent oilfield technologies include many aspects. At first, it is the telemetry technology which mainly including lapse seismic monitoring, measurement of gravity, electromagnetic monitoring, permanent ground detector network and Permanent fiber underground detectors, etc. Second, it is the visualization technology which including integrated exploration and production of three-dimensional data visualization technology, virtual reality technology. The third techno ledge is intelligent drilling and completion technology which plays an important role in the development of the intelligent oilfield. In addition to this, it also includes the automation technology; data integration, management and mining technology and the integrated management system, and so on.2.1.4 The development prospects of the intelligent oilfieldAccording to latest research released by the world-famous Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA) pointed that a number of new digital technologies constitute intelligent oilfield in 2003, the global crude oil reserves in the next 5 ~ 10 years can be increased to 1250 × 108 barrels, which total more than the existing crude oil reserves in Iraq or Latin America. At the same time, it will be able to improve oil and gas recovery from 2% to 7%, 10% to 25% which lower lifting costs, increase production by 2% to 4%. The plan of the Shell being implemented "intelligent oilfield, its production increased by 10%, 8% recovery efficiency, a 20% reduction in operating costs, planning and decision-making cycle time by 75%( Annick, etal, 1998). The intelligent oilfield technology will greatly expand the development of the oil industry, demonstrating a broader and better development prospects for the oil industry.2.2 The advantage of the intelligent oilfieldDigital oilfield building is a systematic project, and the establishment of a data bank and information platform is the basis of the digital oilfield. The core of the digital oilfield discoveries and development work order processing from the historical segment information to change into a real-time parallel processing of the data. The use of real-time data streams innovative software applications and high-speed computer systems, the establishment of a dynamic reservoir model for fast feedback and these models with telemetry sensors, smart wells and automatic control functions, the operators directly observed underground production dynamics. In the future, more accurately predict the dynamic changes and in order to improve the yield and effective management of the oil field, it will achieve various levels of the closed-loop optimization management. Ultimately it can benefit to make the field-wide real-time closed-loop operation and management of assets. Actually, digital oilfield is not out of reach, but also a step-by-step development and improvement. Now, the foreign digital oilfield developed alone in the third level and they all aim to the gradual development of the fourth, fifth grade.#p#分页标题#e#Digital oilfield is a set of processing application system which includes the connection ground and down closed loop information collection, bidirectional transmission. It can accompany operation process real-time guiding exploration development program execution and related technology application which is covering all major value cycle process of a closed loop system. Therefore, when involving exploration, assessment, development and mining areas of the emerging technology for oil and gas resources, all of the whole life cycle have a great impact on the telemetry, virtual reality, and intelligent well completion. Automatic control and data integration is a key technology of digital oilfield.2.2.1 The analysis data are more real-timeThe oilfield general location in generally remote and the environment is relatively poor. This is a huge challenge for the mining of oil (Instefjord, etal, 2005). When Staffs collect the relative data, the harsh environments made it’s become very difficult, summary data for each data point also speak very slowly, real-time data will lose. But the Oilfield intelligent program will simplify this process, a variety of wireless monitoring equipment will accurate data for each time period, summarized by the wireless network and sent back to the front-line control zone server. In this process, the time is a very short; staff will see the most real-time data. This enables the production quality has absolute protection.The main research of Digital oilfield contents include digital oil field general technical framework, geographic information system (GIS) in oil field application, multidisciplinary geological model research, exploration and development of business and information integration model, information infrastructure system, enterprise information Portal (Portal), and mass data storage solutions, virtual reality technology, application of data and application system standard system, enterprise digital summary model, information flow, business flow, logistics, knowledge management, collaborative environment, decision support business model, human resources digitization, digital oilfield development strategy, etc.When Digital management intervention, it can shorten the management distance, the original between operating regions is intangible selection, it not only reduce the management personnel, and it also maintenance staff together which let the alone workers joint work now, and the operating region unified transfer can make originally regions no work, and some workers can not find the work, so its not balance, with the help of the intelligent oilfield system, the phenomenon thoroughly eliminate.2.2.2 Higher securityDuring the process of the exploitation of oil, there will be a lot of security risks which is difficult to avoid under the harsh environment. Artificial data acquisition level is low cut backhaul slow and it is very detrimental to the security of this oil field production. However, use the artificial intelligent program, oilfield equipment used instead the manpower, and the data return is faster and more accurate which is a accurate grasp of the real-time control center wells pipelines and other places. It not only can effectively prevent the data is unknown due to security incidents; it also can effectively prevent the wrongful acts of destruction, theft of oil production facilities, which greatly improved the safety of the production process. Digital oilfield construction and management is the comprehensive foundation information platform which takeing for oilfield enterprise production, scientific research, management and decision making. It plays over and the function of the guidance of oilfield informatization construction Digital oilfield construction and management has shown broad application prospects.Intelligent exploration will change the previous field management and exploration and develop the fundamentally change. First of all, using the information manage the oil field. In each stage of oilfield exploration and development, it should has the corresponding data, model and measures, with the aid of these data explanation for reservoir analysis can be successful mining that reduce the uncertainty and risk. It is the comprehensive reservoir simulation model. The Visual reservoir can reflect the characteristics of reservoir, oil as far as possible.The intelligent oilfield use informationization will change the oilfield management and the drilling orientation and model. Intelligent technology provides technical support for optimization and dynamic diagnosis in real time (J. Milter, etal, 2005). For intelligent well data acquisition, repeated cycle analysis processing, rapid uncertain economic and effective exploration and development plan, all of these can realize the operation process of the highest value. Greatly reduces the exploration and development of the uncertain factors and risk.2.2.3 Higher efficiencyThe oilfield span is very large, and some even stretching over 10 kilometers, this is very negative on the oilfield safety monitoring, data acquisition and data processing. The process of human collection and monitoring is not only cumbersome and also in a very slow speed. The Intelligent oilfield program use the production site full wireless coverage which let all sensor data returned through the wireless network data collection terminal. And then, it returned by the data collection terminal production base server. This efficient information collection is not only greatly reducing the cost, and labor intensity, it also benefits for improve production efficiency.The high efficiency of production is a strong guarantee for the economic benefits. Through the implementation of digital management, it obviously improves work efficiency, reduce production cost and improve the level of safety work, especially it can reduce the amount a line invalid labor. According to the forecast, the new village operating region implementation of digital management after a line labor can reduce 30% to 40%, technical personnel can reduce more than 50%. The intelligent technology will gather the ground and underground two aspects organic union to realize reservoir, oil well dynamic monitoring and constantly optimize operation plan, so as to realize the high profit. Through intelligent management of the field, this system will greatly promote the oil field and the oil well productivity.2.2.4 Lower costDuring the intelligent oilfields, the system uses wireless LAN technology, installation simple and easy to maintain. Without wires avoid the harm brought about by aging, fault. Low cost is undoubtedly a direct manifestation of the high efficiency. According to the character of the intelligent oilfield, Dynamic digital reservoir model technology can bring various disciplines expert experience quickly copy to every staff, thus it can avoid the professional and technical personnel shorthanded which brings problems. The dynamic digital reservoir model technology can dynamic adjustment oil development production plan according to the market demand changes and make it more reasonable which let the enterprise gain more benefit. Using advanced dynamic digital reservoir technology can save millions of dollars for the many harbor in oilfield developed every year. At the same time, the field works with dynamic digital reservoir model to improve the success rate of horizontal well.In the practice, when meest any prolems in with any one specific problems, the intelligent oilfield system can use computer science and network communication technology, cross region barrier, the breakthrough time and space limit, gathered the experts who in different places in the Internet remote online for decision. Dynamic digital reservoir model is adapted to the advanced work flow needs which includes multidisciplinary, such as shock, mass, drilling, engineering, logging, oil capital management and so on which provide a timely sharing dynamic changing model together. And the team type work means, so that the produce efficiency, scientific nature and the basis of decision-making provided high quality are traditional relay mode which can not reach. This kind of revolutionary change is the world exploration and development trend of the development of the industry.2.2.5 Broader prospects for developmentCompared to the traditional reservoir mode, the Dynamic digital reservoir model has a huge progress (Tollefsen, etal, 1992). The past reservoir model is fixed, it is static. Traditional exploration and development operations and the geophysical exploration department, quality department, development department specialized technical personnel to set up digital model which like the railway police each tube and each does things in his own way. This relay work flow type often can appear problems, if appeared, it will need to step by step from the beginning again come, and it waste time. The more important is the barriers between department and working environment appeared which let they can not unified pace effective quality control and uncertainty evaluation, so it will cause the overall efficiency is low.Based on the low efficiency condition, the important function of the intelligent oilfield appeared. With the mature and growing popularity of the sensors, RFID, wireless communication networks, cloud computing and other new technologies, the Internet of things technology more widely, in a word, intelligent oilfield is the inevitable trend of development in the future. It is technologically advanced, innovative and easy expansion which benefits for the future development of the enterprise.#p#分页标题#e#2.3 The construction of the intelligent oilfieldThrough the innovation of technology and management concept, Oilfield digitization management improve process monitoring level, improve the production process management and intelligent level which setting up the whole oilfield unified production management, comprehensive research of digital management platform. It aims to strengthen security, process monitoring, saving (human) resources and improve the benefit goal. Oilfield intelligent used the wireless LAN technology which let the production process is simple, safe, and efficient. Greatly reduce the cost of oil field production and significantly improve the economic benefits of the oil field. Compared to conventional oilfield, intelligent oilfield has many advantages, such as the lower cost, high efficient and so on. And the following analyses are mainly explained from the aspects of the economic cost, efficiency, and environmental impact.The intelligent oilfiled system project aims to the wireless local area network coverage which constructed in view of the oilfield and satisfy oilfield daily production operation, production management, production control, equipment management and show demands. it is a set of oil exploration, development and production of information collection, transmission, storage, processing, analysis, issue, management and application at an organic whole, standard, unified, safe, efficient new modern production management integrated data in the integration of management application platform.2.3.1Various applicationThe 21st century is information ages which take the computer as the core. The digital, networked, intelligent has become a characteristic of the era of the 21st century, with the rapid development of information technology, computer technology, wireless network technology, the Internet of information technology has been applied to each row and industrial sectors (Oseberg, 2000). In the past year, the Internet of things has been a high degree of attention and concern of the country as well as government departments at all levels, as a focus on the development of information technology to the beginning of this year, "Twelve Five" is bound to the Internet of information. The continuous development of the Internet technology, as well as the convenience it brings to all walks of life, the intelligent oilfield systems technical support construction is very necessary but also feasible. With the development of the society and the Internet, people know form the virtual information space to the perception of the reality of the physical world. So the intelligent field will be more timely reaction current Oilfield situation with the help of the internet.2.3.2 Content is extensiveIntelligent field contains the geological, seismic, logging, analysis of testing, drilling, production, oil test trial mining ground pipe network, geographic information, extensive coverage, so they are both independent and dependent. In the production information system, the intelligent oilfield develop the oil and gas exploration information integrated management system, develop the oil and gas management information system owns two production management information system, it not only covers the oilfield exploration and development the main business management, but also provides the comprehensive query, data entry, business processing and so on. All of these provide many features for scientific research and providing powerful tool production management.In the enterprise management system, the Oilfield Company has developed a financial management system, labor management system, science and technology information management system, office management system (OA) and other information system, and it obtained a good application. Especially the financial management system, it is the most successful application promotion (Asgeir Njaerheim, etal, 2000). The oilfield company has achieved basically financial computerization, thoroughly get rid of the manual account and greatly improving the work efficiency.2.3.3 Enhance the safety protectionDigital oilfield is the comprehensive information oilfield which based on the information technology as the means to achieve oilfield entity visualization technology and virtual reality technology. It will not be able to realize video browsing occasion’s intuitionist simulation out and enterprise the digitization, network, intelligence and visualization. Digital oilfield construction is a complex system engineering which involved a number of disciplines. It includes a series of process from detect oil to oil refining transportation. According to the collection, simulation, analysis and decision, the whole process needs mutual cooperation and work together, such as information technology, petroleum geology, geophysics and reservoir engineering, business management, project management and other professional and technical personnel.Intelligent oilfield can do real-time monitoring in oilfield safety. With the offshore fields developed, the oil field security issues connected to the elbow and the network, the newspaper is not difficult to see the "oilfield oil spill" wording. It brought to people is no longer a pure oilfield safety, but also a wide range of ecological pollution problems. Many technology which used in the Intelligent oilfield system benefits for the safety protection, such as wireless temperature monitoring, wireless vibration monitoring, wireless corrosion monitoring, wireless pressure monitoring, wireless sensing valve position, wireless video technology. It can concern about the undersea oilfield dynamic at any time, reduce the oil fields hidden, and also coupled to the ecological environment insurance.2.3.4 Automatic stabilization equipmentThe intelligent oilfield acquisition equipment installation and maintenance convenient, reliable work, long equipment life, rather like a wired device installed as cumbersome, not the aging, the emergence of poor contact and other issues. It will not be caused the host job insecurity due to lightning, etc. Oilfield Company has gradually realized that data is the precious wealth of the oil field. In the exploration, the link direct product of geophysical prospecting, drilling, testing for oil, logging and other production is data. In The development system, it is necessary to collect all kinds of production data, analyze the change of reservoir and optimization scheme. So the data is the "raw material" of exploration and development research. Oilfield Company spends a lot of money for these "raw material"( Petter Kostol, ,etal,1999).Therefore, in order to protect these data and make full use of it, Oil Field Company vigorously promotes the data construction and ensures the data reliability and usability. There are three main task of data construction. The first is establishing data standard and database structure. The second is put the current various production data timely acquisition warehousing. The third is the history data warehousing sorting and file. At present the companies has built many oilfield exploration systems and develop owns two production database, all kinds of production data have timely collect warehousing. And most of the historical data also put in storage. The database construction for scientific research, management provides decision basis. when exploration and development of scientific research, the introduction of advanced software and hardware, the establishment of a interpretation workstation, seismic processing center, parallel numerical simulation system, improve the research level, reduce the exploration investment and development cost.2.3.5 Available for managingThe intelligent oilfield systems is not only a great progress in science and technology, as well as it take facilitate form the management of the oil field (Andersen, et al, 2006). It can help the oilfield enterprises to reduce the waste of time, such as oil work, at first, oil production worker with the data field patrol wells and collected data analysis slowly. The intelligent oilfield system through the video surveillance system to data transmission by the network which will be able to control and observe the production of the individual wells, and the work efficiency is greatly improved. Implementation of intelligent oilfield enterprises can reduce more employees’ salaried pay which will facilitate the management of oilfield employees.Digital oilfield construction and management can promote the further deepening of reform of oil field and further improve the management level of oil field. The powerful strength of the digital management prepares the platform for the labor organization optimization. And the labor organization optimization let digital management strength infinite release. Because the new labor organization optimization on human resources and work efficiency is doubled than the original. From the oilfield construction initial, the oil workers battles with the sandstorm, bucket cold artificial long wellhead samplings, multiple round record analysis data, to the every well real-time data sharing now, the video or network feedback analysis results. So the digital management greatly releases the human resources which invest to a more urgent post.In conclusion，the intelligent oilfield is a huge systems engineering which must explore new cooperation pattern. So we should not only joint industry, but also closely related the high technology and new technology industry to develop oil and gas fields intelligence technology which benefits for realize the real-time monitoring and management of oil and gas fields. Beyond that, building the intelligent field must have a whole design which from the exploration drilling stage start to every phase of oil production in succession, orderly construction completed, and constantly optimize the operation process that aims to get high profits for the enterprise. In the long run, intelligent oilfield application and development is an upgrade process which will be constant innovation, development, so the domestic should make the overall planning and started as early as possible.#p#分页标题#e#ReferencesJ. Milter,,O.G. Bergjord,,K. H?yland,,B.Rugland(2005).Use of Real-Time-Data at the Statfjord Field Anno,65-67.Tollefsen, Svein,,Graue, Eirik,,Svinddal, Stein(1992).The Gullfaks Field Development: Challenges and Perspectives. 77-79.Oseberg(2000): Increased recoverable resources by optimal reservoir management and use of new technology. 9(6) ,12-17.Asgeir Njaerheim, Helge Tjcretta, Statoii A/S(2000). 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