2022留学生paper人力资源Essay作业：Scientific Management and its Application at Microsoft
本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例，题目是“Scientific Management and its Application at Microsoft（科学管理及其在微软的应用）”，由弗雷德里克·温斯洛·泰勒(Frederick Winslow Taylor)提出的科学管理概念，彻底改变了许多工作场所，提高了雇主的效率和控制，同时降低了成本(Buchanan和Huczynski, 2011;格拉切夫和拉基茨基，2013年;泰勒,2012)。泰勒的书《科学管理的原则》被认为是20世纪最有影响力的管理书籍(Bedeian and Wren, 2001)。然而，尽管这一理念为雇主带来了好处，并且受到了广泛的欢迎，但它的实施却常常与员工的糟糕结果相关联，包括降低工作满意度、增加员工流失率和低水平的动机(Parker, 2014;爱抚,2010)。然而，尽管存在明显的负面影响，科学管理仍然很受欢迎(《经济学人》，2015;帕克,2014;比达尔,2013)。本文研究并评估了这一概念，然后将其应用于现代组织;微软。
The concept of scientific management, developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, revolutionised many workplaces, increasing efficiency and control for employers while concurrently lowering costs (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011; Grachev and Rakitsky, 2013; Taylor, 2012). Taylor’s book “The Principles of Scientific Management”, has been identified as the most influential management book of the twentieth century (Bedeian and Wren, 2001). However, despite the benefits for employers, and popularity of the idea, implementation was often associated with poor outcomes for employees, including lowering job satisfaction, increased attrition, and low levels of motivation (Parker, 2014; Pettinger, 2010). However, despite the perceived negative effects, scientific management remains popular (The Economist, 2015; Parker, 2014; Vidal, 2013). This paper examines and evaluates the concept, and then applies it to a modern organisation; Microsoft.
The Concept of Scientific Management科学管理理念
The development of scientific management was based on previous ideas regarding workplace efficiency which emerged during the Industrial Revolution (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011). Prior to the Industrial Revolution, labour division was based on skills and knowledge, with craftsmen having a significant level of discretion regarding how a task was performed or job completed (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011). The Industrial Revolution changed workplace practices, with the division of labour, where individual employees are given responsibility for a predetermined portion of any task (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011). The economist Adam Smith credited this division of labour as creating the UK’s wealth, developing the concept of “economic man”, believing workers primary motivation was money (Smith, 1904). Charles Babbage referred to this as “The Great Principle of Economical Reproduction” (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011; Smith, 1904). However, while this division of labour created efficiencies, Taylor believed further efficiencies remained, and while workers still retaining performance discretion they could use it to their advantage (Grachev and Rakitsky, 2013; Taylor, 2012).
科学管理的发展是基于工业革命期间出现的关于工作场所效率的观点(Buchanan和Huczynski, 2011)。在工业革命之前，劳动分工是基于技能和知识的，工匠对于如何完成一项任务有很大的自由裁量权(Buchanan和Huczynski, 2011)。工业革命改变了工作场所的做法，通过劳动分工，每个员工被赋予任何任务的预定部分的责任(布坎南和赫钦斯基，2011年)。经济学家亚当•斯密(Adam Smith)认为，这种劳动分工创造了英国的财富，提出了“经济人”的概念，认为工人的主要动机是金钱(Smith, 1904)。查尔斯·巴贝奇(Charles Babbage)将其称为“经济再生产的伟大原则”(布坎南和赫辛斯基，2011;史密斯,1904)。然而，尽管这种劳动分工创造了效率，泰勒认为，进一步的效率仍然存在，而工人仍然保留绩效自由裁量权，他们可以利用它为自己的优势(Grachev和Rakitsky, 2013;泰勒,2012)。
Taylor’s approach improved efficiency was based on the standardisation of job design, breaking jobs down into component tasks, with performance requirements based on scientific studies identifying the most efficient workplace practices (Taylor, 2012). This approach increases the level of management control, reducing reliance on worker skills and discretion. By breaking jobs down into their smallest components, employers could hire and train cheaper, unskilled workers, replacing them as necessary (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011; Pettinger, 2010). Child (1972), referred to this process of job design as the 3 S’s, specialisation, standardisation, and simplification.
The focus of job design was based on the task assessment, examining the best way any individual task could be performed (Grachev and Rakitsky, 2013; Taylor, 2012). This was seen at the Bethlehem Steel Works, where a study of the workers shovelling pig iron resulted in a job redesign reducing the number of workers required from 500, to 140, without productivity loss (Taylor, 2012). The workers that remained benefited from higher wages based on performance-related pay; wage increases of approximately 60% followed the implementation (Taylor, 2012). However, this did not mean his methods were welcomed by workers, in addition to creating redundancies, there was resistance to the change, also evidenced earlier at Midvale Steelworks (Grachev and Rakitsky, 2013). When Taylor first introduced scientific management approaches at Midvale, initially workers purposefully broke machines to resist work standardisation (Grachev and Rakitsky, 2013). Taylor overcame resistance by fining workers for broken machines, using an application Smith’s “economic man”, which appeared to work, as resistance decreased as workers complied to avoid the fines (Grachev and Rakitsky, 2013). Effectively, Taylor was treating workers as components of a production process, dehumanising them, considering only their labour input and labour output.
工作设计的重点是基于任务评估，检查任何单个任务可以执行的最佳方式(Grachev和Rakitsky, 2013;泰勒,2012)。伯利恒钢铁厂(Bethlehem Steel Works)就出现了这种情况，对铲生铁的工人进行了研究，结果重新设计了工作岗位，所需的工人数量从500人减少到140人，没有造成生产率损失(Taylor, 2012)。仍在工作的工人受益于基于绩效工资的更高工资;在实施后，工资增长了约60% (Taylor, 2012)。然而，这并不意味着他的方法受到了工人的欢迎，除了创造冗余，还有对改变的阻力，早前Midvale Steelworks也证明了这一点(Grachev和Rakitsky, 2013)。当Taylor第一次在Midvale引入科学的管理方法时，最初工人们故意弄坏机器来抵制工作标准化(Grachev和Rakitsky, 2013)。泰勒克服了阻力，通过对损坏机器的工人进行罚款，使用了史密斯的“经济人”的应用，这似乎起了作用，随着工人遵守，阻力减少，以避免罚款(Grachev和Rakitsky, 2013)。实际上，泰勒将工人视为生产过程的组成部分，将他们非人化，只考虑他们的劳动投入和劳动产出。
The resistance seen at Midvale steelworks was not isolated. A significant factor in the uptake of scientific management was the implementation at Ford, resulting in productivity increasing exponentially (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011; Taylor, 2012). However, worker dissatisfaction also increased and attrition levels reached 400% (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011). Again, using the concept of economic man, Taylor overcame this problem by introducing a $5 day, paying workers $5 for each day worked (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011).The $5 day was successful, and workers remained, adopt an instrumental approach (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011). It may be hypothesised, that if the implementation at Ford had been less successful, the idea may not have gained such wide scale support.
The concept of scientific management has continued in the modern workplace, not only in traditional manufacturing sectors, but many new sectors, e.g. call centres and fast food outlets (The Economist, 2015; Buchanan & Huczynski, 2011). If implemented, in line with the above findings and previous experience, it may be expected workers in these jobs would be dissatisfied, due to the dehumanisation processes demonstrated as present in scientific management techniques, such as Midvale and Ford. However, frequently dissatisfaction does not manifest. In research undertaken at the Vauxhall car manufacturing facility in Luton, Goldthorpe et al., (1980) found work conditions, based on scientific methods, were poor, with little opportunity for discretion, and a high level of disempowerment. However, with higher than average pay, the researchers found that workers remained motivated, adopting an instrumental approach, gaining satisfaction from utility provided by wages (Goldthorpe et al., 1980).
科学管理的概念在现代工作场所中继续存在，不仅在传统制造业，而且在许多新的行业，如呼叫中心和快餐店(《经济学人》，2015年;布坎南&赫辛斯基，2011)。如果实施，根据上面的发现和以前的经验，可以预期，这些工作的工人将会不满意，因为在科学管理技术中，如Midvale和Ford所展示的非人化过程。然而，不满常常不会显露出来。在卢顿的沃克斯豪尔汽车制造厂进行的研究中，戈德索普等人(1980年)发现，基于科学方法，工作条件很差，几乎没有自由裁量的机会，而且权力被剥夺的程度很高。然而，当工资高于平均水平时，研究人员发现，工人仍然保持积极性，采用工具方法，从工资提供的效用中获得满足(Goldthorpe et al.， 1980)。
It may also be argued, that although implemented in a fashion which appears dictatorial and dehumanised, that Taylor may not have intended this approach. When describing the concept of scientific management, Taylor argued that although governed by rules developed through experimental processes, there should not be an old-fashioned dictator (Taylor, 2012). Furthermore, he also believed workers and management should operate in hearty cooperation (Taylor, 2012).
When examining modern implementations, additional knowledge and subsequent motivation research, facilitate implementation processes more aligned with Taylors’ idealistic cooperative concept, rather than rigid implementations. For example, under the human relations school of thought based on research of theorists such as Mayo, Maslow, and Herzberg, it was found social influences and desires impacted on motivation (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011; Herzberg, 1968; Maslow, 2014). Strategies satisfying these needs/desires, include work variety to induce interest, empowerment demonstrating trust, and other enrichment strategies (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011). If social satisfaction strategies can be used to improve working conditions and worker motivation where scientific methods are utilised (The Economist, 2015).
当检查现代的实施，额外的知识和后续的动机研究，促进实施过程更符合泰勒的理想主义合作概念，而不是僵化的实施。例如，基于Mayo、Maslow和Herzberg等理论家研究的人际关系学派发现，社会影响和欲望会影响动机(Buchanan and Huczynski, 2011;赫兹伯格,1968;马斯洛,2014)。满足这些需求/愿望的策略，包括激发兴趣的工作多样性、展示信任的授权和其他丰富策略(Buchanan和Huczynski, 2011)。社会满意度策略是否可以用来改善工作条件和工人的动机，在科学方法被使用的地方(经济学人，2015)。
With a high level of potential value in terms of creating internal efficiency, as well as providing for consistent practices and standards, it is unsurprising that the practice still continues. However, in organisations that need to both operate on a massive scale, as well as support practices associated with innovation and change, not generally associated with scientific management, the question is whether or not this management concept is still relevant.
Scientific Management and Microsoft科学管理与微软
Microsoft, founded in 1975, is a U.S.-based multinational technology organisation based in Washington. The basic operations include the development, manufacturing, licensing, and support of computer software, electronics, and the provision of computer services (Microsoft, 2015). The company, which is the world’s largest software organisation, offers a range of products and services to both the consumer and businesses, with the most well-known products and services including the Windows operating system and associated software, such as the Microsoft Office Suite, with additional interests technology and Internet-related businesses, including the acquisitions of Skype and Nokia, a presence in the game industry with the development of the Xbox (Microsoft, 2015). An initial consideration of the scope and range of products, and the pace at which they change, indicates the need for adaptability and innovation (Dodgson et al., 2008). Innovation may not inherently be associated with scientific management, the process requires those involved to undertake original thought, and non-standardised approaches towards identifying developing new ideas (Dodgson et al., 2008; Kontoghiorghes et al., 2005; Ziesak, 2009). In this context, applying the scientific management processes, as defined by Child (1980), would be a constraint on the potential development of new ideas, which would potentially hinder Microsoft as many of their competitive strategies are based on differentiation through first mover advantage (Nicholson, 2014). Therefore, in some areas it would appear that it is unlikely scientific management is taking place, especially in areas where there is a need for original thought innovation. However, it may be noted that in areas such as research and development, where innovation is important, there is the concept of specialisation, as the development teams conceive and undertake initial development only, with later development and manufacture undertaken elsewhere (Microsoft, 2015).
微软成立于1975年，是一家总部位于华盛顿的跨国技术组织。基本业务包括计算机软件、电子产品的开发、制造、许可和支持，以及计算机服务的提供(微软，2015)。微软是世界上最大的软件组织，为消费者和企业提供一系列产品和服务，其中最著名的产品和服务包括Windows操作系统和相关软件，如微软办公套件，此外，微软还对技术和互联网相关业务感兴趣，包括收购Skype和诺基亚，以及Xbox的开发在游戏行业的存在(微软，2015年)。对产品范围和范围的初步考虑，以及它们变化的速度，表明需要适应和创新(道奇森等人，2008年)。创新可能并不必然与科学管理联系在一起，这一过程需要参与者进行原创思维，并采用非标准化的方法来识别发展中的新想法(道奇森等人，2008年;Kontoghiorghes等人，2005年;Ziesak, 2009)。在这种背景下，应用科学的管理过程，如Child(1980)所定义的，将是一个约束的潜在发展的新想法，这可能会阻碍微软的许多竞争战略是基于差异化，通过先发优势(Nicholson, 2014)。因此，在一些领域似乎不太可能进行科学管理，特别是在需要原创思想创新的领域。然而，值得注意的是，在研发等领域，创新是重要的，有专业化的概念，因为开发团队只构思和承担最初的开发，之后的开发和生产在其他地方进行(微软，2015)。
However, while there is a need for the organisation to adapt to change, the organisation is also required to provide a high level of standardised products and services, where workers operate in the same manner, to provide the same output, a process which is highly associated with scientific management. Therefore, in some areas of the organisation scientific management will be applicable. For example, the company operates a number of call centres, and while a number are outsourced, there are also some provided in-house in the United States (Thibodeau, 2010). The processes utilised within call centres are invariably based on scientific management, where the components of dealing with customer issues are broken down into component parts, with various employees focusing on different issues, and providing advice only on specific areas, based primarily on scripts rather than their own knowledge, with comprehensive scripts developed by the company (Thibodeau, 2010). Unsurprisingly, the approach adopted, with the provision of scripts to guide the customer support process, is based on the company’s own customer care framework, a software solution designed for medium to large enterprises, facilitating dynamic scripting based on customer responses (Microsoft, 2015). Therefore, within these type of operations it is clear that scientific management processes may be used, although, based on the reviews of Microsoft as an employer on the job review site “Glass Door”, it also appears that the organisation adopts the concept with in a modern interpretation, with different elements of empowerment and support motivation, as job satisfaction does not appear to be low (Glass Door, 2015). The conditions in the outsourced sector also display the characteristics associated with scientific management, but with the lower labour costs, higher cost savings, and higher levels of attrition with in outsourced suppliers (Thibodeau, 2010), the implementation of scientific management techniques are more likely to be based on the traditional rigid approach, rather than implementing the empowerment strategies, and embracing the concept of hearty cooperation. Similar arguments may be made for the presence of scientific management in many of the manufacturing processes, although notably these are outsourced to third-party offshore suppliers (Microsoft, 2014).
There is little doubt that scientific management is thrives in 21st-century, adopted by many organisations. The method of management may not be found across all areas of large organisations, it does appear to be a concept which is applicable Microsoft, particularly in the areas where there needs to be standardisation of products and/or services, such as the call centres. However, internally within the organisation, not at the outsourced suppliers, it is not the original rigid approach towards scientific management is implemented, but a softened with the provision of enrichment strategies. This is a version of scientific management in which employees are not seen as only motivated by economic interest, but also by social interest, effectively embracing the ideas of Mayo, Herzberg, and Maslow, as well as the ideas of Taylor. Therefore, scientific management may be seen as applicable at Microsoft, manifesting in different ways across different divisions.