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By August 15, 2022essay代写




In-text referencing is when you acknowledge – within the text you are writing – the source of an idea, concept, information or a quote you use in your paper. It is an important academic discipline for three main reasons: Firstly, it enables the marker to verify your claims as to the relevance of the article/source to the question that has been asked. Secondly, it enables the student to effectively allocate their word count to the issues required, and any related but not specifically required issues can be alluded to effectively. Thirdly, it enables the student to avoid charges of plagiarism – a situation whereby students attempt to claim ownership of work that was written by another person.鉴于这些原因,所有的学生需要提供参考信息和其他作家的想法当他们在他们的工作中使用。引用或引用也被称为,是很重要的,不管原来的材料从哪里来——书籍、期刊、会议论文、报纸、电子资源等。你可以直接(引用)或通过使用作者的概念用你自己的话(意译)——注:套用总是更好的选择。Given these reasons, all students need to provide references to the information and ideas of other writers when they are use in their work. Referencing, or citation as it is also called, is important no matter where the original material came from – books, periodicals, conference papers, newspapers, electronic sources etc. You can do this directly (by quoting) or by using the author’s concepts in your own words (paraphrasing) – NB: paraphrasing is always the preferred option.The following situations show you what procedure to apply.SituationIn-text referenceAuthor and dateThe basic in-text reference using the author–date system consists of the last name of the authors and the year of publication of the work, in parentheses.The initials of the author do not appear in the in-text citation, only in the reference list.(Hecker, 1999)(Wickham & Hall, 2006)(Hanson, Grimmer & Jones, 2008)Where the reference is included at the end of a sentence the full stop goes after the reference, not before.There is consistent evidence that transformational leaders achieve better results (Dixon, 2004).If reference is made to a direct quotation from the source, indicate the page number.(Faifua, 2005: 12)If the reference or quotation extends over more than one page give the span of page numbers.(Tonks, 2003: 12–13)Two or more references given together inside parentheses must be presented in alphabetical order and separated by semicolons.There is consistent evidence that transformational leaders achieve better results (Byrom, 2006; Crispin, 2001; Hall, 2007; O’Donohue, 2000).For up to three authors, include all names for each citation.(Vengesayi, Reiser & Martin, 2002)For a source with four or five authors, include all names for the first citation, and then only the name of the first author followed by et al., for each subsequent citation.In their study, Liang, Adams, Fishwick and Lehman (2004) suggest…Liang et al., (2004) also state that…………For six authors or more, only the name of the first author followed by ‘et al.,’ is required.Tonks et al., (2000) notes that…If the name of the author appears as part of the sentence in your assignment, give only the year of publication in parentheses. Also, if there is more than one author, an ‘and’ must be used. The ‘&’ symbol is only used inside parentheses.Hess (1993) has compared…In a recent paper, Lehman and Byrom (2005) stated that …When there are several works published in the same year by the same author, they should be distinguished by using lower case letters attached to the publication date.The same letters should be applied to the corresponding sources in the reference list.(Dunn, 2001a, 2001b)(Dunn, 2001b)For personal communications/interviews, use the standard ‘surname and year’ format.(Brook, 2008)Where there is no publication date that can be reliably established, use n.d.(Grimmer, n.d.)Grimmer (n.d) argues that ancient history is important because…For web-site references, you should use the author surname and year the page was established where possible. If the author name is unknown, use a name you feel represents the publisher of the website. Where you use a number of pages from the same website, they should be distinguished by using lower case letters attached to the publication date. For each of the web page references, include details of the web page’s address and the date you viewed it in your reference list section.As a general guide, if no official or relevant sponsor’s name can be found on the website, reconsider citing it as it may not be a reliable source for an academic piece of work.(Fishwick, 2005)(University of Tasmania Website, 2005)(University of Tasmania Website, 2005a, 2005c, 2005e)Different source typesIf the work cited is by an association, corporation, government department etc. and bears no specific author’s name on the title page, cite the name of the organisation.Well-known acronyms or abbreviations may be used in textual references, but full details should be provided in the reference list:CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation).(Department of Health and Aged Care, 1998)(CSIRO, 1986)Government reports often have lengthy titles. A short title for reports of commissions of inquiry etc. may be used providing that the list of references contains a clear reference to the official title.The Commission of Inquiry into Poverty for example, is better known by the name of its chairman, Professor Henderson and may be cited in the text of your work.(The Henderson Report, 1975)For a newspaper article, when the author is evident, use the standard form.Smith (1999)(The Canberra Times, 2007)For a CD-ROM, the in-text reference consists of the title in italics and the year of the CD-ROM.(Pest Control in New South Wales, 2004)For films, videos and television and radio productions provide the title and year of production.Four Corners (2003)References to Australian state and Commonwealth legislation must include the jurisdiction and date. All elements of titles should be italicised. The jurisdiction should be abbreviated and given in roman type, in parentheses and immediately following the title and year. Note that no comma is used before the year.Noxious Weeds Act 1993 (NSW)Social Security Legislation Amendment Act (No. 3) 1992 (Cwlth)Direct quotationsIn addition to providing identification of your source by including author, date and page number, you must indicate that the words used are those of the author. This is done by placing direct quotations in quotation marks. It is important that you quote the author exactly.Long quotations – usually greater than fifty words should be separated from the paragraph and indented. In this case they do not have quotation marks.NB: You should also use quotation marks and indicate the page number if you closely paraphrase someone else’s writing.Dyster (2007:126) suggests that changes in the world economy brought into focus ‘how adaptable the Australian economy could be’.Woods and Hall stated in their seminal work on networks that:…the learning that occurred in the network arrangement was characterised by ongoing dialogue (2007: 12)If you use material from a source that you have not read, but which is cited in another paper that you have read, you must indicate this.Crisp (1984) cited in Carter (1990: 62) states that………Similarly, if you copy or adapt statistics, figures or tables from another source, you must acknowledge the original source after the figure or table and the title. The full details should be provided in the reference list.Source: Lawrence, 2007.Figures compiled using statistics from the ABS (2006, 2007a, 2007b).Source: Commonwealth of Australia, 2002.THE REFERENCE LISTAt the end of your assignments you must list the references you have used/cited in your work (unless the instructions for a particular assignment indicate that a reference list is not required). NB – You should only include those references actually cited in your assignment in your reference list.Books, pamphlets, brochures etc.When citing a book in a list of references, include the details listed below. The form of punctuation to use between each detail is shown in the example that follows.• Author’s surname, all initial(s) (NB – you must not use ‘et al.,’ in your reference list)• Year of publication• Title of the book and its edition (if it is not the first edition – and presented in ‘sentence case’)• Name of series if book is part of a series• Place of publication (suburb, city or state as provided): PublisherThe complete reference will appear as:Whelan, T.M. & Kelly, S.P. 2007. A hard act to follow: Being a step-parent in Australia today, Melbourne: Penguin.Articles in periodicals (journals/serials/magazines)The items of information needed to identify the source are:• Author’s surname and initial(s)• Date of publication• Title of the Article• Name of the Periodical (presented in ‘title case’)• Volume (Issue number): Page number(s)The complete reference will appear as:Baylen, J.O. 2004. The new journalism in late Victorian Britain. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 18 (2): 367–385.Knight, R.A. & Hatty, S.E. 2000. Theoretical and methodological perspectives on domestic violence: implications for social action. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 22 (3): 452–464.Journals that are published (or available) online are cited in exactly the same manner as above, as long as the information required is available – if the required information is not available, please refer to the ‘electronic or non-print sources’ section below for advice. Where a journal is published online and has no specific page numbers to refer to, students may assume that the first page of the document is “page 1” and reference accordingly.Newspaper articleIf the article has an obvious author, cite as for journals:McGinness, J. 1987. The grand project to give Australia a birthday party. The Mercury, 1 Feb: 9−10.The Mercury. 2008. Olympic Gold, 17 August: 13−15.Article or chapter in an edited bookDixon, J. 2001. The age pension: developments from 1890 to 1978. In Howe, A.L. (ed.). Towards an older Australia: readings in social gerontology, St Lucia: University of Queensland.Electronic or non-print sourcesReferencing of electronic sources is probably best shown by examples.Example of a website:Australian Public Service Commission Web site. 2005. Home page. Australian Public Service Commission. Canberra. Viewed 23 March 2007.Example of a document within a website:Federal–State Relations Committee (FSRC). 1998. Report summary. Viewed 23 March 2007.Example of a media release:Howard, J. (Prime Minister of Australia). 1999. National approach to problem gambling.Personal communicationsExample:Smith, J.D. (Director General of GlobalCorp Ltd.) 2009a. Personal Communication. May 16.Smith, J.D. (Director General of GlobalCorp Ltd.) 2009b. Personal Communication. June 25.Order of the ‘List of References’Arrange entries in alphabetical order by surname of the author or organisation. All sources are listed in one alphabetical sequence. That is, do not have a separate list for books, journal articles and Internet references


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