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By August 19, 2022essay代写





The briefly introduction of Chinese Exclusion in Australia and the reasons behind it Abstract: In the history of the chinese abroad,the chinese are treated unfairly,especially the chinese exclusion in Australia for almost dacades of years.,which pushed the movement to the climax.We may wonder what caused the exclusion in Australia.Key words:Chinese Exclusion in Australia Chinese Overseas Reasons"According to the exclusion of Australia movement and reason"


Chinese in Australia is always very special, very ZaYan, even very stubborn a group of. This role playing bad or success or maybe db and is not very high, but must be MingHuangHuang, be clear at a glance. The earliest Chinese came to Australia in the 1840 s, by 1858, already about 40000 Chinese on the Australia. The main reason to macau is because this is the gold mine, it can be the mining area, in farm sell cheap Labour sour for a living. At the time, the Chinese have a few big features: the industry is willing to do, unity, docile law-abiding, silence, and almost exclusively male, gambling, suck opium. Although also protected by law, but because they are so capable. Often in a white dry the rest of the gold can also into gold, so Chinese labor has been under intense discrimination. 1

As early as in the Ming and qing dynasties ago have Chinese immigrant to overseas, at the time the overseas Chinese is mainly smuggling remove, and then Chinese is mainly is to recruit foreign act as overseas labor, the position is compared commonly underground. And usually this labor migration for the majority of men, at the time the overseas labor mainly sell his labor, and many are not voluntarily go abroad. Their service for employers, after the expiration of the contract, many Chinese workers have opted to stay with overseas, but still engaged in LiQiHuo no technical content, sell his labor. Many Chinese elderly was very gloomy, where many don’t have enough. The middle of the s, Australia found the gold gold mine, attracts the prospectors of other countries, including China’s gold immigrants. China, however, the discovery of gold in the gold rush, immigration way and not being clear, they are white racist in Australia the rejection and not friendly to treat. Good behavior in China deaf, and gradually formed a notorious behind the "white Australia policy". In the 1970 s, along with the change of the international situation, China’s political and economic status has improved, which wise abolished this policy. Since then China to Macao immigration increases gradually, in Australia the Chinese economic and political status increases. 2

So, let us in this article to learn about Australia from the three times the exclusion of movement, and the three Chinese exclusion movement behind the deep reason.

A, Australia Chinese exclusion movement

About 1829 years. Australia’s MuYangYe some development, and Australia labor shortages, someone suggested new south wales in hiring Chinese, Indian, and native American island in the Pacific Ocean. But until 1847 the first batch of south China university of technology in Sydney on to shore, and employment in the pasture, 1850 years ago the farmer and rancher Australia to hire overseas workers quite have the interest, white and between Chinese temporarily live together peacefully. 1851 years of the start "the gold rush" attracted China’s guangdong area tens of thousands of Chinese people, just start of overseas Chinese feel that the British are very friendly, they put the gold mine in Australia Melbourne as "new jinshan" paired off in Chinese into Australia, only to 1859 Chinese in Australia as many as 42000 people. 4 these Chinese immigrants have a common ideal, and that is to become rich after comes back home with wealth and power, and honor the back to hometown. In order to achieve the ideal, their hard work, KeQinKeJian, accumulate wealth.

As the Chinese continue to pour and "the gold rush" increase in temperature, white and Chinese friction also becoming obvious. The escalating friction finally appeared in the colony under the white partial Chinese labor event driven. The first Chinese exclusion movement began in 1854, when the white miners Victoria gold at the conference, decided to get Chinese miners out of the mine, the riot has a great influence, fortunately authorities timely intervention before it caused great tragedy. But after the event, the establishment of the "gold royal commission" in June 1855 by the Chinese exclusion act, to Australia to ship’s Chinese limits on the number, and also provides the Chinese immigration prohibitively expensive. All the law the ships of registration, each load 10 tons goods in a prospective Chinese, and each entry Chinese pay entry prohibitively expensive 10 pounds. 5 it is recorded in history of Australia first Chinese exclusion act. The bill come on stage makes white miners more unbridled, not only for the Chinese white miners a bidding war, also robbed of property, the Chinese miners lost money. Not only that, they also detained tax collection to the Chinese, every 12 years Chinese 1 pound per month. In this kind of unfair behavior, Chinese signed joint signature "pray for civilians to parliament, from this tax idea." Parliament this will the collection standard to 4 pounds per person per year. 6

Victoria authorities feel alone Chinese exclusion had little effect, so called for new south wales and south Australia common action Chinese joint rejection. In 1857, south Australia passed to Victoria Chinese exclusion act as the chief of the Chinese immigration bill restrictions. At the same time, the bill is for new south wales has not been passed by congress and abortion, many Chinese have flocked to NSW, can be in new south wales, Chinese was attacks were still unknown. Even in broad daylight, Chinese was rob events to ongoing also. New south wales and the authorities not only have no so and punish white, but immediately through the Chinese exclusion act to quell Chinese anger. The three joint Chinese exclusion from Australia to many Chinese were forced to, Chinese in Macao Numbers to drop quickly. Plus, because "the gold rush" rags, white miners transferred in succession. 7 in the whites and the Chinese gold decrease contradiction. Then, around the Chinese exclusion act in the 1860 s has been abolished. The first wave of exclusion of movement in the past.

In 1875, the gold mine in Queensland pearl ink river found Chinese again the stream, and made great gains. "It is estimated that then took gold have taken white one million three hundred thousand ounces, Chinese also have one million three hundred thousand ounces." Chinese people’s huge gains drew white miners jealousy, nature, the second Chinese exclusion movement was arises at the historic moment. The leader of the movement is Queensland. In 1875, Queensland colonial authorities to Hong Kong colonial authorities detained for all the ships of the Queensland, the purpose is to cut off the source of the Chinese Queensland. The following year, Queensland legislation through parliament, and puts forward the higher than whites on Chinese mining gold license taxes, in addition, colonial authorities still to return the taxes as the condition, encourage Chinese to return home. In 1877 through the formal Queensland the limitation of Chinese immigration act, in November 1878, Macao and steamboat company recruit Chinese caused OuJi crew strike, the strike all the white got widely support. White to colonial authorities, colonial authorities to Australia and put pressure on the steamer lines, steamboat the company had to yield, and gradually fired Chinese. 8

The qing government is Chinese was fired and so on a series of events to the British have presented a protest. Britain to bother about, Queensland but with "Australia’s interest" for the premise called on other colonies provide support. In 1880 the colonies gathered on behalf of Melbourne, and held the first Oceania colonial area interregional conference. In this meeting, through the Chinese exclusion act, it is within the scope of Australia in the closed system formed the Chinese exclusion. This is the second Chinese exclusion movement. Be worth what carry is, the Chinese exclusion act really played a rejection of the Chinese role, in the 1877 to 1888 11 years, a total of only 550 Chinese in Queensland. 9

The third Chinese exclusion movement is based on April 1884 at Victoria happen "Afghanistan date" for violations of the beginning of the. The ship loaded with Chinese. So in June. The second Oceania held colonial area interregional conference adopted a resolution resolution regulation: every 500 tons of any boat only allowed in a Chinese into the Macao; And prohibited Chinese in colonial moved to; And so on. The meeting suggested that the Chinese exclusion has become all the colonial joint action to Australia. Starting in 1897, the colonial area of the NaDaEr act also referred to as "the education test act. This act regulations: any application into the bay, who must take part in European language testing, not through the shall not into the bay, in the implementation of the law, white europeans are allowed in Macao, and at the same time a large Japanese and India also allowed in macau, the only one is excluded and big restricted. 10

In the second half of the nineteenth century, in Australia, first individual colonial area alone Chinese exclusion, step into the development of several colonial area joint Chinese exclusion further evolution for all colonial area unified Chinese exclusion, eventually leading to the Chinese exclusion become Australia one of the basic state policy: all this makes Chinese situation was bad in Australia in 1901, the Chinese already from 1888 in 50000 to 32000 people. 11#p#分页标题#e#

Second, Australia Chinese exclusion reason to spy out

Australia Chinese exclusion movement lasts for decades, then lead to the cause of the exclusion of Australia are those? The direct reason should be white workers and south China university of technology to the economic interests of the conflict. At the time of the Australian although many white workers, Chinese workers accounts for only 1% of the population of Australia, but strong concentration of wealth ability, diligent spirit, strong adaptability, let white very jealous. White feel Chinese in social production competition, a threat to its.

Chinese in Australia in order to survive and concentration of wealth, pinching pennies, have a very poor life. South Australia’s prime minister, in talking about Chinese living said: "the way they live, so that they can make people starving in Europe where family life coexist money". Usually, the Chinese don’t like and white direct competition. But, the Chinese are in the hand of the wealth is considerable, they have strong competitiveness in "the gold rush", most of the Chinese are "truly in others to adopt gold mine in mining slag", however, in 1856 alone, there were 116903 ounces and 500000 worth of gold "flow to guangzhou". 13 to the desire to make gold miners since people drool with envy, feeling jealous, which caused the white miners safety in Numbers on oppression and plunder Chinese, caused the first Chinese exclusion movement.

Australia to make a living without the experience of the Chinese although the baptism of industrialization, but traditional Chinese don’t hidebound disposition and strong ability to adapt to survive and make them abroad has achieved very good results can do. "The gold rush" wave after the past, a lot of white people are unemployed and frustration, Chinese miners are quick out, plenty of liquid in the city and surrounding areas. Especially in Sydney and Melbourne. In 1880, Sydney had 1014 Chinese; In 1888, the number rose to 4202. 14

Into the city and suburb of Chinese is mainly engaged in manufacturing, the furniture business, planting vegetables, and so on. By 1901, the furniture manufacturing and do business in Victoria Chinese accounting for 10% of the total number of Chinese Victoria, in wales this percentage is 7%. In this industry, Chinese and white competition especially fierce, therefore, the white to Chinese row times worse. They even organized the "furniture manufacturing anti-china coalition", at the same time, the government has been pressure, they claim that cheap Chinese labor has presented a forced them to leave the industry trend. The Chinese took them and their family’s bread; They are in the Chinese don’t equal competition in the disadvantage. 15

But according to the royal commission colonies survey, in furniture manufacturing industry in this industry, general piecework pay salary, so pay in general are equal. So don’t speak of unfair competition. But because the Chinese general skilled craftsmen, with high efficiency. So in the production of white really bad, Chinese wages higher than white. And a pair of white competition adverse factors is employers like hiring Chinese: "they have little trouble trouble, you can rest assured they work." And there are a majority of Chinese is good at business. Not only Chinese situ and overcame many difficulties to remote towns to sell their products. Further, they’ve expanded sales from Melbourne and Sydney in thousands of outside of Tasmania, Australia and south west Australia. And China

It is well known that in the 19 th century to the beginning of 20 centuries of 30 years, the Australian economy has been in recession state. In some industries, capitalist in order to reduce costs, to get more benefit, so as far as possible hire cheap labor, the employment thoughts directly affect the economic interests of white workers, this action, indirect deepened to Chinese white resentment. All this suggests that the white ACTS as the main force of the exclusion of labor. They not only directly with Chinese opposition but also promote the government limits to Chinese. In fact we are still confused, Chinese and immigrants from other parts of the world, to the Australian development have made a contribution. But why does not exclude the Australia other British, French, German, and just reject the Chinese? In fact the deeper reason or Australia white head entrenched white racist.

Australia white think they own is the world’s most outstanding people, other nationalities are inferior people. They decided that the spirit, intellectual and body than the colored to superior and noble, they according to Darwin’s "natural selection" as the basis. Assert that will conquer the world, white global colonization activities of success, proof of natural selection is white "fittest". 18 large adheres to the this kind of idea, they ignore the native American pain, and they plundered and ruthless slaughter aboriginal australians. They put the colored race as should be washed out, they even directly assert that said, colored is simply can’t be enlightened "inferior nation". They want to strike all colored, in Australia to establish a pure white race society. This is what they call a "anglos Saxon genius-the characteristics and custom" society. And an Australian colonial period of the most influential politicians, Henry parker have made clear "white Australia" claim. He said: "Australia to not allow its population of the population of any nature and join the members of the inferior quality…. we must not make or allow people of other RACES into our society. We are not ready to put our right to vote, civil, and including marriage right, the right to social of them any person". 20 so obvious is. The Australian government to limit, prohibited Chinese into the bay, the Macao policy, the purpose of which is to use the power of the regime to keep white ancestry characteristic and the Australian customs. And this is Australia Chinese exclusion of the most fundamental reasons.

In order to make the Chinese exclusion appear as Australia, a lot of the Chinese exclusion coined an excuse. First of all, they promote Chinese into can cause Australia social segregation consequences, destroy Australia "democratic society" basis. They say Chinese still keep yourself in Australia the traditional way of life, and still keep their traditional religious beliefs. White racist declared: "results, not only will they attempt to set up is divided institutions, swallowed the legislative and administrative power colonies, and will they accept shoddy society is professional and political status, that can cause a racial separation in on the basis of the political, economic, all of the separation results of both social. It will lead to establish in all members based on equality, freedom real democratic social destruction." 21

But in fact the excuse is fragile. Because at the time to see the total population. Chinese is less than 1% of the total population, from the employment situation and department to see, almost without Chinese national economy in the important sector; From the political groups see, except a few industry of mutual outside groups, the Chinese did not exist in the larger forces groups. As these examples show that Chinese people in Australia at the threat of Australia won’t test, investigate its basic reason is the other white Australia always colored as inferior race, all the time in addition to the white race of social exclusion in other than members outside. These are all colonial authorities to keep the "white Australia policy".

Second, and they made the white racist incite said. They put forward the move because of sino women rarely, so many Chinese will inevitably and white hybrid, so will break the pure white people Australia lineage. Among the women less sino move is a fact. According to the 1861 census statistics, women accounted for only about four over one thousand of the total number of Chinese immigrants, even after 40 years, account for just 2% of the total number of Chinese. 22 but, Chinese immigrants in Australia there is no home of the business plan, because they just want to make money in Australia and then go back to support the old man and his wife, and children. Plus, the environment of the sinister, working hard, went to Australia Chinese men from hand to mouth can be at most, don’t even say home in Australia and and white women married. Speaking of mixed race, is entirely true.

Making people more no excuse is so-called: Chinese immigrants into Australia is to "peace invasion" account. Some Australian experts point out that, "although Australia a sparsely inhabited, but it is a potential, and thus, the rich land near the geographical position in China to Australia as their country to solve poverty and too crowded population and the relief valve to use." And they even warning Australia "we must remember,…… the process of Asian invasion, even if only has a very mild and the very insignificant characteristics, if years of continue, so may be in 50 or 60 years, will be in a dangerous results among us, that is Australia civilization and social structure destruction. And they in this problem to ignore the immigrants of importance in the development of a country. And the fact that the Chinese immigrants really more of a huge contribution to the development of Australia. For example, living in Sydney, Melbourne in new south wales and Victoria many towns of Australia are main edible Chinese cultivated vegetables. And also, the turn of the century, Sydney, Melbourne in big cities such as bananas, 80% above is Chinese supply and sales by.

Plus it is strictly prohibited to Chinese people make a living at that time the qing government went out to sea. And the opium war, the qing be itself, there are other countries the meaning of aggression. Australian politicians to publicity is completely white supremacists psychology in the way.#p#分页标题#e#

Finally, what is worth mentioning, especially in abroad Chinese Australia long time is excluded, the qing government corruption and incompetence has a direct relationship. The struggle of the Chinese people and adverse and struggle lax also add to the white of the Chinese exclusion arrogance. Early in the mid s, Australia is a wave of exclusion. The qing government at that time really sent staff to Macao of sympathy, but is totally out of the qing government protection face, no to bring substantial interest in Macao Chinese. Australia historians pointed out in China directly diplomatic weak: "China under the reign of the emperor of the population so much, he shuts a little attention to drift in exotic overseas territory up subjects? Even if attention, also do not have diplomatic status to increase the weight of his attention. And instead, Japan is different", this was because there was no strong country for support, overseas Chinese fled but Jackson’s fate. Just as, some overseas Chinese said: "a strong China is to solve the decisive factors of Australia Chinese." 28

The overseas Chinese are, they always hold more than the less about the idea, they are some of the rural poor, no get rid of farmers class limitations. Always because, passive resistance, this reaction, of course, is in the struggle of the underdog.

Australia Chinese exclusion at that time is the great influence, even today, the history is worth our dialectical view and thinking to. In Chinese society is now many factors of the decision. Can we always want to understand, in the international society, one country strength is very important.

《浅析澳大利亚排华运动及其原因》引言:华人在澳大利亚始终是很特殊、很扎眼、甚至是很倔强的一群。这个角色扮演的蹩脚也好,成功也好,也许分贝并不是很高,但必定是明晃晃的,一目了然。华人最早来到澳大利亚是在19世纪40年代,到1858年,已经大约有40000华人踏上了澳大利亚国土。来澳的主要原因就是因为这里有金矿,人们可以在矿区、在农场出卖廉价劳动力聊以为生。当时的华人有几大特征:勤劳肯干、团结、温顺守法、沉默、几乎清一色的男性、赌博、吸鸦片。虽然也受法律保护,但因为他们太能干。常常是在白人干剩下的金矿上也能点石成金,所以华人劳工一直受到强烈的歧视。1  早在明清以前就有中国人移民到海外,那时的海外华人主要是偷渡移出,并且那时的华人主要是被征招到外国充当海外劳工,地位一般比较地下。而且一般这种劳动性移民为男性居多,那时的海外劳工主要以出卖自己的劳动力,而且很多都是非自愿出国。他们为雇主服务,合同期满后,很多华工都选择留在海外,不过依旧从事力气活没有什么技术含量,出卖自己劳动力。很多华人老年的光景很惨淡,食不果腹。19世纪中叶,澳大利亚发现黄金金矿,吸引着包括中国淘金者在内的各国淘金移民。然而中国淘金移民的淘金路并不是畅通无阻的,他们在澳受到白人种族主义者的排斥和不友好对待。澳政府对华行为充耳不闻,逐渐形成了后面臭名昭著的“白澳政策”。20世纪70年代,随着国际局势的变化,中国的政治和经济地位的提高,澳政府明智的废除了这个政策。从此中国赴澳移民逐渐增多,在澳华人的经济和政治地位也随之提高。2那么,就让我们从本文中来了解澳大利亚实行的三次排华运动,以及这三次排华运动背后隐藏着的深层次原因。

一、 澳大利亚排华运动大约1829年。澳洲的牧羊业有所发展,同时澳洲的劳动力匮乏,有人提议在新南威尔士雇佣华人、印度人和太平洋岛上的土著人。3但直到1847年才有第一批华工在悉尼上岸,并且就业于牧场,1850年前澳洲的农场主和牧场主对雇佣的海外工人颇有兴趣,白人和华人之间暂时相安无事。1851年开始的“淘金热”吸引了中国广东地区成千上万的华人,刚开始的海外华人觉得英国人是很友好的,他们把位于澳大利亚金矿区的墨尔本成为“新金山”成群结对的华人涌入澳大利亚,仅到1859年在澳华人就多达4.2万人。4这些华人移民都有一个共同理想,那就是发财致富后衣锦还乡,荣回故里。为了实现这些理想,他们辛苦劳动,克勤克俭,积累财富。随着华人的继续涌入和“淘金热”的持续升温,白人和华人的摩擦也日益显露。摩擦的日益升级终于出现了白人在殖民地的偏袒下驱赶华人劳工的事件。第一次排华运动开始于1854年,当时维多利亚金矿区的白人矿工举行大会,决定把华人矿工赶出矿区,这次暴动有很大影响,幸好当局的及时干预才未酿成大悲剧。可事后,成立的“金矿皇家委员会”在1855年6月通过了排华法案,对来澳船只上的华人数量进行了限制,并且还规定了华人的入境人头税。法案规定凡经登记的船只,每载10吨货方准载华人一名,并且每一位入境华人需交入境人头税10英镑。5这是有记载的澳大利亚历史上第一个排华法案。这个法案的出台使得白人矿工更加肆无忌惮,白人不仅对华人矿工大打出手,还抢劫华工财物,华人矿工损失惨重。不仅如此,他们还向华人征收拘留税,凡12岁以上华人每人每月1英镑。针对这种不公平行为,华人签署了联合签名“祈求议会为平民设想,免除此税。”议会这才将征收标准改为每人每年4英镑。6维多利亚当局感到单独排华收效甚微,于是呼吁新南威尔士和南澳大利亚共同行动联合排斥华人。1857年,南澳大利亚通过了以维多利亚排华法案为蓝本的限制华人入境法案。同时,新南威尔士的法案却因未被议会通过而流产,很多华人纷纷涌向新南威尔士,可在新南威尔士,华人被袭事件依旧此起彼伏。甚至在光天化日之下,华人被抢事件也屡屡发生。而新南威尔士当局非但没有因此而惩罚白人,反而立即通过排华法案来平息华人怒气。三地的联合排华使许多华人被迫离澳,华人在澳数量骤减。加上,由于“淘金热”由盛转衰,白人矿工纷纷转业。7白人与华人在淘金区的矛盾随之减少。于是,各地的排华法案在19世纪60年代先后被废除。第一次排华运动的浪潮过去。1875年,金矿在昆士兰帕尔墨河发现,华人再一次蜂拥而来,并且取得了很大收益。“据估计,那时白人掏取黄金有一百三十万盎司,华人亦有一百三十万盎司。”华人的巨大收益引来了白人矿工的嫉妒,自然,第二次排华运动就这样应运而生。昆士兰是这次运动的主导者。1875年,昆士兰殖民当局向香港殖民当局提出拘留所有开往昆士兰的船只,目的是断绝华人赴昆士兰的源头。次年,昆士兰议会通过法案,提出对华人征收高于白人的采金执照税,除此之外,殖民当局还以退还所纳税金为条件,鼓励华人回国。1877年昆士兰正式通过了《限制华人移民法案》,1878年11月,澳亚汽船公司招募华人引起了欧籍船员的罢工,这次罢工得到了各地白人的广泛声援。白人转向殖民当局,殖民当局对澳亚汽船公司施压,汽船公司只好屈服,逐步解雇华人。8清政府就华人被解雇等一系列事件向英国提出过抗议。英国欲过问,昆士兰却以“澳大利亚的利益”为前提呼吁其他殖民地给予支援。1880年各殖民地代表齐聚墨尔本,并举行了第一次大洋洲殖民区区际会议。在这次会议上,通过了排华法案,这就在全澳范围内形成了排华的全封闭系统。这就是第二次排华运动。值得一提的是,这次的排华法案确实起到了排斥华人的作用,在1877年到1888年11年间,总共只有550名华人进入昆士兰。9第三次排华运动是以1884年4月在维多利亚发生的“阿富汗号”违规事件为开端的。这艘船满载华人。于是同年6月举行的第二次大洋洲殖民区区际会议通过决议,决议规定:任何船只每500吨只准载一名华人入澳;并且禁止华人在殖民地移居;等等。这次会议暗示着排华已经成为澳洲所有殖民区的联合行动。从1897年开始,各殖民区实行《纳塔尔法案》也称《教育测试法案》。此法案规定:凡申请入澳者,必须参加欧洲语言测试,未通过者不得入澳,在法案实施中,欧洲白人一概允许入澳,同时大量日本人和印度人也被允许入澳,只有中国人被排斥在外,大受限制。10在19世纪后半期,在澳大利亚,先是个别殖民区单独排华,运步发展成几个殖民区联合排华 再进一步演进为所有殖民区统一排华,最终导致排华成为澳大利亚的基本国策之一:这一切使华人在澳处境十分恶劣,到1901年时,华人已从1888年的5万人减至3.2万人。11二、 澳大利亚排华原因窥探澳大利亚排华运动持续了几十年,那么导致澳大利亚排华的原因有哪些呢?直接原因应该是白工和华工的经济利益冲突。在那时的澳大利亚虽然白人工人众多,华人工人只占澳洲总人口的1%,但华工具有的强大的集聚财富的能力、吃苦耐劳的精神、超强的适应能力,让白人十分嫉妒。白人感到华人在社会生产的竞争中,对其构成了威胁。华人在澳大利亚为了生存并且集聚财富,省吃俭用,过着十分贫困的生活。南澳大利亚总理在谈及华人生活时说道:“ 他们的生活方式,使他们能在使欧洲人家庭挨饿的地方生活并存钱”。通常,华人也不喜欢和白人直接竞争。但是,华人手中的财富是可观的,他们有很强大的竞争力在“淘金热”中,大多数华人是“与世无争地在别人采过的金矿里挖掘矿渣”,然而,仅在1856年,就有116903盎司和价值50万英镑的黄金“流到广州”。 13对黄金的渴望使自人矿工垂涎三尺,倍感嫉妒,由此引发起白人矿工依仗人多势众欺压和劫掠华人,造成了第一次排华运动。#p#分页标题#e#澳大利亚谋生的华人虽然没有经历过工业化的洗礼,但是传统中国人的不墨守成规的秉性和超强的生存和适应能力使得他们在国外能干取得很好的成绩。“淘金热”浪潮过去以后,很多白人还在为失业而苦恼时,华人矿工则快速转行,大量流动于城市和郊区。尤其是悉尼和墨尔本。1880年,悉尼有华人1014人;1888年,这一数目上升到4202人。14进入城市和郊区的华人主要从事的家具制造业、经商、种植蔬菜等。到1901年,在维多利亚从事家具制造和经商的华人占维多利亚华人总数的10%,在威尔士这个百分比为7%。在这一行业中,华人和白人竞争尤其激烈,因此,白人对华人的排次也更厉害。他们甚至组织起了“家具制造业反华联盟”,同时不断向政府施压,他们声称廉价华人劳工已经呈现出一种迫使他们离开这一行业的趋势。华人抢去了他们及其家人的面包;他们处在于华人不平等竞争中的不利地位。15可据殖民地皇家调查委员会调查,在家具制造业这个行业,一般实行计件支付工资,所以工资一般来说是平等的。因此不平等竞争无从说起。可因为华人工匠一般技术熟练,功效高。因此在生产中确实对白人不利,华人工资水平普遍高于白人。又一对白人竞争不利的因素是雇主喜欢雇佣华人:“他们很少找麻烦,你能放心他们所干的活。”16其次还有大部分华人都善于经营。华人不仅就地而且克服重重困难到边远乡镇去推销他们的产品。进一步,他们又把销售范围扩展到离墨尔本和悉尼数千里以外的塔斯马尼亚、南澳大利亚和西澳大利亚去。17华众所周知的是在19世纪末到20世纪初的30年,澳大利亚经济一直处于不景气状态。在一些行业中,资本家为了降低成本,获取更多利益,于是尽可能雇佣廉价劳动力,这个雇佣思想直接影响了白人工人的经济利益,这个举措间接加深了白人对华人的反感。所有这些都表明白人劳工充当着排华的主力军。他们不仅直接与华人对立而且还积极推动政府立法限制华人。其实我们还是很困惑,华人和来自世界其他地方的移民一样,都为澳大利亚的开发做出了贡献。但为什么澳大利亚不排斥其他英国人、法国人、德国人,而单单排斥中国人呢?其实更深层次的原因还是澳大利亚白人脑子里根深蒂固的白人种族主义。澳大利亚白人认为他们自己是世界上最优秀的民族,其他民族都是劣等民族。他们认定自己在精神上、智力上和体魄上都比有色人种要优越和高贵,他们根据达尔文的“自然选择”为依据。断言会征服全世界,白人全球性殖民活动的成功,证明白人是自然选择的“适者”。18大秉着这种观念,他们无视土著人的痛苦,他们无情掠夺、残杀澳洲土著。他们把有色的人种视为应被淘汰的,他们甚至直接断言说,有色人种是根本不能被开化的“劣等民族”。他们想打击所有有色人种,在澳大利亚建立一个纯白色人种的社会。这就是他们所称的“盎格鲁—撒克逊血统的特征和风俗习惯”的社会。19 一位澳大利亚殖民地时期最具影响力的政治家亨利•帕克斯明确表达了“白澳”的主张。他说:“澳大利亚不允许在它的人口中人口中的加入任何本性和品质低劣的成员。……我们绝对不能促成或准许其他种族的人进入我们的社会。我们不准备把我们的选举权、公民权、以及包括婚姻权在内的社会权利给予他们之中的任何人”。20所以显而易见的是。澳大利亚政府采取限制、禁止华人入澳、居澳的政策,其目的就是要用政权的力量去保持澳大利亚白人血统的特征和风俗。而这一点才是澳大利亚排华的最根本原因。澳大利亚为了使排华显得正当,杜撰了很多排华的借口。首先,他们宣扬华人的进入会造成澳大利亚社会种族隔离的后果,破坏澳大利亚“民主社会”的基础。他们说华人在澳依旧保持自己的传统生活方式,并且依旧保持自己的传统宗教信仰。白人种族主义者宣称:“结果,不仅将是他们企图建立起分立的机构,吞食殖民地的立法权和行政权,而且将是他们接受劣等的社会职业和政治地位,那就会造成一个在种族分离基础上的政治、经济都分离的社会。上面两种结果都将导致建立在所有成员平等、自由基础上真正民主社会的灭亡。”21但其实这个借口是不堪一击的。因为从当时总人口来看。华人还不到总人口的1%,从就业情况和部门来看 ,几乎无一华人涉足国民经济的重要部门;从政治团体看,除少数行业的互助性团体以外,华人中并不存在较大的势力团体。这些事例表明,在澳华人根本构不成对澳大利亚的威胁,究其根本原因是澳洲白人始终把其他有色人种视为劣等人种,一直把除白人以外的人种排斥在社会成员之外。这些都是殖民当局奉行的“白澳政策”。其次,他们又杜撰了白人种族主义煽动说。他们提出因为移澳华人中妇女极少,那么很多华人势必要和白人混血,这样就会打破澳大利亚的纯白人血统。移澳华人中妇女少这是事实。根据1861年人口普查统计,妇女仅占移民华人总数的千分之四左右,即使过了40年,也只占华人总数的2%左右。22可是,华人移民根本就没有在澳安家立业的打算,因为他们只想在澳挣钱然后回家赡养老人和妻子、儿女。再加上,环境的险恶,从业的艰难,赴澳的男性华人最多只能勉强糊口,更不要说在澳安家而且和白人妇女结婚了。混血的说话,完全是危言耸听。让人更加无语的借口是所谓的:华人移民涌入澳洲是为了“和平入侵”之计。一些澳洲专家指出,“虽然澳大利亚人烟稀少,但却是一块潜在的富裕之地,因而,处于临近地理位置的中国把澳大利亚作为解决他们国家穷困而人口又过分拥挤问题的安全阀来利用。”23他们甚至警告澳大利亚人“我们必须记住,……亚洲人入侵的过程,哪怕只具有非常温和及很微不足道的特征,如果年复一年的继续下去,那么可能在50或60年中,就会在我们之中产生危险的结果,那就是澳大利亚文明和社会结构的毁灭。24他们在这个问题上忽略了移民对一个国家发展的重要性。而且事实证明华人的移民确实多澳大利亚的发展有巨大贡献。比如,居住在悉尼、墨尔本以新南威尔士和维多利亚许多城镇的澳大利亚人都主要食用华人种植的蔬菜。25而且,19世纪末20世纪初,悉尼、墨尔本等大城市的香蕉,80%以上是由华人供应和销售的。再加上当时清政府严禁中国人出海谋生。而且鸦片战争,清朝自身难保,那还有侵略他国之意。澳洲政治家的宣传鼓动完全是白人至上心理在作祟。最后,值得一提的是,华人在国外尤其是澳大利亚长时间被排斥,这与清政府的腐败无能有着直接关系。加上华人的斗争不利和斗争松懈也助长了白人的排华气焰。早在50年代中期,澳洲就掀起了排华浪潮。清政府在那时确实派了人员来澳实行慰问,但完全是出于保护清政府的面子,根本就没有给在澳华人带来实质性利益。澳大利亚史学家直接指出了中国在外交上的软弱无能:“中国皇帝统治下的人口那么多,他何苦要关注那么一点点漂流海外到异国领土上去的臣民呢?即使关注了,也没有外交地位去加重他的关注的分量。27相反,日本却不一样”,这是因为没有强大的国家作后盾,海外华人逃不过任人宰割的命运。正如,某个海外华人说的:“一个强大的中国是解决澳大利亚华人的决定因素。”28海外华人也是一样,他们永远抱着多一事不如少一事的想法,他们都是些贫困的农民,没有摆脱农民阶级的局限性。总是势单力薄,消极抵抗,这样的反应,当然是处于斗争下风的。澳大利亚排华在那时是由巨大影响的,即使在今天,这些历史也是值得我们来辩证看待和思考的。华人在现在社会上的地位是多方面因素所决定的。可我们始终要明白,在国际社会,一国实力是很重要的。


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