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2022定制作文指导essay

By August 16, 2022essay代写

2022定制作文指导essay

2022定制作文指导essay

物业租赁市场行为与会计准则综述Summary of behaviors and accounting principles in the property leasing markets本研究的目的是突出和研究现行会计原则的一些缺点或缺陷。在这份报告中2个方面,可以影响资产负债表,并可能提供夸大或超过规定的盈利价值。本报告中讨论包括两个主题;Table of Contents1Introduction2Literature Review2.1Paper 12.1.1Title2.1.2Aim2.1.3Methodology2.1.4Results2.2Paper 22.2.1Title2.2.2Aim2.2.3Methodology2.2.4Results2.3Paper 32.3.1Title2.3.2Aim2.3.3Methodology2.3.4Results3Conclusion4References1 Introduction 简介The purpose of this study is to highlight and examine some shortcomings or flaws of the prevailing accounting principles. In this report 2 areas that can impact the balance sheet and may offer an exaggerated or over stated value of the earnings. The two topics that are discussed in this report include;Accounting for diluted EPSAccounting for leasingBoth topics are important and relevant to shareholders. The importance of diluted earnings per share and how employee stock options and the prevailing treasury method to calculate the consequences of dilutive outstanding options systematically belittles and devalues the dilutive effect of stock options, and by this means exaggerates or increases the worth of the reported EPSDiluted earnings per share (diluted EPS) is basically a calculation of company earnings based on the all shares of a public company when considering that all the securities (bank notes, futures options and all convertible assets) were renewed into company shares and floated as outstanding. Diluted EPS is important for shareholders because this would give them the worst case scenario about the earning made per share.In leasing arrangements, the financing is done using off-balance sheet financing principles, therefore leasing transactions do not give a full picture of the business story hence they increase the risk factor. The flaws of lease account can even hamper the company in the long run though they offer a much rosy picture in the short run. The flaws of lease accounting also keep the shareholders in the dark.To study these two domains, three research papers were studied, these included;2 Literature Review 文献综述2.1 Paper 12.1.1 AimThe purpose of the paper is to calculate the Diluted Earnings per share using treasury stock method. This paper explores and checks whether including unrecognized employee compensation in proceeds from the assumed exercise of employee stock options under the treasury stock method is appropriate.The pair also aims to show that both FASB and IFRS follow the same accounting principles for the calculation of diluted EPS.Another objective of the paper is to elucidate that when treasury stock method are included in the employee stock options, factors like unrecognized future compensation of employees is also considered that impacts and the diluted EPS calculation.2.1.2 MethodologyA simple multi-period model (4 years period is taken for the study) is developed using some assumptions that include;There is no riskThere are no dividendThere are no taxesThe rate of return is constant and risk free at 10%For stock based compensation, accrual basis amounts are consideredThe book value of the firm is 22 millionThere are 10 million outstand sharesMarket value is $ 22Each year one million is handed out as compensationCash PaymentsDebt IssueStock TransferStock Option GrantsIf all options hold economic equivalence, then the exact value of EPS is acknowledged. It is also suggested to regularly monitor the EPS despite which ever method of employee compensation was used.Basically, the Earning Per Share (EPS) is estimated through three different scenarios:Cash CompensationDebt Issuance CompensationStock Transfer ScenariosWe can see that the EPS under various scenarios are almost same for each option available. This is an indication that GAAP is suitable and appropriate for accounting of cash, compensation, debt compensation and stock transfer compensation.2.1.3 ResultsThe model calculates EPS using three alternate options;Cash CompensationDebt Issuance CompensationStock Issuance CompensationThe results indicate that if all the assumptions of the multi-period model are true and followed, the study discovers that all three substitute options available that includes the option of cash imbursement versus debt issuance versus common stock transfer versus stock option compensation circumstances and consequences have an equal or same EPS valueThe study also recommends that just if the employee stock options are being considered, diluted EPS should be calculated considering the following;1) Employee compensation is appropriately treated as an annuity – incurred periodically over time,2) Shares purchased for the treasury are assumed acquired at the higher year-end price, and3) The proceeds from assumed stock option exercise should not include unrecognized compensation.2.2 Paper 22.2.1 Title2.2.2 AimThe use of employee stock options has increased over the years by companies and statistics indicate that from within 10 years the number of employee stocks has doubled. In the case selected also, within 3 years the value of outstanding shares increased from 5.3% to 6.1%. The increase in the outstanding shares is directly related to the denominator of EPS ( EPS = Earnings) and regulators need to be considered as diluted stock impact the corporate performance.The main objective of this paper is to show with empirical evidence that the prevailing method that is FASB treasury-stock method of accounting to calculate the consequences of dilutive outstanding options systematically belittles and devalues the dilutive effect of stock options, and by this means exaggerates or increases the worth of the reported EPS.2.2.3 MethodologyThe study uses not only theoretical modelling but also empirical evidences. The data used in the paper was collected from four different sources;The largest set of data available was from the first option of 1059 businesses. If any of the information about these businesses was missing from K-10 reports, CRSP data or Compusat data, the firm was dropped out of the final sample. Extreme cases that accounted for 1% of the remainder were also excluded out of the sample.The final sample on which the conceptual model was tested empirically included consists of 731 firms and 1,787 firm-years of observations for fiscal years 1995 to 1997The study covers the following tests for the collected data to reach a conclusionThe hypothesis for the study was: “Understated stock option dilution in FASB-diluted EPS downwardly biases estimates of the stock-return response to FASB-diluted EPS changes “2.2.4 ResultsThe study concludes that the economic dilution from options in our proposed measure of options-diluted EPS is, on average, 100% greater than dilution in reported diluted EPS using the FASB treasury-stock method.The study examine the implications of our analysis for stock price valuation, the price-earnings relation, and the return-earnings relation. The study also demonstrate analytically that when firms have options outstanding, empirical applications of equity valuation models that use reported per share earnings as an input, yield upwardly 731ed estimates of the market value of common stock.The results of the study were mixed results.Another support in favor of the hypothesis was found when the researchers rank firms on option intensity, but the hypothesis was not endorsed when the researchers rank on other substitutes for determinants of the ERC2.3 Paper 32.3.1 Title2.3.2 AimThe purpose of this study is to express an opinion regarding the need for proposed changes in the accounting for leases. The study offers a summary of behaviors and accounting principles in the property leasing markets.The paper highlights the short comings of the principles of accounting when it comes to leasing, the author asserts that these shortcomings or flaws in the procedure to document leasing transactions do not give a full picture of the business story hence they increase the risk factor. The flaws of lease account can even hamper the company in the long run though they offer a much rosy picture in the short run. The flaws of lease accounting also keep the shareholders in the dark.#p#分页标题#e#In short, the author is building a case for the need of change in accounting practices related to lease accounting by highlighting the prevailing flaws and shortcoming.2.3.3 MethodologyIn this paper the author is building a business case for changes needed in the leasing accounting. The author shares cases from the laws in literatures in defining terminology and also practical business cases. The methodology used is grounded theory. Various principles of accounting that usually are considered a benefit for leasing like off balance sheet accounting, flexibility of asset base, conservation of capital, continuity and others are in actuality a flaw in the long run. If by leasing one can avoid recording and reporting of assets or liabilities, what effect would they have to be reported in the financial reports.The author questions, challenges and asserts the most arbitrary treatment of leases and suggest that the way leasing is recorded and reported in financial documents is unsatisfactory but dealing with the shortcomings has proven awkward to the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).2.3.4 ResultsThe author has referred to several prominent scholars who have analyzed the leasing mechanism in details and has highlighted the fact that businesses prefer to lease assets rather than owning them because of the off balance sheet financing option and other benefits of the leasing over financing.The author asserts strong opposition that lease accounting is not in line with the principles of accounting He stresses that the main objective of financial accounting is full disclosure or presentation of a clear and accurate picture of the trading and financial conditions of a business.When leasing, the assets or liabilities are not recorded hence they are missing from the book, if in any puzzle or picture, the major parts are absent. How can one get a clear picture? Understanding of leasing and also the nature of assets and liabilities is complex and markets do struggle in understanding them in totality.The major difference in leasing and ownership accounting is that, in a leasing transaction, the capability to utilize an asset and benefit from it is secluded from the ownership of the asset. The problem with lease is that its fails to fall in both categories of either an asset or a lease. A leased asset is not considered an asset and any borrowing against it is also not considered as liability. This impacts the true and accurate picture and as a result of leasing, the shareholders would remain in dark.3 Conclusion 结论This assignment has conversed upon 2 gray areas or not so clear domains of accounting. The first one is the employee stock option and accounting for diluted earnings per share and the other one principles of lease accounting. Both of these topics are important domains of accounting and are very important for shareholders. The shareholders must have a full, holistic and accurate picture of company’s financial health and to get a complete picture, the shareholders must know about the diluted share earnings per share and also the leased assets or liabilities.The importance of diluted earnings per share and how employee stock options and the prevailing treasury method to calculate the consequences of dilutive outstanding options systematically belittles and devalues the dilutive effect of stock options, and by this means exaggerates or increases the worth of the reported EPSDiluted earnings per share (diluted EPS) is basically a calculation of company earnings based on the all shares of a public company when considering that all the securities (bank notes, futures options and all convertible assets) were renewed into company shares and floated as outstanding. Diluted EPS is important for shareholders because this would give them the worst case scenario about the earning made per share.In leasing arrangements, the financing is done using off-balance sheet financing principles, therefore leasing transactions do not give a full picture of the business story hence they increase the risk factor. The flaws of lease account can even hamper the company in the long run though they offer a much rosy picture in the short run. The flaws of lease accounting also keep the shareholders in the dark.

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