引言组织文化是组织的个性。文化渗透到组织成员的臆想，具体的体征和行为里，一个组织的文化可以等同于一个系统,只要输入一定的职业,英雄,社会,主角、法律、服务或竞争,价值等，就会得到你需要的反馈，文化是基于我们的价值观,道德规范和假设。例如,我们如何评判钱,空间,时间,人,或设施的价值，我们的文化输出或文化影响包括技术、形象,组织行为,策略,形象,服务,产品等。根据史肯(2004),文化是一个动态的现象包围着我们,这是通过我们与他人的互动创建和实施的。这也是由我们的领导人的行为,道德规范,指导和约束行为,一组结构,程序和规则(2010年麦克纳马拉,帕拉州。)所形成的。当文化是把组织的水平,甚至是该组织的成员提升到一个水平，我们就能见证文化是如何发展，深入，影响，甚至创造组织的稳定发展，文化是如何给组织成员提供约束和有意义的结构。这些也是文化的动态管理流程和创建领导体系的本质(2004年史肯,）Organisation's culture is the organisation's personalityINTRODUCTION:Organisation's culture is the organisation's personality. Culture involves the organisational members' assumptions, tangible signs and behaviors. An organisation's culture can be equated with a system where the inputs may involve the feedback from professions, heroes, societies, stories, laws, values on service or competition, etc. the culture is based on our values, norms and assumptions. For instance, how we value money, space, time, people, or facilities (Parker, 2000). The effects or the outputs of our culture may include the technology, image, behaviors in the organisation, strategies, appearances, services, products etc. According to Schein (2004), culture is a dynamic phenomenon which surrounds us all the time and which is created and enacted through our interactions with others and which is shaped by the behaviors of our leaders, norms that guide and restrain behavior, a set of structures, routines and rules (McNamara 2010, para. 1). When culture is brought to the organisation's level and even to the organisation's members, one is able to witness how it is evolved, embedded, manipulated and created also how culture stabilises, provides meaning, constrains, and provides structure to members of a group. These culture's dynamic processes of management and creation are the essence of leadership (Schein 2004, p. 1).Organisational culture involves shared basic assumptions that are learnt by a group as they solve their external adaptations as well as their internal integration problems and which have been working well and are considered valid for teaching of new members as the best way to think, perceive and feel in a relationship with those problems (OC 2005, para. 2). As organisations evolve over time, they are faced with two basic challenges: individual integration into an effective whole; and effective adaptation to external environment for survival. As groups try to find solutions to problems over time, they get engaged in learning collectively which then creates the pattern of shared beliefs and assumptions normally called culture. According to Morgan Gareth, culture is a phenomenon which is living and through which people create and recreate jointly the worlds in which they live in. (Morgan, 2006).According to Morgan, cultural elements of an organisation are: values, unstated and stated; obvious and implicit expectations for behavior of the members; symbols and metaphors which may be unconscious but are found in other elements of culture; climate, this involves the feelings that are evoked as a result of members interaction with their environment, the outsiders and each other; myths and stories of the group's history; shop talk, this is the normal language that the group uses in and about; and rituals and customs (OC 2005, para. 5).Each and every organisation has its own personality and for the organisation to ensure its success for a long time there is need for its culture to be effectively managed. The culture management processes are designed to facilitate firms in defining their culture and to help them understand its effects on organisational success and behavior (Black, 2003).APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT OF CULTUREAn organisation's culture management contributes highly to its long term success. Management of culture focuses on: identification of what culture is and what an organisation thinks or says it is; determination of what culture should be in order to promote the consistent of behavior with the goals of the company; plan development on how to take the organisation from its original position to a position where it needs to be in accordance with its culture (Management Systems 2004, para. 4).MANAGEMENT OF CULTURE IN AN ORGANISATIONAn organisation's culture contributes to its profitability and success on a long term basis. This is why it is very crucial to manage organisational culture. For effective culture management, an organisation needs to follow the following:Collect data. This is information collection about a firm's systems and culture, structures and the processes that support it. This information can be collected through conducting interviews on a one on one or sessions with a few selected employees who will help identify the nature of the firm's culture. A culture survey can also be conducted on a large sample of employees. Surveys about an organisation's development can also be conducted to help identify the degree of the problems experienced in a company with respect to its structure, systems and management of culture process.Analysis of data and report. The data collected is analysed and synthesised. A report is then prepared which outlines the firm's real current culture, the gaps between a firm's current and the desired culture, the firm's structures, processes and systems that are in support of the current culture and that may reinforce or obstruct the desired culture, recommendations that are designed to increase effectiveness of an organisation and improve the desired culture management.Findings presentations and discussions. This entails a culture workshop designed to help participants to understand what culture is; to understand their firm's current culture; to create a statement of the desired culture of their firm; to begin to develop steps with actions for effective management of their firm's culture. (Management Systems 2004, para. 3).To keep the employees aligned with the goals and values of an organisation, the leadersneed to create a culture that will encourage employees to keep focus on their works higher purpose. The key is to create an environment where the employees value and enjoy their work. It is of importance to understand an organisation's culture. To create a successful culture a positive environment needs to be created (Alvesson, 2002).MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE IN AN ORGANISATIONManagement of change entails a plan which is well thought of, implementation that is sensitive and above all involving and consulting the people whom these changes affect. When a change is forced on people it normally creates problems. The proposed change must be achievable, measurable and realistic (Burnes, 2004). Before an organisational change is initiated certain questions have to be evaluated by the people instigating it: what achievements will be realised by the change; the reasons and the means of knowing that the change has been attained; the people who will be affected by the change and their possible reactions towards it; the degree of the change that can be achieved and the part of the change where help may be needed (Chapman 2009, para. 1).Selling change to people in order for a quick agreement or implementation is not a goodstrategy for sustainable success. Instead, it is good for change to be understood and to be managed in such a way that the people involved will effectively cope with it. It is important to consult on the intended change so that the reasons for change can gain support (DurBrin, 2008). When other people are informed and consequently involved in the change enhancement, the burden of change is lightened as the organisational load is spread creating an ownership and familiarity sense and an opportunity for the people affected to get involved in the planning and implementation of the change. According to Chapman (2009), change is very unsettling and so it will be logical for the manager to be a settling influence. The manager should also check that those people to be affected by change are in agreement with it or can at least understand why the change is inevitable and have a chance in decision making in the management of change and to get involved in the change' planning and implementation (Mehrabian's, 2009).When handling change management of organisational aspects that are deemed sensitive, it is advisable to use face to face mode of communication as notices that are written or emails are very weak at conveying or making people understand (Chapman 2009, para. 2-4). When a quick change is needed one has to consider whether the urgency is real, and whether the presiding effects due to limited time frame will be more disastrous than the change itself. Quick changes lack proper involvements and consultations which may lead to more difficulties that will take a long time to be resolved (Keyton, 2005).#p#分页标题#e#For those organisation's change that entails new actions, processes and objectives to involve a team or a group, Chapman recommends use of workshops in order to achieve goals that are measurable, achieve understanding among the involved people, their commitments, actions, plans, and involvement. These change principles are applicable even on those changes that are considered to be very tough like organisational closures, making people redundant, organisational mergers or acquisitions. When delivering bad news, careful management change is much needed than the routine change. Managers should not deliver the news via memos or through their assistants, it is good to consult and help the people involved understand, this does not make the managers weak rather it strengthens their position. Those leaders who do not consult or fail to involve people in bad news management are perceived to lack integrity and to being weak. When people are treated with respect and humanity they tend to reciprocate the same (Chapman 2009, para. 9). The change leaders should be mindful that most staff have the change as their chief insecurity. People react differently to change and this may put the organisation's operations in jeopardy if not well managed. As a rule for the directors and the senior managers who are responsible for organisation's change management, they should not fear the change, they should thrive on it. People do not delight in change, it is rather threatening and deeply disturbing, it is equivalent to one's fear of failure (Chapman 2009, para. 10).CHANGE MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITYIt is not the employee's responsibility to manage change. They are however, charged with the responsibility of doing their best which varies depending on one's experience, maturity, motivation, health, personality, stability etc. it is the organisation's management and executives responsibility to manage change and to do it in such a way that the employees will be able to cope with it. Facilitation and change enabling is the manager's responsibility and everything that entails change especially objectively understanding the situation i.e. not to be judgmental and to help the staff understand the aims, and reasons for change and ways to positively respond in accordance to staff's capabilities and own situations. The role of the manager should be communicate, to interpret and to enable as opposed to imposing and instructing which nobody responds well to (Chapman 2009, para. 11).CHANGE IMPOSED AND CHANGE INVOLVEMENTWhen expressions such as mindset change or changing attitudes of people are used, they often indicate an intention to enforce or to impose change. It also strongly implies that it is the belief of the organisation that its staff members have the wrong mind set which is always not the case. If the staffs are not effectively approaching their tasks or the organisation, it is the organisation which has the wrong mind set. New systems and environments are created due to change such as new policies, disposals, structures, relocations, acquisitions and targets which people need to be explained to in the earliest possible time so that they can get involved, validate and refine them. There always result to difficulties when new things are imposed on people by an organisation (Change Management 2010).It is very important when an organisation communicates openly in full and early on the impending changes and gives a chance to the staff to participate and get involved. When an organisation requires to develop a collective approach, method, idea, understanding or a system, organising workshops is the best way to achieve this (Workshops 2009, para. 1). It is also advisable that an organisation conducts an anonymous staff survey which should be published and the findings acted upon in order to repair damage and mistrust among the staff. Managers are very important to the process of change to not only implement and convey polices from above but also to facilitate and to enable the process. Change should not be imposed on any one, instead there should be empowerment of people to facilitate them find their own responses and solutions with their manager's support and facilitation as well as the executives and leader's compassion and tolerance (Khan 2005, para. 1-2) The clever policies and processes of an organisation are not as important as the behavior and style of leaders and managers. There is a dire need for the organisation to be able to be trusted by their employees. If these change ideas are not worked upon by the leaders, there is likelihood of a painful change and even of loss of the beat people in the organisation.PRINCIPLES OF CHANGE MANAGEMENTAccording to Chapman, there are five principles towards management of change. These are: involving and agreeing to be supported by people within the system. The system may consist of the environment, culture, processes, behaviors, relationships etc; understanding where the organisation is at the moment; understanding where the organisation wants to be, the reasons for being there, when, and the measures to be taken once got there; planning development in the proper achievable measures; and communicating, enabling, involving and facilitating people's involvement in the most open and earliest time possible.PEOPLE AND CHANGEPeople generally have a strong resistance towards change. The change leaders are required to have a lot of patience and tolerance in order to help people go through change and may be look at it in a positive manner. The change leaders also need to be mindful of people's weaknesses and strengths as not everyone will welcome change. The leaders should take time to understand the people they are dealing with and how and the reason they feel the way they do before taking an action against them (Cameron & Quinn, 2005).SUCCESSFUL CHANGEAccording to Kotter (2005), successful change has eight steps these are: Urgency increase, this involves inspiring people to move and making the objectives to seem relevant and real; building the guiding team, this is getting the right people with the right mix of levels and skills and who are committed well emotionally; getting the vision right, this is getting the change team to have a simple strategy and vision and to focus on the necessary aspects in order to drive efficiency and service; buy in communication, this is communicating the essentials and involving as many people as possible and appealing and responding to people's needs, involves also making the technology work for you rather than against you; empowering actions, this involves removing obstacles and enabling feedback and support from the leaders. Also involves recognition of achievements and progress; creation of wins that are short term, this involves setting goals that are easily achievable, initiatives that are manageable and finishing whatever one is working on before starting on another one; not to let up, this is encouraging and fostering persistence and determination, giving a report of the progress by highlighting the achieved and future goals; making the change to stick, this is by reinforcing the significance of the successful change through new change leaders, promotion and recruitment. Transform change into culture (Kotter, 2005).CONCLUSIONPeople generally have a strong resistance towards change. The change leaders are required to have a lot of patience and tolerance in order to help people go through change and may be look at it in a positive manner. The change leaders also need to be mindful of people's weaknesses and strengths as not everyone will welcome change. The leaders should take time to understand the people they are dealing with and how and the reason they feel the way they do before taking an action against them.An organisation's culture is the organisation's personality. Culture involves the organisational members' assumptions, tangible signs and behaviors. An organisation's culture can be equated with a system where the inputs may involve the feedback from professions, heroes, societies, stories, laws, values on service or competition, etc. the culture is based on our values, norms and assumptions. For instance, how we value money, space, time, people, or facilities. The effects or the outputs of our culture may include the technology, image, behaviors in the organisation, strategies, appearances, services, and products.It is not the employee's responsibility to manage change. They are however, charged with the responsibility of doing their best which varies depending on one's experience, maturity, motivation, health, personality, stability etc. it is the organisation's management and executives responsibility to manage change and to do it in such a way that the employees will be able to cope with it. Facilitation and change enabling is the manager's responsibility and everything that entails change especially objectively understanding the situation i.e. not to be judgmental and to help the staff understand the aims, and reasons for change and ways to positively respond in accordance to staff's capabilities and own situations.