国际商务管理中的营销策略文献综述-LITERATURE REVIEW影响消费者行为的因素-Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior有三个因素影响消费者行为包括文化特征、个人特征和心理特征(Kotler等人,2001)。这些特征很重要,营销人员需要去识别为了决定他们目标的营销策略和消费者类型。文化特征-Cultural Characteristics根据史密斯和拉普(2003),社会阶级的差异会导致不同的在线行为。来自一个更高的社会阶层的消费者通常购买更多也有更高的意图去在线购买,因为他们有更高的概率拥有一台电脑,能够访问互联网。不利的是,较低社会阶层的消费者可能没有相同的财产。因此,较低的社会阶层就不会有所需的计算机知识去使用电脑。个人特征-Personal Characteristics根据Monsuwe,Dellaert和Ruyter(2004),个人收入对网上购买行为有着至关重要的作用。家庭收入较高的消费者会对网上购物有更积极的态度(Lohse等人,2000年)。这意味着,家庭收入会与拥有一台电脑,上网和高等教育成正比。根据史密斯和拉普(2003),年龄也确定网上购买意图。他们认为年纪大的人与计算机的交互较少,甚至没有使用互联网作为媒介去购买,但年轻人有。年轻人更频繁地使用网络和计算机而且他们有更多的技术知识。Monsuwe等人。(2004)同意并得出结论,年轻人通常有更大的兴趣使用新技术来搜索信息和评估备选方案。营销人员的营销策略-Marketing strategy of marketers 第二章-CHAPTER 2文献综述-LITERATURE REVIEW影响消费者行为的因素-Factors Influencing Consumer BehaviorThere are three factors that influence consumer behavior which includes cultural characteristics, personal characteristics, and psychological characteristics (Kotler et al., 2001). These characteristics are important and need to identify by the marketers in order to decide their marketing strategy and the kind of consumers to target.文化特征-Cultural CharacteristicsAccording Smith and Rupp (2003), the difference in social class will lead to difference in online behavior. Consumers from a higher social class usually purchase more and have higher intention to purchase online due to there being a higher probability that they possess a computer and they able access to the internet. Adversely, consumers from lower social classes may not have the same possessions. Therefore, the lower social class would not have the needed computer literacy to be leverage a computer.个人特征-Personal CharacteristicsAccording to Monsuwe, Dellaert and Ruyter (2004), individual income has a vital role for online purchasing behavior. Consumers with higher household income would have a more positive attitude towards online shopping (Lohse et al., 2000). This means, the household has greater income would have a positive correlation with the possession of a computer, internet access, and higher education.According to Smith and Rupp (2003), age also determine online purchase intentions. They argue that older people are have less interaction with the computer, even no use internet as a medium to purchase, but young adults would. Young adults used internet and computer more frequently and they have more technical knowledge. Monsuwe et al. (2004) agreed and conclude that younger adults usually have greater interest in using new technologies to search information and evaluate alternatives.心理特征-Psychological Characteristics信仰-BeliefPeople will gain the beliefs while they are going through the learning and experiencing. A belief is explained by Kotler and Armstrong (2007) as a descriptive thought about something and is based on real knowledge, opinions or faith. In other words, consumers will hold certain personal beliefs of a particular product or service based on their knowledge of certain facts. Such facts are either based on a person direct experience or indirect experience. Direct experience is what the person's sees and hears. Indirect experience is the information from other people or sources. Thus, belief is the factor that affects the people's attitude, which in turn affects buying behavior.态度-AttitudesAn attitude is different from a belief, because an attitude is an evaluative judgment (Kardes, 2002). An attitude describes a person's relatively consistent evaluations, feeling and tendencies towards an object or idea (Kotler et al. 2001). Attitude can be formed on the basis of belief (cognitions), affect (feeling or emotions), behaviors (actions) or some combination of beliefs, affect and behaviors (Kardes, 2002). Therefore, as a marketer, it is important to study consumers' attitudes and understand the condition in which they can act in a certain manner to influence consumer decision making.首选项-PreferencesA preference is defined as an evaluative judgment of two or more objects (Kardes, 2002). There are two types of preferences which are attitude based and attribute based. Attitude based preferences are preferences made based on consumers' overall attitudes towards two or more objects. Attribute based preferences are preferences made based on comparisons of one or more attributes that belong to the objects. When consumer are unfamiliar with a certain product or service, they may not have any previously formed attitudes on these product or service, thus they may take an evaluation judgment on comparisons of attribute instead.影响消费者在线购买因素-Factors Affects Consumers to Purchase Online易于导航-Ease of NavigationBasically, ease of navigation is related to the user interface of an online store. Since user interface of an online store influences the experience of consumers interaction with a retailer's products or servicing offering (Griffith, 2001), a well designed user interface system is able to reduce customers information searching time and cost of processing information. Indirectly , the standard of user interface system may affect the customers' internet experience and decision making.网络隐私-Internet PrivacyInternet privacy does not only include the disclosure of sensitive information in itself, but also concern about the condition where customer giving out that information willingly and is made fully aware as to how it is going to be used and their privacy is not being violated. According to Prabhaker (2000), there is significant concern other than the one they are doing business with, as the consumer loses control over how that information is being used. Therefore, consumers still lack of confidence in online transaction mainly because it is not a face-to-face interaction dealing.信任-TrustInternet is a relatively new way of shopping, it is challenging for the consumers and therefore perceived by the consumer as risky (Monsuwe et al., 2004). Trust is the key factor as to why consumers might not be enthusiastic about buying online. They lack trust in the medium and the online vendors (Barnes et al., 2007). First of all, consumers are dependent on sales person' expertise to know more about the product. But, since this source is not available in online shopping, therefore, the basic consumers trust has disappeared. Consumers are unable to check the quality of the item, and the item might not as expected.Secondly, the issue of confidentiality of personal information and credit card information are major factors that affect individual's trust and confidence in making online transaction. Consumer will not deal with an unfamiliar online vendor, unless that online vendor has good reputation, trustworthiness, and a high quality service rating. Familiarity and confidence are established after few successful transactions, a consumer starts to feel safe with the service provider or supplier (Ravald and Gronroos, 1996). When customers have trust in particular company, they believe that the company is able to fulfill their needs and wants, then they will become committed to that company.Thirdly, trust is not only including secure connection or promise of secure connection. It involves the issues such as customer support and perceived trust whereby can the site deliver what it promises, when it promises and will there be after sales service and support if customers needed it.认为更低的价格-Perceived Lower PricesPrice is the one of the marketing mix which is used to stimulate the consumer. Price is the most influential issue in consumer decision making, especially to price sensitive consumers. Price sensitive consumer will do a survey about the product price on the internet before they decide to purchase with certain online vendors. The consumer can use price as a means of comparing products, judge relative value for money, and judge product quality (Brassington & Pettitt, 2000). Consumers will perceive it to be risky while purchase high price product online. Furthermore, only digital attributes can be evaluated by the consumer, while offline non-digital attributes can be tested (Lal & Sarvary, 1999). Moreover, when buying online, additional costs such as freight charges, customs, extended delivery times will influence consumer's decision to reconsider the transaction even though the product price is low.#p#分页标题#e#产品选择(品种)-Product Selection (Variety)One of the reasons driving consumers to online shopping is the variety of products for selection. According to Jarvenpaa and Todd (1997), shoppers' attitudes towards online shopping are mainly related to factors such as product variety, product quality and price.模型-Model理性行动理论(交易)-Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)According to Fishbein et. al. (1975), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was to establish a relationship among Belief, Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors. The theory explains that a person's behavior is determinant by his intention either to perform or not to specific behavior. TRA indicated that two conceptually independent factors which interacting each other, and each weighting for its relative importance to determine the intention.Attitude towards the behavior: a factor which considers the degree to which a person has about positively or negatively evaluating a specific behavior. Therefore, a person's attitude is determined by behavioral belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes. Thus, if a person firmly believes that positive outcomes will effect from performing a particular behavior, and positive attitudes towards that behavior. Likewise, if a person firmly believes that a particular behavior will cause a negative outcome, then there will be negative attitudes towards that behavior.Subjective norm: This factor is determined by the person's normative beliefs. More specifically, certain important and influential individuals approve or disapprove of a particular behavior and the person's motivation to comply with the approvals or disapprovals of the important individuals.This theory has successfully applied and explained those behaviors that are under volitional control. But, there is still a question about behaviors that are not under full volitional control. Therefore, a concept was introduced as perceived behavioral control to the TRA known as Theory of Planned Behavior.计划行为理论(图则)-Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (1985) enhanced the theory of TRA. TPB incorporates an additional construct of perceived behavioral control. This theory has overcome the shortcomings of TRA whereby take into consideration of individuals who do not have total volitional control over their behavior. Perceived behavioral control refers to one's perception of the availability of skills, resources and opportunities that may either be inhibiting or facilitating behavior. Based on TPB, an actual behavior is a function of behavioral intention and perceived behavioral control. Behavior intention is determined by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. This theory have obtained substantial empirical support in information systems and many other domains, and its constructs are easier to operate as well (Limayem et.al., 2000)According to Limayem et al. (2000), two new constructs is proposed which is personal innovativeness and perceived consequences. The personal innovativeness had both direct and indirect effects mediated by attitude, on intentions of innovation adoption. The indirect effect means that innovative individual have higher possibility to be favorable toward online shopping which in turn affects positively their intentions to shop on the internet. On the other hand, direct link between innovativeness and intention meant to capture possible effects that are not completely mediated by attitude. The perceived consequences link is borrowed in the Triandis' model (Triandis, 1980). Lymayem recommended combining all beliefs in to one construct, named perceived consequences.技术接受模型(TAM)-Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) proposed by Davis (Davis, 1989) was derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).TAM is developed specific for information system usage to understand the fundamental link between external variables and user acceptance of computer-based applications.TAM consists of two constructs which are perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU). According to Davis (1989), perceived usefulness is defined as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would improve his or her job performance" whereas perceived ease of use is "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of efforts". PU and PEOU reflect the belief about the task-value and user-friendliness of new information system respectively.As shown in the figure 2.3, at the end of the link is actual use which it is determined by Behavioral Intention to Use (BIU). BIU is influenced by their attitude (A) and the belief of perceived usefulness (PU). More specifically, users' attitude reflects favorable or unfavorable feelings towards using information system and it's determined by the combine of PU and PEOU. Moreover, PU is affected by PEOU and external variables. The external variable may consist of system design features, training, documentation and user support. TAM is about the more perceive usefulness of technology, hence leading to more positive attitude and greater intention towards greater usage of the technology.Triandis模型-Triandis ModelThe Triandis Model is similar to TRA, TPB, and TAM where it presumes an attitude-intention- behavior relationship. This model consists of few relevant variables which are habit, social factors and facilitating conditions. It assumes that the probability of performing an act is a function of habit, intention, and facilitating conditions. According to Chang & Cheung (2001), the intention of acting a certain behavior is a functions of the perceived consequences, affect, social factors where including norms roles, and the self-concept. Facilitating conditions refer to the essential resources and supports to perform a behavior such as time, money, expertise, hardware, software, network connection, etc. This model has enhanced the deficiency of TAM which presumes that usage is volitional and that no barrier to stop an individual from using information system (Mathieson et al, 2001).Generally, the Triandis model has evolved from the TAM. Firstly, it presumes that perceived complexity is a person's perception, but it is not perceived ease of use. This perceived complexity is an internal factor and it should place under construct of perceived consequences. Secondly, the Triandis model assumes that facilitating conditions only affect the actual behavior, and continuously have significant impacts on intention. Thirdly, this model is similar to TAM where is assumed perceived complexity has positive impact on affect which mean the user will feel enjoy if they perceive the computer technology is not complicated to use. Fourthly, it is the same as TRA in which the intention is a function of subjective norm, the modified model assumes that social factors have positive impact on affect (Chang & Cheung, 2001).