2022找代写心理学Essay要求：How Accurate is the Phrase ‘Laughter is the Best Medicine
本文是心理学专业的Essay范例，题目是“How Accurate is the Phrase 'Laughter is the Best Medicine（“笑是最好的药”这句话有多准确?）”，很多人相信笑是最好的良药。这句话的意思是，通过参加幽默活动和制造笑声，我们对我们的健康有益。这个想法似乎是有道理的，因为一个被认为喜欢幽默和表达笑声的人似乎散发着正能量。
It is a very popular belief that laughter is the best medicine. What is meant by this is that by engaging in humorous activities and producing laughter, we are benefitting our health. This idea appears to be rationale, as one who is seen to enjoy humour and express laughter seems to radiate a positive energy.
We shall first explore the roots of humour and its importance to human life, leading on to its impact on benefitting our health, examining the age differences, investigating any gender differences, its significance to romantic relationships, and its influence in the workplace.
Humour has become an integral part of everyday life and we can evidently see this from the very beginning of our lives, as one of the first responses produced by infants is laughter (McGhee, 1979). It is claimed that both humour and laughter is part of natural selection which has a long history in evolution and even predates language, yet the advancement of intellect in humans has allowed us to adapt humour into a form of universal communication, which also serves as an important social function that may have contributed to our species survival (Gervais et al, 2005). This assertion seems to be accurate as humour is a universal human trait (Lefcourt, 2001), and is even found in other primates, such as apes (van Hooff et al, 2003). The importance of humour to us is vast as even children who are deaf or blind also express laughter (Provine, 2000). It is evident that humour has indeed evolved and integrated into a significant feature for humans; Today humour is found in many forms of media worldwide, including radio, television, film, advertisement, books and even politics (Martin, 2007). Humour is a broad term which doesn’t have a universally agreed scientific definition, but most definitions determine it as a form of amusement in a social context which emits an emotional response following the expression of laughter (Martin, 2007). A definition for a sense of humour is even more vague than humour itself as it can incorporate many different aspects, yet what it will mainly include is the ability to actively appreciate and express humour in a variety of ways and contexts, and for several varying reasons (Eysenck, 1972; Martin, 2003). For the past century to the present day, a sense of humour has become a very desirable characteristic, so much so that to brand someone as lacking a sense of humour is seen as an insult (Wickberg, 1998). Clearly this notion applies as 94% of men rate their sense of humour as average or above average, even though statistically half the population are below and the other half are above average (Lefcourt & Martin, 1986). Nonetheless the reasoning for why men rate their humour highly seems to be rational as women rate a sense of humour as the most desirable trait in a potential romantic partner (Provine, 2000). Interestingly when attributing a hypothetically person with other characteristics, if the person supposedly has a good sense of humour then positive traits are attributed, like friendly, smart and creative, yet if the person supposedly has a bad sense of humour then negative traits are linked, such as cold, nasty and passive (Cann & Calhoun, 2001). We can see that people want to be acknowledged as a humorous person because it is a vastly desirable trait, but also because it is attached with other highly positive characteristic as well.
Before the nineteenth century laughter and humour were seen as something negative, and was used for aggressive mockery (Koestler, 1964). Humour was used as a tool for debate to ‘ridicule’ the opposition, which is the basis of what is known as the superiority theory. This theory is the oldest explanation for humour discussed by philosophers Plato, Aristotle and Hobbes which suggests that humour is used in an aggressive-playful manner in order to assert one’s superior status (Leacock, 1935; Rapp, 1951). Later the term ‘humour’ had become known as the object that initiated laughter and by the nineteenth century humour was seen as a form of amusement and a highly desirable social trait (Wickberg, 1998). In the early-nineteenth century there were two forms of mirth; humour and wit. Humour was seen as a positive and desirable source of laughter; however wit was a more intellectual and sarcastic yet negative. Freud (1960) stated that humour can induce positive psychological health whereas wit can result in negative feeling. In modern day wit is seen as a form of humour and although may contain some aggression is seen as a sympathetic component of laughter, and humour as a whole is highly encouraged (Wickberg, 1998).
在19世纪之前，笑和幽默被视为消极的东西，并被用于攻击性的嘲笑(Koestler, 1964)。在辩论中，幽默被用来“嘲笑”对手，这就是所谓的“优越性理论”的基础。这一理论是哲学家柏拉图、亚里士多德和霍布斯讨论过的对幽默最古老的解释，认为幽默被用于一种具有攻击性的、好玩的方式，以维护一个人的优越地位(Leacock, 1935;拉普,1951)。后来，“幽默”这个词被认为是引发笑声的对象，到了19世纪，幽默被视为一种娱乐形式和一种非常可取的社会特征(Wickberg, 1998)。在19世纪早期，有两种欢笑形式;幽默和智慧。幽默被视为一种积极的、令人满意的笑声来源;然而，机智则是一种更理智、更讽刺、更消极的东西。弗洛伊德(1960)认为幽默可以诱发积极的心理健康，而机智则会导致消极的情绪。在现代，机智被视为幽默的一种形式，虽然可能包含一些攻击性，但被视为笑声中的同情成分，幽默作为一个整体是受到高度鼓励的(Wickberg, 1998)。
Humour and health幽默和健康
The term humour itself comes from the Latin word ‘humorem’, which in translation means ‘fluid’. This may have come about due to the Greek philosopher Hippocrates, whom believed that for people to have good health a balance of the four fluids found in the human body was essential (Thorne & Henley, 2005). The fluids he was referring to were blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile. Later, Roman philosopher Galen had extended this belief and stated that these liquids also have a psychological quality to them, as an imbalance or excess from one of these fluids can expose a certain characteristic within somebody. It is no secret that humour is believed to have positive effects on health, and this very idea traces back to biblical times (Martin, 2002). The notion that humour and laughter can be beneficial to us has been accepted by many famous psychologists as they believe that individuals who use humour in a positive and philosophical way are well-adjusted people (Maslow, 1954; Allport, 1961). Freud (1928) even referred to humour as the highest defence mechanism used by the ego. On the contrary Vasey (1877) had suggested that laughter is actually harmful to the human body, yet no empirical evidence is found to support this claim. Stories of the miraculous healing power of humour have been around for centuries. Cousins (1976), a famous magazine editor, allegedly recovered from a disease, which medical experts suggest had an extremely low recovery chance, via daily use of laughter. In this case however it is unknown as to whether it was actually the use of humour which had cured the illness, as it may have been due to misdiagnosis, high doses of vitamin C (which Cousins was taking along with the humorous activities), or simply the will to live. Cousins (1985) later dismissed the role of humour in his recovery and suggest that it was his will to survive which helped him recover. Nonetheless stories like this have spurred the belief of the healing qualities of humour worldwide, as now humour is believed to allegedly have positive and protective effects for a number of conditions ranging from headaches and flu viruses to heart attacks and AIDS (McGhee, 1999; Uchino et al, 2000). Nowadays mental health professionals, cancer patients, emergency responders, and even survivors of traumatic disasters are recommended humour techniques to deal with their experiences (Mesmer, 2001; Broeckel, 2000; Scott, 2007; Ritz, 2001). Henman (2001) even suggested that individuals in extreme hardship, such as those in prisoner-of-war camps, are believed to use humour to cope with their situation. Evidently we can see the vast amount of areas humour can benefit. Research has suggested that humour has also been found to have the power to change an unexciting task into a more interesting activity (Dienstbier, 1995), shift a conversation away from an uncomfortable topic (Norrick, 1993), and even affect one’s outlook on life as it enhances feelings of hopefulness (Vilaythong et al, 2003).
“幽默”这个词本身来自拉丁语“humorem”，翻译过来就是“流动的”。这可能源于希腊哲学家希波克拉底(Hippocrates)，他认为人体中四种体液的平衡是保持健康的关键(Thorne & Henley, 2005)。他指的液体是血、痰、黑胆汁和黄胆汁。后来，罗马哲学家盖伦扩展了这一观点，并指出这些液体也有一种心理特性，因为这些液体中的一种不平衡或过量会暴露一个人的某种特性。众所周知，幽默被认为对健康有积极的影响，这一想法可以追溯到《圣经》时代(Martin, 2002)。幽默和笑声对我们有益的概念已经被许多著名的心理学家所接受，因为他们认为，以积极和哲学的方式使用幽默的人是适应能力很强的人(马斯洛，1954;阿氏,1961)。弗洛伊德(1928)甚至把幽默称为自我使用的最高防御机制。与此相反，维西(1877)曾提出笑实际上对人体有害，但没有证据支持这一说法。关于幽默神奇的治愈力量的故事已经流传了几个世纪。著名杂志编辑考辛斯(1976年)据说是通过每天笑从一种医学专家认为恢复几率极低的疾病中恢复的。然而，在这个案例中，究竟是幽默治愈了疾病，还是由于误诊、高剂量的维生素C(考辛斯在幽默活动中服用了维生素C)，或者仅仅是活下去的意愿，我们不得而知。考辛斯(1985)后来否认了幽默在他康复中的作用，并表示是他求生的意志帮助他康复的。尽管如此，像这样的故事已经促使人们相信幽默在世界范围内具有治疗效果，因为现在人们相信，幽默据说对一些疾病有积极和保护作用，从头痛、流感病毒到心脏病和艾滋病(McGhee, 1999;Uchino等人，2000)。如今，心理健康专家、癌症患者、急救人员甚至创伤性灾难的幸存者都被推荐使用幽默技巧来应对他们的经历(Mesmer, 2001;Broeckel, 2000;斯科特,2007;丽兹,2001)。Henman(2001)甚至认为，处于极端困境中的人，比如那些在战俘营中的人，被认为会用幽默来应对他们的处境。显然，我们可以看到幽默可以在很多方面受益。研究表明,幽默也被发现有能力去改变一个单调乏味的任务到一个更有趣的活动(Dienstbier, 1995),转变谈话从一个不舒服的话题(Norrick, 1993),甚至影响一个人的人生观,因为它增强了抱有希望的感觉(Vilaythong等,2003)。
Examining research on the benefits of humour on physical health is too wide of a scope for this study. For psychologists what is important is how humour affects our psychological health. Many studies have found that humour is a contributor to positive psychological health (Gross & Muñoz, 1995; Szabo, 2003), and can reduce negative feelings (Moran, 1996). Although this may be due to the physiology taking place when laughing as some studies have found that laughter with the absence of humour also increases positive mood (Strack et al 1988; Neuhoff & Schaefer, 2002). However earlier studies like these have been looking at short-term improvements caused by humour, and have been conducted in laboratory settings , which predominantly only included canned jokes and cartoons, so neglected the spontaneous humour we encounter everyday (Martin, 2007). The problem with this is that it doesn’t convey what happens in the real world as accurately as non-laboratory studies, such as self-reported surveys, which are stated as a more valid approach than humour appreciation tests (Babad, 1974; Martin, 2007). These self-reported questionnaires measure the level of one’s sense of humour. It has been reported that a positive (or high) sense of humour is associated with higher self-esteem, overall psychological well-being, interpersonal ability, and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Whereas a negative (or low) sense of humour is associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety, and lower levels of self-esteem, psychological well-being and interpersonal competence (Kirsh & Kuiper, 2003). This notion is support as many studies measuring a self-reported sense of humour and well-being have found humour to have positive correlations with self-worth (Kuiper & Borowicz-Sibenik, 2005), self-esteem (Kuiper & Martin, 1993), morale (Simon, 1990) and personal achievement (Talbot & Lumden, 2000), and negative links with depression and other mood disturbances (Lefcourt et al, 1995; Kelly, 2002). Nonetheless not all studies have found positive associations between a sense of humour and health as some have failed to find a positive link with humour and optimistic feeling (Kuiper et al, 1992), and a negative correlation with anxiety (Nezu et al, 1988). Several studies have even conveyed that a high sense of humour is associated with unhealthy lifestyles such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and obesity (Cook et al, 1998; Patton et al, 1993; Haellstroem & Noppa, 1981).With the logic that a higher sense of humour score would mean better mental health, this would mean that scores between typical teenagers and psychiatric patient adolescents should be different. This however was not the case as studies by Gelkopf & Sigal (1995) and Freiheit et al (1998) found no difference in a measure of sense of humour between these two groups. Similar results were found with those who attempted to commit suicide (Corruble et al, 2004). Yet Kuiper et al (1998) reported a difference between patients suffering with schizophrenia and university students. These findings seem to suggest that a high sense of humour doesn’t necessarily defend one against mental disturbances. Kantor (1992) argued that those with a mental illness don’t essentially have a poor sense of humour but that their type of humour is rather dark and hostile, when compared to the general population.
These mixed findings may be due to the fact that most measures on psychological well-being load mainly on negative factors (DeNeve, 1999) and that most measures on humour ignore neurotic features, such as emotional stability (Köhler & Ruch, 1996). There have been many self-reported measures of humour, such as Svebak’s Sense of Humour Questionnaire (Svebak, 1974), The Situational Humour Response Questionnaire (Martin & Lefcourt, 1984), and The State-Trait Cheerfulness Inventory (Leventhal & Safer, 1977) yet these measures haven’t examined both positive and negative uses of humour. On the other hand The Humour styles Questionnaire (HSQ) does consider these aspects and distinguishes between them (Martin et al, 2003). The HSQ is a measure which sorts to distinguish between positive and negative expression of humour, and research with it has found that less use of negative humour links with positive psychological well-being (Martin et al, 2003). With the HSQ, high scores on negative humour are linked with high levels of depression and negative distress, whereas high scores on positive humour are linked with low levels of depression and negative distress, plus high levels of self-esteem and optimism (Kuiper et al, 2004). Saroglou & Scariot (2002) also found that the negative humour found in the HSQ is linked with low levels of motivation. Olson et al (2005) found that those who score high on the positive humour of the HSQ spend less time reminiscing about past depressing events and can even help them deal with these affairs.
这些复杂的发现可能是由于大多数心理健康负荷的测量主要是消极因素(DeNeve, 1999)和大多数幽默的测量忽略了神经质的特征，如情绪稳定性(Köhler & Ruch, 1996)。有许多自我报告的幽默测量方法，如斯维白克的幽默感问卷(斯维白克，1974年)，情景幽默反应问卷(马丁和莱夫考特，1984年)，以及状态-特质快乐量表(Leventhal & Safer, 1977年)，但这些方法并没有检查幽默的积极和消极用途。另一方面，幽默风格问卷(HSQ)确实考虑了这些方面，并将它们区分开来(Martin et al, 2003)。HSQ是一种区分积极和消极幽默表达的方法，相关研究发现，较少使用消极幽默与积极的心理健康有关(Martin et al, 2003)。在HSQ中，消极幽默得分高与高水平的抑郁和消极痛苦有关，而积极幽默得分高与低水平的抑郁和消极痛苦有关，以及高水平的自尊和乐观(Kuiper等人，2004年)。Saroglou和Scariot(2002)还发现，HSQ中的消极幽默与动机水平低有关。Olson等人(2005)发现，那些在HSQ中积极幽默得分高的人回忆过去令人沮丧的事件的时间更少，甚至可以帮助他们处理这些事情。
Humour and age幽默和年龄
Not many studies have examined humour and its relation to age; nonetheless some research has claimed that with age comes greater appreciation of humour (Schaier & Circirelli, 1976; Ruch et al, 1990). On the other hand, Mahoney et al (2002) reported that the younger population believe humour should be expressed actively and loudly, whereas the older population believe humour should be expressed gentler and less actively. This suggested a decreased interest in humour as one ages. Yet Thorson & Powell (1996) found no significant age differences with measures of a sense of humour, except that younger adults were more likely to use humour in an aggressive way. Even with these conflicting findings humour and age differences have not been a popular area of study in the past. Still some research regarding this topic can be found; Martin et al (2003) used the HSQ and reported that older adults are less likely to joke with and ridicule others than younger adults, but older women have a more humorous outlook on life than older men.
研究幽默及其与年龄的关系的研究并不多;尽管如此，一些研究表明，随着年龄的增长，人们对幽默的欣赏程度也会提高(Schaier & Circirelli, 1976;Ruch等人，1990年)。另一方面，Mahoney et al(2002)报道，年轻人认为幽默应该积极而大声地表达，而老年人认为幽默应该温和而不那么积极地表达。这表明随着年龄的增长，人们对幽默的兴趣会下降。然而，索森和鲍威尔(Thorson & Powell, 1996)发现，不同年龄的人在幽默感方面没有显著差异，除了年轻人更有可能以一种具有攻击性的方式使用幽默。尽管有这些相互矛盾的发现，幽默和年龄差异在过去并不是一个受欢迎的研究领域。仍然可以找到一些关于这个主题的研究;Martin et al(2003)使用HSQ，并报道老年人不太可能与年轻人开玩笑和嘲笑他人，但老年女性有一个更幽默的人生观比老年男性。
Humour and gender
With over 25 years of research support the idea, it is generally assumed that women lack a sense of humour, as men are more likely to joke, and women are more likely to laugh (Lampert & Ervin-Tripp, 2006). Yet to conclude from these findings would be biased as they tended to use jokes and cartoons (which are more male-orientated) to measure humour and so overlook every day spontaneous humour (Martin & Kuiper, 1999). Crawford & Gressley (1991) reported with the use of a questionnaire that men and women have more similarities in humour than differences. There were no differences in creating humour, laughter and appreciation of jokes, unlike the findings from earlier research. Some differences were that men tend to enjoy and create aggressive humour and canned jokes more, and women tend to report funny personal stories more. This was further supported by Hay (2000) who found that in a same-sex or mixed group of friends, women are 8 times more likely to share humorous memories, and that same-sex groups are more likely to engage in teasing, which is also more likely to occur with men. Martin & Kuiper (1999) conclude that there is no difference between the amount of laughter produced between men and women, which were on average 18 laughs per day. The only difference was that women are more likely to laugh at spontaneous humour more than men. Interestingly the differences found in humour between men and women can show the way that gender is articulated in general social settings (Crawford, 2003). This suggests that humour is a very important aspect in the way we express ourselves in society.
Humour and relationships幽默和关系
The differences in the way men and women express their humour and how significant this is to social order, leads us to another notable side of humour. Preliterate cultures show evidence for the use humour in order to keep social command, such as relationships between romantic partners, grandparents-grandchildren, and different tribe members (Radcliffe-Brown, 1952; Apte, 1985). For the past century a sense of humour has become a highly desirable human trait (Sprecher & Regan, 2002), valued as much as physical attraction (Eagly et al, 1991), and is often related with many other desirable traits, such as intelligence, extroversion, friendliness and emotional-stability (Cann & Calhoun, 2001). Evidence for this comes from studies which have reported that laughing at another’s joke not only suggests attraction but also enhances one’s own attractiveness (Grammer, 1990; Cann et al, 1997). So humour has become an important social trait, and with this we can say that it may well be particularly crucial for romantic relationships. Thus a study by Murstein & Brust (1985) found that romantic couples with a similar sense of humour are happier in their relationship, yet Priest and Thein (2003) found that this is not found in married couples. Nonetheless evidence has found that happily married couples attribute their satisfaction to their shared sense of humour (Ziv, 1988). More specifically those with high levels of positive and low levels of negative humour on the Humour Styles Questionnaire are associated with higher levels of closeness and satisfaction in their relationships (Martin, 2003). An explanation for why humour results in positive relationships comes from Cook & Rice (2003) as they report that perceiving a positive sense of humour in another person increases the perceived benefits of maintaining a relationship with them, and reduces the costs of the relationship. In spite of this Keltner et al (1998) found that couples who use positive humour are more likely to end their relationship quicker than those who use an aggressive style of humour. This unexpected finding may be because as discussed earlier, humour is an attractive characteristic so those who have positive humour find it easier to get another romantic partner, hence why they experience a break-up. Felmee (1995) suggested that although at first humour is a highly desirable trait in a romantic partner, can later cause dissatisfaction and become unwanted, leading to a break-up. Nevertheless we can evidently see that, as suggested at the start, humour is vital for relationships, so much so that Buss & Kendrick (1998) stated that social relationships are evolutionarily essential for our survival.
男人和女人表达幽默方式的差异，以及这对社会秩序的重要性，让我们看到了幽默的另一个值得注意的方面。有证据表明，文字出现前的文化使用幽默是为了保持社会控制力，例如恋人之间的关系，祖父母-孙辈之间的关系，以及不同部落成员之间的关系(拉德克利夫-布朗，1952;利润率,1985)。在过去的一个世纪幽默感已成为一个非常理想的人类特质(Sprecher &里根,2002),价值高达身体吸引(Eagly等,1991),并经常与许多其他相关的性状,如智力、外向,友善和情绪稳定性(在校园里&卡尔霍恩,2001)。这方面的证据来自研究报告，笑别人的笑话不仅表明吸引力，也提高了自己的吸引力(Grammer, 1990;Cann et al, 1997)。因此，幽默已经成为一种重要的社会特征，我们可以说，它对恋爱关系尤为重要。因此，Murstein & Brust(1985)的一项研究发现，拥有相似幽默感的浪漫夫妇在他们的关系中更幸福，但Priest和Thein(2003)发现这在已婚夫妇中并不存在。尽管如此，有证据表明，幸福的婚姻夫妇将他们的满足感归因于他们共同的幽默感(Ziv, 1988)。更具体地说，那些在幽默风格问卷中具有高水平的积极幽默和低水平的消极幽默的人，在他们的关系中具有较高的亲密度和满意度(Martin, 2003)。Cook & Rice(2003)解释了为什么幽默能带来积极的关系，因为他们报告说，感知他人的积极幽默感会增加与他们维持关系的感知利益，并降低关系的成本。尽管如此，Keltner等人(1998)发现，使用积极幽默的夫妇比使用攻击性幽默的夫妇更有可能更快地结束他们的关系。这一出人意料的发现可能是因为，正如前面所讨论的，幽默是一种有吸引力的特征，所以那些有积极幽默的人更容易找到另一个浪漫的伴侣，因此他们经历了分手。Felmee(1995)认为，尽管一开始的幽默是浪漫伴侣非常需要的特质，但后来会引起不满，变得不受欢迎，从而导致分手。然而，我们可以清楚地看到，正如一开始所暗示的那样，幽默对于人际关系至关重要，以至于Buss和Kendrick(1998)指出，从进化的角度来看，社会关系对我们的生存至关重要。
Humour and occupation
It is suggested that a workplace which actively incorporates humour produces a more productive workforce and improves social interaction between employees and managers, which leads to a successful organisation (Morreall, 1991; Clouse & Spurgeon, 1995). Certainly, if humour can have positive affects for interpersonal relationships this should also include relationships at work as well. Thus humour does seems to be an important element in a working environment as Holmes & Marra (2002a) found out by analysing team meetings that humour and laughter is expressed in the workforce on average once every 2 – 5 minutes. Yet it is reported that this is about one eighth of what is produced by a group of close friends casually interacting (Holmes & Marra, 2002b). This is plausible as we are likely to be more relaxed around our close friends than around our work colleagues, for which we may need to keep a professional composure. Intriguingly Dwyer (1991) suggested that humour at work can be used for power dynamics within the establishment, as personnel can joke to complain about work and managers can use humour to show power and authority. Researched has found this to be true as those who are higher ranked staff members tend to use humour more in staff meetings then those who are ranked lower (Coser, 1960; Sayre, 2001). Robinson & Smith-Lovin (2001) found similar results in a group task situation, but also found that humour is used early on in the group to establish hierarchical group status, and males were more likely to use humour thus gain higher status. This isn’t to say that it is only those who are of higher rank that use humour in the workplace, of course every one of every status has the capacity to do so but as suggested before it may be used for differing purposes. Those who are of lower-status use humour to attain attention and approval from others (Kane et al, 1977). Interestingly humour has been found to be a significant characteristic in leadership (Yukl & Lepsinger, 1990). A study by Decker & Rotondo (2001) found that humour is a useful tool for those at the higher end of the organisational hierarchy, such as managers and supervisors, as it helps them to motivate, promote and interact effectively with others in the institution. Priest &Swain (2002) supported this with a survey from the military reporting good leaders with a good sense of humour and poor leaders with a lack of a sense of humour.
What we see here what we have seen in all other areas; humour is important. As with interpersonal relationships, humour plays a significant role in the workforce, for leadership and for an effective organisation. Gibson (1994) suggested that this idea that humour can better the workplace has created specialist whom enhance humour production techniques at work, and many business are hiring these individuals.
Present Study & Hypothesis.目前的研究和假设。
As we can see humour touches on a number of different aspects, ranging from health to social relationships to age and gender. We have seen from the literature on the health side of humour that most previous research haven’t considered the differences between positive and negative humour when measuring self-reported sense of humour. Indeed the HSQ does differentiate between the two, and since its development has been used by many studies, however there still persists a lack of research in this area. More importantly, as mentioned by DeNeve (1999), previous studies on self-reported sense of humour and psychological well-being have only used measures of mental health that focus on negative factors, so positive well-being is measured as the absence of negative features. Therefore in this present study we shall be examining both positive and negative self-reported sense of humour and its relation to both positive and negative psychological well-being. Alongside this we shall examine the contribution of a sense of humour to both marital and occupation status, and also explore any age and gender differences. It is anticipated that a positive sense of humour will correlate with positive psychological well-being, and a negative sense of humour will correlate with negative psychological well-being. It is also expected that those with a positive sense of humour have a higher occupation status and are in a romantic relationship, and that there are no age of gender differences in humour.