中小企业的概观Over View Of Small Medium Sized Enterprises在目前的商业环境中，高科技中小企业（中小企业）在全球市场中扮演着越来越重要的作用。这些公司被认为是包括一个强大的全球焦点，虽然他们缺乏足够的资源必不可少的组织良好的全球化，以及新兴的国际市场机会。虽然许多研究预测，文化空间，市场规模，地理距离有一个主要影响目标国家的选择，这些研究提供了很少的了解这些因素之间的相互关系，以及目标国家的偏好。在这篇文章中，它是研究文化空间的影响，市场规模以及地理距离变量对目标国家的中小企业在制造业的偏好。In the present business surroundings, high-technology small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are playing an progressively more significant part in global market. These firms are considered as comprising a strong global focus from their beginning, though they lack adequate resources essential for well-organized globalization, based on complete data on the fresh, emerging international market opportunities. Though many researches have projected that cultural space, market size, and geographical distance have a main impact on the target country choice, these studies supply little understanding of interrelationships among these factors as well as the target country preference. In this article, it is examined that the influence of cultural space, the market size as well as geographical distance variables on the target country preference of SMEs in the manufacture industry. In an account, an investigation of how these factors influence the choice of the different target countries shows a move of precedences in SMEs' country selection.Manufacturing is critical to the continuos success of the market. Looking forward, a flourishing current manufacturing sector is vital to the future achievement of the global market. Manufacturers face main challenges basically in the short-term and the global fiscal slowdown compounded by high input costs for energy as well as raw materials and on the other side with the longer term, the speed of globalisation continue to build up. But at the same point of time, longer term changes in the global market present great opportunities from growing as well as new markets. Economy of the 21st century, with worldwide connections providing prepared access to international markets as well as a ï¬‚exible work force and light touch regulatory surroundings enabling earlieras well as more informed responses to varying demand. Therefore it is essential that Metricum manufacturing continues to have the correct long-term structure of support to make sure it emerges from the worldwide slowdown stronger as well as ï¬tter than ever, and improved located to exploit the opportunities of an increasingly interrelated economy.Based on wide consultation as well as running with the Ministerial Advisory Group on Manufacturing and stakeholders. Government is introducing a new Manufacturing Strategy. This manufactures on the base of the current strategy launched in 2010. The Government is clearly stated that future lies in a diverse as well as balanced economy where activities of manufacturing balance services to carry the widest promising range of economic beneï¬ts across all county and also create skilful jobs which span the whole value chain from research to fabrication, sales and branding. In addition, demand and growth in manufacturing as well as in new services strengthen each other. Metricum's vision is for a globally competitive manufacturing firm that leads the world to capture superior value mechanism of the universal value chain while combine areas of existing relative advantage, including activities with high technology manufacturing. To achieve given goals metricum need to make sure that they contain the correct skills mix from design to engineering to project management.These factors stay as relevant at present as well as on the basis of Governmental support for nationally and regionally. In 2009 the Government extended the role of the Manufacturing Advisory Service (MAS) which has helped thousands of existing businesses as well as new markets and is also available across all over the England. Companies that have pursued the free advice of MAS have saved around £600 million by getting better their efï¬ciency as well as effectiveness throughout the prologue of lean manufacturing methods.The Government has also set up National Skills Academies which including Manufacturing, and recognized the Technology plan Board to put in new innovations as well as technologies for the business benefits which helps R&D intensive sector and success.The Government has checked as well as strengthened this strategy to focus on helping manufacturers to meet challenges and grab the latest opportunities coming from them. The new strategy helps to set out a outline which will inform a active process of making as well as implementing present and future programmes and policies for manufacturing. By making the right skills by using technological world class science base, firm can make the situation in which ï¬rms can construct on their achievement in high value-added sectors as well as to know their potential.Firms in the Europe as well as globally are rising their asset in insubstantial or knowledge assets such as design as well as other portion of product development, training, brand-building as well as development to trade procedures in order to get better their competitiveness and also enabling their manufactured goods to meet up the varying needs of clients. Europe manufacturers increased their investment in intangibles by to £33 billion in 2008 and more than double the ï¬gure for usual gross capital expenditures. Emerging evidence proposes that manufacturers spend much in intangibles than service ï¬rms. According to recent CBI survey, trend is set to raise further, showed 58% of ï¬rms be expecting design as well as expansion to be their most significant basis of spirited advantage in six years. According to their relative compensation through specialisation, European manufacturing ï¬rms are tied together, in particular the Europe's inspired as well as design knowledge as well as world's foremost business forces such as branding, consultancy and logistics. Combining the Europe's power in the inspired market with those in manufacturing can help to protected long term competition. Understanding Modern Manufacturing (CBI, 2007).Skilled staffs is necessary for Europe's manufacturing to stand up globally as well as for the Europe to retain high value added activities and attract market. Investment in skills is amongst the most vital that manufacturers can create as well as meeting the talent needs of business and potential investors is essential to the long term competitiveness of economy. Evidence recommends that a change in manufacturing is taking place with a growing proportion of employ being in more highly expert professions. Modern manufacturing is planned to need an extra approximate 326,000 engineers and scientists by 2015, but manufacturers are also making more complex desires for skills in design as well as marketing as well as teamwork, management and leadership and a more general set of ï¬‚exible skills that allow people to effort more efficiently across regulations.Exporting is basically the direct sale as well as marketing of produced goods domestically in a new market. Exporting is a well-established and traditional way of reaching unfamilier markets. Since exporting does not involve the goods be formed in the target market and no investment in manufacture amenities is required. Most of the costs related with exporting take the shape of marketing charge.Licensing basically enables a business in the targeted country to utilize the belongings of the licensor and such property generally is intangible such as patents, production techniques as well as trademarks. The fees taken by the licensee in exchange for the rights to make use of the intangible property as well as possibly for technical assistance.Licensor needs to investment little amount. Licensing has the potential to offer a very huge ROI. Though the licensee creates as well as markets the product, potential profits from marketing activities and manufacturing may be lost.Accordingly there are 5 general objectives in a joint venture: risk/reward sharing, market entry, joint product development, technology sharing and conforming to government policy. Other benefits comprise political relations and delivery channel access that might depend on contact.Foreign Direct Investment 外国直接投资Foreign direct investment (FDI) is the direct rights of services in the targeted country. It engages the move of resources counting personnel, capital and technology. Direct foreign investment could be made in the course of the achievement of an existing unit or the establishment of a new project.Direct ownership supplies a high amount of control in the act as well as the ability to enhanced know the customers and spirited environment. Though it needs a high level of capital and a high degree of commitment as well.External Environment – PESTLE AnalysisPOLITICAL: – Following the European Integration and Free Trade Agreements, Market has released up for manufacturing business to invest in Eastern Europe. Metricum already have good market in different countries such as china and Sweden. Competitors are fighting to uphold their market share with a violent pricing policy.#p#分页标题#e#ECONOMIC – the Manufacturing division is fairly recession prawn as well as also very delicate to changes in tax. Since the actions of September 11th the world economy have experienced heavily, stocks fallen as well as prices are low at all times. However the world economy is on the up post September 11th. Customers are positive as well as the manufacturing industry is again booming.SOCIAL – modification in customer taste as well as lifestyle stand for both threats and opportunities for the industry. There are added threats opportunities in terms of new market and customers, however, alternative recognized Swedish national Manufacturer.TECHNICAL: – Alteration in manufacture systems as such production and operation are now an ordinary place in manufacturing. Paperless procedure, the administration and management of the company are carried out on IT systems that are accessed through protected servers supply flexibility in growing of the business. As Sweden is known for its technological advancement with brand such as Ericsson, Metricum would enjoy the comprehensive logistics as well as supply channels are in place.LEGAL: – National legislation for health as well as safety both in terms of customer rights and in terms of manufacture of personal ordinary renewable income for developed resources.ENVIRONMENTAL: – The renewable source of resources used in making, have to be environmentally friendly. The pressures are in conditions of officially permitted cost for livestock's in terms of health as well as safety.Market Entry Strategy 市场进入策略Ansoff's product/market matrix assists to understand directions for Metricum's strategic growth. This matrix proposes guidelines for strategic choice available to Metricum in terms of market coverage and products taking into consideration its tactical ability as well as also demands of stakeholders.The Ansoff matrix offers the base for an companies aims in setting techniques and sets the base of directional strategy for its future (Bennett, 1994). The Ansoff matrix can be used as a model for calculating aims and objectives such as other models like Porter five forces, DPM matrix, BCG and Gap analysis etc. The Ansoff matrix can also be used in audits for marketing (Li, 1999). The Ansoff matrix involves four potential market combinations: market development, Market penetration, diversification and product development (Ansoff 1957, 1989). The four market combinations strategies are given and elaborated below.Market penetration: – Market penetration comes into picture when a company penetrates a market with its existing products. It is important to make a note of that the market penetration plan starts with the existing clients of the company. This strategy is basically used by companies to increase sales without itinerant from the unique market strategy (Ansoff, 1957). Metricum can start its manufacturing in new market with its existing products and can penetrate market slowly so that at initial stage there won't be any kind of heavy risk related to business. businesses often penetrate markets in one of three given ways: by improving the product quality ,by getting competitors customers, attracting new-users of the products towards product or by convincing current clients to use company's product more, along with the help of marketing communications gear like advertising etc. (Ansoff, 1989, Lynch, 2003). This strategy is significant for company since attracting existing customers is much easier than getting new ones this is the main reason that companies such as BMW and Toyota (Lynch, 2003), as well as banks HSBC hold relationship marketing activities to keep their high lifetime worth customers.Product development: – This is another strategic option for a company is to invent new products. Product development takes place when a organization develops new products catering to the existing market. This development is not valid for Metricum as Metricum wants to grab new market not new product and in this section new product development takes place. Product development refers to important new product developments and not any kind of minor changes in an existing product. The reasons to use this strategy include one or more of the following: to make use of excess production ability, oppose competitive entrance, to maintain the company's status as a product leader, develop new technology, as well as to defend overall market share (Lynch, 2003). Frequently one such plan moves the company into marketplace as well as towards customers who are currently not being catered for the product.Market development: – When a business pursues the market growth strategy, it goes beyond its instant customer base to attracting new consumers for its existing products. This strategy always involves the sale of existing products but in new international markets. This strategy is best suited strategy for Metricum as they want to established new market for their manufacturing. This may involve examination of new division of a market, new use of the company's products as well as services, and new geographical areas to attract new customers (Lynch, 2003).Diversification: – Diversification strategy is separate in the logic that while a company diversifies, it fundamentally goes out of its existing products as well as markets into new scenario. It is significant to know that diversification could be into related or unrelated sectors. Related diversification could be in the form of forward, backward and horizontal integration. Backward integration comes into picture while the company expands its performance towards its participants like suppliers of raw materials etc. in the same field. Forward integration is totally different from backward integration and in this the company expands its activities towards its outputs like distribution etc. whereas Horizontal integration takes place while a company moves into its existing businesses which are related to existing performance (Lynch, 2003; Macmillan et al, 2000).Marketing ObjectiveMetricum can have the following objectives:20% European Market share30% Profitability, in terms of operating marginCustomer advocacy (the number of consumers who advise merchandise from Metricum, do again business)Appreciated company (the number of stakeholders who respect Metricum)Employee motivation (the number of employees who are motivated to work with Metricum's goals)Porter's Five Forces 波特竞争模型分析The form of pure opposition entails that risk-adjusted rates of return should be steady across firms as well as industries. Though, numerous financial studies have confirmed that different sectors can sustain dissimilar levels of productivity; part of this dissimilarity is explained by manufacturing arrangement.Michael Porter offered a framework that model an industry as being prejudiced by five forces. The planned commerce executive looking to develop an edge more against rival firms can use this mock-up to better know the business context in which the firm runs.I.RivalryIn the traditional economic model, competition among rival firms drives profits to zero. But competition is not perfect and firms are not unsophisticated passive price takers. Rather, firms strive for a competitive advantage over their rivals. The intensity of rivalry among firms varies across industries, and strategic analysts are interested in these differences.II. Threat of SubstitutesIn Porter's model, substitute products refer to products in other industries. To the economist, a threat of substitutes exists when a product's demand is affected by the price change of a substitute product. A product's price elasticity is affected by substitute products – as more substitutes become available, the demand becomes more elastic since customers have more alternatives. A close substitute product constrains the ability of firms in an industry to raise prices.III. Buyer PowerThe power of buyers is the impact that customers have on a producing industry. In general, when buyer power is strong, the relationship to the producing industry is near to what an economist terms a monopsony – a market in which there are many suppliers and one buyer. Under such market conditions, the buyer sets the price. In reality few pure monopsonies exist, but frequently there is some asymmetry between a producing industry and buyers. The following tables outline some factors that determine buyer power.IV. Supplier PowerA producing industry requires raw materials – labor, components, and other supplies. This requirement leads to buyer-supplier relationships between the industry and the firms that provide it the raw materials used to create products. Suppliers, if powerful, can exert an influence on the producing industry, such as selling raw materials at a high price to capture some of the industry's profits. The following tables outline some factors that determine supplier power.V. Threat of New Entrants and Entry Barriers#p#分页标题#e#It is not only incumbent rivals that pose a threat to firms in an industry; the possibility that new firms may enter the industry also affects competition. In theory, any firm should be able to enter and exit a market, and if free entry and exit exists, then profits always should be nominal. In reality, however, industries possess characteristics that protect the high profit levels of firms in the market and inhibit additional rivals from entering the market. These are barriers to entry.Our descriptive and analytic models of industry tend to examine the industry at a given state. The nature and fascination of business is that it is not static. While we are prone to generalize, for example, list GM, Ford, and Chrysler as the "Big 3" and assume their dominance, we also have seen the automobile industry change. Currently, the entertainment and communications industries are in flux. Phone companies, computer firms, and entertainment are merging and forming strategic alliances that re-map the information terrain.