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2022留学代写美国essay:对伊拉克的援助

By August 14, 2022essay代写

2022留学代写美国essay:对伊拉克的援助

2022留学代写美国essay:对伊拉克的援助

美国essay:对伊拉克的援助Supplement In Iraq伊拉克有常见的绰号,“文明的摇篮”,因为它是已知最早的文明,它在地球上出现在肥沃土地上的苏美尔文明。尽管它有一个丰富的历史根源,美国和英国自2003年入侵伊拉克的,被认为是一个摇篮对石油和反恐战争。因为没有解决国与国之间的纷争,经济和商业活动之间是无效的以及会计实践是“似乎”已经衰弱了。在伊拉克,一些已经被写进书面补充会计中。这方面,本研究将尝试连接丢失在伊拉克会计说法中的链接,同时证明会计的活力,无论伊拉克的地面环境,由于战争的爆发,成为多么不健康的一种商业交易和居住环境。尽管如此,会计在本质上可以在伊拉克的情况下运行,也被人们所采用。提出研究的标题;伊拉克:一点一点地砌的研究为伊拉克提供了一个更广泛的的会计制度和税收法规的地平线。本研究将对会计的发展历史提供编制记载伊拉克的补充材料,会计规范的本身和他们的规定,会计系统内务和税收法规的实施。此外,本研究按照其国家在伊拉克的重建将在,改革会计制度方面,提供可能的解决方案和贡献者伊拉克有丰富的历史、文化和人民。现在的土地包括现代伊拉克称为“文明的摇篮。“大约公元前4000年的古代苏美尔文化蓬勃发展,原始土地耕作、灌溉、城市社会第一个字母写的。在古代被称为美索不达米亚,伊拉克的土地在圣经中占举足轻重的地位。Iraq has the common epithet, the "Cradle of Civilization", as it was home to the earliest known? civilization? on Earth, the? Sumerian civilization, which arose in the fertile? Tigris-Euphrates river valley? of southern Iraq. Notwithstanding the fact that it has a rich history roots, Iraq since the invasion in 2003 by countries of United States of America and Great Britain, has been regarded as a Cradle for Oil and Anti-Terrorism wars. Because of the unresolved feuds between countries, Economic and Business activities have been inert, and accounting practice is "as if" has been languishing.

Few have been written to supplement Accounting in Iraq. With this regard, this research will try to connect the missing links of accounting parlance in Iraq and prove the dynamism of Accounting, which no matter how Iraq's environment is an unhealthy ground neither for Business transactions nor for residency because of the war outbreaks. Still, Accounting is adoptive in nature that can operate under Iraq's situation. With the proposed title of the research; Iraq: Brick by Brick the study provides a wider horizon for Iraqi Accounting System and Tax Regulations. This research will provide compiled supplement materials of the Historical accounts of the development of accounting is Iraq, Accounting regulating body and their Provisions, Accounting system of Book keeping and tax regulations being Implemented. Also, this research will provide possible solutions and contributors in reforming accounting system in Iraq in accordance with its national reconstruction.

Iraq is rich in history, culture and people. The land that now encompasses modern Iraq is known as the "Cradle of Civilization." Around 4000 BC the ancient Sumerian culture flourished here, originating land cultivation, irrigation, urban society and the first written alphabet. Known in ancient times as Mesopotamia, the land of Iraq figures prominently in the Bible, This is where the garden of Eden is depicted, where the tower of Babel was constructed, where Abram was first called by God to leave home and kin, and where the Hebrews were exiled following the destruction of the temple by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. Traversed by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Iraq is mostly desert, with mountains in the northern regions and fertile plains in the far south. It is surrounded by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the west, Syria and Turkey to the north and Iran to the east. A narrow strip in the far south borders on the Persian Gulf.

Iraq is known for its oil, having the second largest reserves in the world. Revenues from oil sales in the 1970s and 1980s enabled the country to make great strides in education, health care and basic infrastructure. Till 1990, Iraq was known as one of the most highly developed countries in the Middle East.

Some 22 million people call Iraq home. Seventy-five percent or more are Arabs, 15-20 percent is Kurdish and the remainder are Turkoman, Assyrian, or another ethnic group. The vast majority – 97 percent – is Muslim, and the remaining three percent is Christian.Cradle for First Practice

Accounting was born before writing or numbers existed, some 10,000 years ago, in the area known as Mesopotamia, later Persia, and today the countries of Iran and Iraq. This area contains the Tigris Euphrates river valley, a large fertile area 10,000 years ago with a large thriving population and active trading between towns and cities up and down the two rivers.? Writing and numbers would be not being invented for about another 5,000 years. At that time, merchants faced many of the same problems businesses face today. They had to ship their merchandise up and down the rivers, and that meant trusting a boatman with their goods. Unfortunately, not all boatmen were honest, and disagreements often arose about how much was shipped versus what was received at the other end.? To deal with the problem, merchants came up with an ingenious plan. They made small clay tokens, in various shapes and with various markings, to indicate different products. One would mean a basket of grain; another would mean a pot of oil, etc. They had over 200 such tokens to indicate a large variety of common goods, including food, leather, clothing, utensils, tools, jewellery, etc.? Before shipping their goods, a merchant would take one token for each item in the shipment, and encase the tokens in a ball of clay, called a "bollae" – meaning ball. The ball would be dried in the sun, given to the boatman, and then broken by the buyer on the other end of the transaction. The buyer would match the tokens with the items in the shipment, to verify that everything sent was accounted for.?

This is the function of? protection of assets, and is a major function of all modern accounting systems. It was important 10,000 years ago and is just as important now. Today we see merchants doing the same thing as their counterparts 10 millennia ago – today they get a bill of lading – a listing of the merchandise entrusted to a shipper.?

The system of using bollae continued for almost 5,000 years, all before the invention of writing or numbers. One day, probably by accident, a wet clay bollae was rolled over a loose token, lying on the ground. The impression of the token was left in the wet clay. Merchants began pressing the tokens on the outside of the bollae, in addition to putting the tokens inside the ball.?Economic System

Beehner (2007) cited in his Article the Economic Status of Iraq; Iraq's economy is dominated by the? oil? sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the? eight-year war? with? Iran? and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement? austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule? foreign debt? payments. Iraq suffered economic losses from the war of at least? US$100? billion. After hostilities ended in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. A combination of low oil prices, repayment of? war debts? which was estimated at around? US$3 billion a year and the costs of reconstruction resulted in a serious financial crisis which was the main short term motivation for the? invasion of Kuwait.

On November 20, 2004, the? Paris Club? of creditor nations agreed to write off (80%) $33 billion of Iraq's $42 billion debt to Club members. Iraq's total external debt was around $120 billion at the time of the 2003 invasion, and had grown by $5 billion by 2004. The? debt relief? will be implemented in three stages: two of 30% each and one of 20%.Bohsem, Guido & Somerville, Glen, 1993) At the end of 2005, and in the first half of 2006, Iraq implemented a restructuring of about $20 billion of commercial debt claims on terms comparable to that of its November 2004 Paris Club agreement (i.e. with an 80% write-off). Iraq offered to its larger claimants a U.S. dollar denominated bond maturing in 2028. Smaller commercial claimants received a cash settlement of comparable value.

Indeed, Iraq had a rich civilization as it was one of the pioneers in the field of Accounting and also in the development of money. But Through the years Iraq experienced events that toiled their once rich civilization Such as Saddam Hussein's ascendency that brought series of wars, discovery of weapons of mass destruction and America's declaration of war against Iraq in pursuit of its Anti-terrorism campaign. War after war Iraq was susceptible to instability and temporalities with regards to their governance and accounting practice is no exception from it.Iraqi Governance

The Board of Supreme Audit (BSA) is the legislative body that is responsible for the issuance of accounting standards and policies in Iraq. The role of the said body is stated in Article 6 (1990, the Board of Supreme Audit Law):#p#分页标题#e#

Board of Supreme Audit was enacted and still into force the purposes of: Setting the role, duties, and specialties of the Board of supreme Audit and enhancing its role to participate in improving the performance of the state's institutions. to enable this Board to secure the auditing requirements and its needs of resources ,civil equipments , and information whether to say an opinion about the truth of the financial situations and the activity results or to evaluate the? performance of executive institutions? under its review . To find administrative and organizational structures that goes along with the phases of the development of national economy and gives enough flexibility to the Board in planning and assigning duties and specialties.

To secure the required central supervision to direct controlling tasks? and? developing the bases principles ,means and ways of implementation and assess the results In addition to enabling? the Board to cover all the services and institutions of the state in the governorates with auditing and supervision with the highest level of competence and efficiency .

The Audit Advisory Board (AAB) is primarily responsible for organizing and supervising the auditing and accountancy profession within the "private sector" in Iraq, while the board of Supreme Audit (BSA) is responsible for the audit governmental entities (Al-Salman, 2009). The Chairman of Board of Supreme Audit (BSA) is the chairman of Audit Advisory Board (AAB).

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