2022熊猫学术指导美国essay:International Trade and Globalization
导读：这是一篇美国essay论文范文，本课程将为学生们提供一个全面的国际贸易理论和实践基础。1945年以来经济、社会和文化全球化的背景。通过这个模块的说明，学生将探索国际商业环境，包括国际经济学和国际管理。了解全球化带来的挑战和机遇，公司、国家、市场和个人是国际管理教育的一个重要方面。This module will provide students with a thorough grounding in the theory and practice of international trade in the context of economic, social and cultural globalisation, as witnessed since 1945. Through this module,students will explore the international business environment, including issues in international economics and international management. An understanding of the challenges and opportunities created by globalisation for firms, states, markets and individuals is a critical aspect of international management education.专题1、贸易自由化、贸易保护主义Topic 1. Trade Liberalization, Trade Protectionism讨论贸易自由化和/或保护主义的影响。例如：在自由化下，在多大程度上谁赢谁输？或者支持保护主义的论据有哪些，哪些是有效的？或者在欧盟或北美自由贸易协定中，有限的区域贸易自由化有什么影响？如果不止一个观点是相关的，提供一个平衡的、批判性的讨论。举例说明你的讨论。Discuss the effects of trade liberalization and/or of protectionism.For example: Under liberalization, who wins and who loses, to what extent?Or: What arguments are put forward in support of protectionism, and which, if any, are valid?Or: What are the effects of limited regional trade liberalization such as in the EU or NAFTA?Where more than one point of view is relevant,provide a balanced,critical discussion.Illustrate your discussion with examples.专题2、跨国公司Topic 2. Transnational Corporations考虑一下跨国公司（TNC）的崛起。在这个主题领域中有一个要探索的有趣问题的数量。您必须选择一个定义明确的主题并保留你的讨论集中在选定的主题上。例如：跨国公司对“本国”和“东道国”有什么影响？或者：为什么外国直接投资（FDI）会成为国际上具有吸引力的选择？与出口或许可证相比，扩大公司规模？或者：跨国公司真的是全球性的吗？术语“本国”和“东道国”有多有用？经课程导师同意，可探讨TNC的其他方面。一个以上的观点是相关的，提供一个平衡的，批判性的讨论。说明您的举例讨论。Consider the rise of the transnational corporation (TNC). Within this topic area there are a number of interesting questions to explore. You must choose a well-defined topic and keep your discussion focussed on the chosen topic. For example: What effects do TNCs have on ‘home’ countries and ‘host’ countries? Or: Why might foreign direct investment (FDI) be an attractive option for internationally expanding firms in comparison to, say exporting or licensing? Or: Can TNCs be truly global – how useful are the terms ‘home’ and ‘host’ country? Other aspects of TNCs may be explored with the agreement of the course tutor. Where more than one point of view is relevant, provide a balanced, critical discussion. Illustrate your discussion with examples.主题3、公平贸易认证opic 3. Fair Trade Certification考虑到一些产品（如咖啡、巧克力、香蕉）的公平贸易认证的兴起。除了证明你对公平贸易认证的理解之外以及它是如何工作的，您还必须提供一些更具探索性或有争议的相关问题。例如：公平贸易认证是否总是帮助生产者的最佳方式？有公平贸易认证的替代方案可能对生产者有更多帮助？或者：公平贸易认证只对少数产品（通常是农作物）有用吗，或者它可以扩展到其他产品，如制成品吗？Consider the rise of fair trade certification of some products eg coffee, chocolate, bananas.In addition to demonstrating your understanding of how fair trade certification has developed and how it works, you must also provide a discussion of some more exploratory or contentious relevant issues.For example: Is fair trade certification always the best way to help producers? Are there alternatives to fair trade certification that may help producers more?Or: Is fair trade certification useful for only a small number of products (typically crops), or can it be extended to other products such as manufactured goods?It is important to understand what is meant here by a ‘critical essay’. The key characteristic of a ‘critical essay’ as opposed to any other kind of essay is that it must demonstrate a sensitive appreciation that the topic under consideration is ‘contested’ – that is that there is no single, universally-agreed, correct point of view.The main aim in a critical essay is to demonstrate a thoughtful, balanced and detailed understanding of different perspectives on the topic, and of how they relate to each other.An important secondary aim in this case is to also demonstrate engagement with and critical understanding of the learning materials in the module plus other relevant materials that you may select. Put simply: you must not just provide ‘a good essay’ – you must provide an essay that demonstrates that you have studied the material provided. An otherwise good essay that does not demonstrate this may be awarded a ‘fail’ mark.