使得人们聚集起来实现既定的目标和某些目的得途径就是在所有行业和个人生活中进行管理。管理包括计划、组织、人员编制、领导或指导、控制一个组织（一个或多个的团体）或尝试实现目标。资源包括人力资源、金融资源、科技资源和自然资源的使用和管理。Management in all industry and individual administrative activity is the way of getting people together to achieve required goals and objectives. Management includes planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or attempt for the use of achieve a goal. Resourcing includes the use and management of human assets, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
对于每一个管理者来说，经理人就是一个有足够责任心来管理日常事务的人。经理的工作是与众不同的，也是十分困难的。管理者需要明确的技能来完成与管理者相关的任务和行动。For every management to run there should be a person responsible enough to run it, who is the manager. A manager's job is different and difficult. Managers need definite skills to carry out the duties and actions connected with being a manager.
These are scientific, individual and conceptual skills. Technical skills include information of and aptitude in a convinced specialized field, such as engineering, computers, economic and administrative accounting, or manufacturing. These are further significant at lesser levels of management as these managers are dealing honestly with workers doing the organization's job. Individual skills involve the skills to work well with other people both on your own and in an assembly. Because managers deal straight with people, this is vital! Managers with superior individual skills are capable to get the best out of their individuals. They know how to correspond, encourage, direct, and motivate interest and trust. These are regularly significant at all levels of management. In the end conceptual skills are those in which the managers should be able to think and have good knowledge about abstract and difficult situations. Using these skills managers have to be able to observe the association as an entire, know the association among various subunits, and imagine how the association fits into its broader surroundings. These are mainly important at peak stage management
A professional group of practicing managers, the American Management Association, has recognized significant skills for managers that include theoretical, communication, effectiveness, and interpersonal features. These are briefly described below:Conceptual Skills: Talent to use information to resolve industry troubles, recognition of opportunities for improvement, recognizing dilemma areas and executing solutions, selecting vital information from stacks of statistics, understanding the business users of expertise, understanding the organization's business model.Communication Skills: Capability to convert ideas into words and performance, integrity among contemporaries, upper class, and subordinates, listening and asking questions, presentation skills and verbal arrangement, presentation skills; written and detailed formatsEffectiveness Skills: Contributing to communal duty/departmental objectives, client focus, multitasking; effective at numerous tasks at equivalent, bargaining skills, project management,reviewing procedures and implementing developments, bringing and maintaining act standards within and externally, setting priorities for consideration and actions, time organization.Interpersonal Skills: Training and mentoring, multiplicity ; functioning with different people and civilization, networking inside the organization, networking outside the group, working in groups; mutual aid and dedication.In today's challenging and lively place of work, workers who are invaluable to an association must be ready to regularly improve their skills and receive on added work exterior of their own precise job areas. There is no question that skills will keep on to be a vital way of telling what a manager does.Apart from the above skills there are six other important skills a manager should possess. A mark of an excellent leader is to be able to provide steady inspiration to his team encouraging them to achieve excellence and value in their performance. A good leader is always looking for methods to get better production and standards. Here are six management skills you can develop as a leader in working to create a value efficient team.1. ObservationThis is a significant part that frequently gets uncared for due to the demands on a leader's period and programme. Observation and habitual visits to the work surroundings are a main concern and have to be programmed into the agenda. Observing employees at work, the actions, dealings and work flow is the initial step to implementing adjustments to get better results. To have trustworthiness, a leader wants to be seen and be recognized to be up to date with what is happening in the work place.2. Monitor Employee PerformanceEmployee performance should be checked in equally conventional ways. Policies and events need to be clear. Conferencing should be on a habitual basis and not just while there is a difficulty. Assessments and evaluations must not be simply all formality or sighted a essential paperwork to be completed and filed away. Individual and collection conferencing have to be undertaken not merely to check performance, but with the hope of in progress professional expansion and support. There should be regular support and clear criteria for in progress goals together for the group and person.3. Implementation of Professional Development ProgramsA good leader evaluates weaknesses and provides guidance and growth strategies to build up the weaker skills in the team.4. Demonstrates Working Knowledge and ExpertiseGood leadership comes from a place of strong information and knowledge of the making and procedure leading to results. If a head does not acquire all the skill and information individually, then usual consultations with experts concerned in the departments should be controlled. This is significant in order to keep up a precise and up to date overall image.5. Good Decision MakingGood leadership is categorized by the capability to create good quality decisions. A leader considers all the unlike factors previous to building a verdict. Clear definite decisions, mutual with the enthusiasm and flexibility to get used to and regulate decisions when necessary, create assurance in the management.6. Ability to Conduct and Evaluate ResearchOngoing review and investigation is very important in order to keep on the critical edge in big business. While managing the present to make sure in progress distinction in product and show, a good leader is also able to gaze in the direction of the future. Conducting and evaluating follow a line of investigation is a significant way of developing and being ready for the future.There are mainly three types of managers in any organization. They are:1.) Top-level Managers:They are in charge for the major performance of the company. They set up plans and goals for the company. "Chief executive officer", "Chairman", "President", "Vice-President", "Directors" are include in top level managers.2.) Middle Level Managers:They are directly meticulous for supervising the performance of primary level managers. They are in charge for the effective efficiency of different departments in the organization. They hold designations such as "Department Heads", "Project Leaders", "Plant Managers", "Divisional Head" etc.3.) First Level Managers:They are in charge to supervise the performance of non-managerial employees. They have specified different titles like "Foreman", "Clerical Supervisor", "Technical Supervisor" etc.With all the pains those who are managed, the collection, put forward in a noble and frequently last effort to save a once positive job surroundings, at the centre of each and every toxic running surroundings is the poisonous boss, manager or supervisor that breeds it. All roads go back to the manager. And if the manager is not keen to modify, then it is a safe and sound bet that nothing will.That is why to force long lasting transformation; managers need to improve their method and approach to managing their individuals.There are also seven types of managers.1. The Problem-Solving ManagerThis type of manger is task-driven and determined on attaining goals. These trouble solvers are regularly putting out fires and show the way by chaos. The inconsistency here is this: It is frequently the manager who creates the very troubles and situations that they work so solid to stay away from. Continually providing solutions often grade in the dreary performance that they are functioning so conscientiously to eradicate.#p#分页标题#e#2. The Pitchfork ManagerPeople who deal with by a pitchfork are undertaken so with a serious and often controlling hand: demanding growth, forcing accountability, poking and forcing for results through the use of results, threats, shortage, and fear strategy. This style of tough, merciless management is sore for people who are placed in a situation where they are pushed to keep away from consequences rather than pulled towards a required aim.3. The Pontificating ManagerThese managers will voluntarily confess they do not go after any particular category of management plan. As an alternative, they shoot from the hip, making it up as they go all along frequently creating sporadic, conflicting results. As an effect, they frequently find themselves in circumstances that they are not ready for. Interestingly, The Pontificating Manager flourishes on situations like this. Frequently adrenaline junkies themselves, these managers are in frantic need of developing the second main important ability of a coach: masterful listening. The Pontificating Manager is the kind of manager who can speak to anyone and at once make individuals feel comfortable. This character strength becomes a support to their leadership style; frequently blinding them to the requirement of further systemize their approach. As a matter of fact, the lone thing constant about these managers is their changeability.4. The Presumptuous ManagerPresumptuous Managers focus more on themselves than no matter which else. To them, their individual production, credit, sales quotas and bonuses obtain precedence over their people and the importance they are in charge for constructing within each person on their team. Presumptuous Managers frequently put their private wants and objectives above the requirements of their team. As you can visualize, Presumptuous Managers experience more abrasion, revenue, and problems relating to supervising a group than any other kind of manager. Presumptuous Managers are classically firm and confident individuals. However, they are normally determined by their self-image to look superior and do better than the rest of the team. Presumptuous Managers breed injurious rivalry rather than an environment of association.5. The Perfect ManagerPerfect Managers possess some magnificent qualities. These managers are open to modification, improvement, guidance, and individual growth with the fundamental obligation to repeatedly get better and evolve as sales managers, almost to an error. This magnificent trait often becomes their weakness. In their hunt for the most recent and supreme approach, like Pontificating Managers, Perfect Managers by no means find to experience the profit of uniformity. This manager is a speaking spec sheet. Their importance on acquiring more facts, info, features, and profits has overshadowed the capability of Perfect Managers to be familiar with the vital need for soft skills guidance around the areas of presenting, listening, inquiring, prospecting, and the significance of following a planned, strategic selling system. Perfect Managers depend on their huge amount of product knowledge and experience when supervising and developing their salespeople. Because of this huge difference, these manager frequently fall short on developing their interpersonal skills that would make them more human than machine.6. The Passive ManagerAlso called to as Parenting Managers or Pleasing Managers, Passive Managers take the idea of developing close associations with their team and co-workers to a new stage. These managers have one final goal: to make individuals pleased. While this is surely a very good trait, it can rapidly become a fence to leadership efforts if not managed efficiently. Although wholesome and delightful, this type of manager is seen as useless, inconsistent and clueless often missing the high opinion they need from their employees in order to efficiently build a championship team. You can spot a Passive Manager by looking at their squad and the quantity of people who must have been dismissed long ago. Because all Passive Managers would like to do is please, they are more nervous and passive in their approach. These managers will do everything to keep away from disagreement and fall down holding people answerable with argument and disagreement.7. The Proactive ManagerThe Proactive Manager covers all of the excellent qualities that the other types of managers acquire, yet lacking all of their pitfalls. Here are the descriptions that this ideal manager embodies, as well as the ones for you to be careful of and expand yourself. The ProactiveManager possesses the:Perseverance, edge, and valid authenticity of the Pitchfork Manager.Self-confidence of the Presumptuous Manager.Eagerness, passion, charisma, and occurrence of the Pontificating Manager.Inspire to help others and spearhead solutions like the Problem-Solving Manager.Wish to serve, respectfulness, understanding, nurturing capability, and kindness of the Passive Manager.Product and business knowledge, sales sharpness, effectiveness, spotlight, association, and obsession for continuous enlargement just like the Perfect Manager.The Proactive Manager is the vital manager and trainer, and a memorial to the extra skills and training competencies that every manager wants to develop in charge to construct a world class team.PERSONAL SKILLS AUDITA personal skills audit is a reconsider of your existing skills against the skills you require both at the present and in the future. It can assist you to recognize your existing skills, recognize what skills you may require to take out your existing voluntary work and role more efficiently and to prepare, build up and get better the skills and data required for your future career.Carrying out a personal skills audit is a five stage process.Stage 1 – Existing Skills and Knowledge IdentificationFirst you put in writing, as a bullet point catalogue, the understanding and skills which you believe to be significant for your present voluntary work. You may find it helpful to refer to the segment 'How are skills discovered' to do this and to refer to your 'job description' (if there is one for your voluntary job) and to information within the University's Careers facility.Stage 2 – Future Skills and Knowledge IdentificationNext write down as a bullet point catalogue, the acquaintance and skills which you think to be significant for your upcoming career.Each list should contain approximately between ten to fifteen bullet points.Stage 3 – Rating Your AbilityOnce you have formed your lists you require to grade your present skills against each one. This may be done via a 3 point ranking of strong, weak and somewhere in the middle of, or you may find it further useful to use a five point scale such as the one beneath.No up to date information or skill (no current capability),Some knowledge but not adequately capable to use it,Well-known with and capable to use the knowledge or proficiency (some competency),Proficient in the understanding or skill and capable to show others how to use it (high stage of competency),Professional with a high amount of talent and/or complete knowledge (fully experienced).Stage 4 – Review Your Ability RatingsNext ask a pal or your superintendent, or instructor to re-examine your list and give you comment. Try to make sure that you want somebody who is sincere and not fearful to tell you the fact. There is no use in asking a good or close friend if they are reluctant to be truthful for fright that they may wound your feelings by telling you that you are perhaps not as fine at something as you believe you are.Stage 5 – Your Future DevelopmentThe final phase is basically that of using the information to give attention to on developing the skill and information areas everywhere you have a small score or have recognized that you are not completely knowledgeable.A more superior way of carrying out a skills audit is to create three bullet point lists:Behavioural skillsThese are the transferable personal and interpersonal skills which are necessary for almost every career. These are typically the skills of:Communication, working with and relating to others, problem solving, communication skills, ITC skills, mathematical skills, self management and development, time management, managing tasks, time management, communicating clearly and effectively, applying initiative.Technical knowledge and skillsThese are those which are precise to the specific scientific/professional area(s) in which you are employed. For example: if you are undertaking voluntary work in a school then there may be exact knowledge you may require in order to work with children, or, if you identify that your selected profession will be as a counsellor then you will recognize that you require to expand specific counselling skills.Other knowledge and skills#p#分页标题#e#These are those which do not become visible on either of the last two lists. They may link particularly to the region that you do your voluntary job in and may consist of specific methods and measures you use or may relay to the spot that you occupy and role you carry out.