英国大学课程作业essay目前，比特币发展的速度是很快的，投资者都纷纷选择这种货。这是一种数字型的货，并没有经过中央银行的正式发行。人们在自己的电脑上安装密码软件，在网络上只要是经过双方同意的，就可以使用这种虚拟的货进行交易。本周之内，比特币价格上升迅猛，已经超过了一千美金，而在一个月之前还不足十五美金。长久以来比特币一直被自由主义者毒贩以及主张金本位的人们所喜爱。目前现在正在吸引着新的一批粉丝，但是让人吃惊的就是，德国已经认可了比特币，把它当做一种计算单位。”美联储（fed）主席本•伯南克（Ben Bernanke）对于参与讨论人员解释了该虚拟货币的用途，还说比特币的发展潜力比较大。有些商场和公司在运营之中也接受了比特币的支付方式，数量虽然小，但是用途比较大。有很多人喜欢这个过程，并且允许用户在使用过程中可以直接转移，不需要中间商之类的。另外这些人之所以喜欢比特币是因为它可以匿名交易，或者是因为比特币在交易过程之中规定了交易上限。BITCOIN is booming. Investors are piling into the digital currency, which is not issued by a central bank but is conjured into being by cryptographic software running on a network of volunteers’ computers. This week the price of a Bitcoin soared to above $1,000, from less than $15 in January.Having long been favoured by libertarians, gold bugs and drug dealers, Bitcoin is attracting some surprising new fans. Germany has recognised it as a “unit of account”. Ben Bernanke, chairman of the Federal Reserve, told a Senate committee on virtual currencies that the idea “may hold long-term promise”. A small but growing band of shops and firms accept payments in Bitcoin. Some like the way it allows funds to be transferred directly between users, without middlemen. Others are attracted by the potential for anonymous transfers, or by the fact that the number of Bitcoins in circulation has a fixed upper limit—so there is no way a central bank can inflate their value away by issuing more.But the recent price surge, driven by Chinese investors stashing money offshore, looks like a classic bubble. Hoarding means that Bitcoin is currently more of a speculative asset than a currency. And a crash is not the only risk Bitcoin users face. As the price rises, Bitcoin theft is increasing, both from individuals and from online exchanges that store the coins and convert them into other currencies. Around $1m in Bitcoins was recently stolen from BIPS, a European exchange. GBL, a Chinese Bitcoin exchange, abruptly vanished in October, taking $4.1m-worth of deposits with it.The system itself is straining at the seams (see Technology Quarterly). The amount of computing power consumed by its transaction-verification system, which has the side-effect of “mining” new Bitcoins, is mushrooming: it now far exceeds that of the world’s 500 fastest supercomputers combined. At the same time Bitcoin’s method of recording and processing transactions, and compensating those who verify them, is becoming unwieldy. Adjusting Bitcoin’s protocols, however, requires getting the volunteers who maintain its software to agree on the necessary changes, and the Bitcoin community to adopt them, before anything goes wrong.Excitement about Bitcoin, and concerns about its limitations, have prompted the emergence of many other cryptocurrencies, or altcoins. Litecoin, for example, retains Bitcoin’s limited money supply but offers faster transactions and is intended to prevent a computational arms-race among miners. And whereas Bitcoin was created by a mysterious figure known as Satoshi Nakamoto, who vanished in 2010, Litecoin’s creator, Charles Lee, makes no secret of his identity. Peercoin has no money-supply limit, built-in inflation of 1% and a more energy-efficient mining process, though, as with Bitcoin, its creator is unknown. Anoncoin and Zerocoin, meanwhile, strive for complete anonymity—which Bitcoin lacks. And so on.Before the reform and opening up, China's social ideology and political ideologies are highly coincident, the basic idea is the social theory of political ideology, other ideology is difficult to have room to grow, so the ruling party does not need to deliberate social integration, masses had been consciously and consistency of the CPC Central Committee. In fact, this is not difficult to understand the economic base determines the superstructure, the pursuit of "a sophomore public" on the economy, pure but pure, does not allow any other economic forms, thought anything about "private" concept would be a budding blow, naturally can not produce other ideology, relying on the party's authority and social impact will be able to quickly achieve social integration.Since the reform and opening up, with our deepening understanding of the nature of socialism and the socialist economic system reform forward, the rapid development of non-public economy, coupled with the strong involvement of foreign culture, the rapid growth of non-mainstream ideology. Changes in the economic structure spawned diverse interests, diverse interests has led to stratification, and stratification inevitably produce a diverse class consciousness, ideological diversity is reflected in the ideology. Now, the ruling party's ideology is a major aspect of social consciousness, but was unable to achieve full coverage of the social sphere, which makes some members of the community, especially the members of the new social strata can not find a sense of belonging in the existing mainstream ideology of the ruling party fulfill reform and governance formation dysfunction. This requires a breakthrough development and innovation classic socialist ideology, to achieve the transformation of ideology."The deepening of reform and opening to make our country there has been a lot of new classes of these emerging social strata are looking forward to their own position, the contradiction between the class structure has begun to appear. Differentiation class to break the traditional pattern of interests, the new pattern of interests is still in the process of formation, and sometimes inevitably produce conflict of interest, which makes it difficult to integrate social ruling party increased. " this will require a good grasp of socialist ideological purity and inclusion issues. If we are not pure ideology, it will make the core members of the socialist ideology lose loyalty; If our ideology inclusive enough, the new social strata members of the ideological support rate will inevitably decline. Only the flexibility to adjust the expression of ideology, in order to attract more audience.The new social strata of the mainstream ideology has a high sensitivity, they are very concerned about whether the mainstream ideology of their own identity, which is respectable observe whether a class of political signs. Social integration is smooth, mainly to see whether the ideology of the ruling party proposed to get wide recognition of all social strata. Social integration we have conducted, of course, not all social groups to be integrated into the same ownership and the same distribution among, but maintain the relative independence of the various interest groups, recognizing the differences under the premise, to achieve a wide range of social integration, to create a has high flexibility and universality of the relationship between social interests, and through ideology to guide and reflect this relationship. By Li this process, not through coercion and that the executive power to implement the reform and opening to the front, only to shape the regulatory authority by way dependent on the system construction, this requirement so that social integration is complicated by the ruling party.Although we have built a socialist legal system, judicial practice has made great progress, but to some extent the judicial area there is a "call-in legislation to deal with the Franco-Prussian style, campaign-style law enforcement, select the type of justice" phenomenon, legislation for the sector to compete for profit, the Franco-Prussian going through the motions, law enforcement has the flexibility to see the object of justice, this situation greatly weakened the authority of the judiciary, contrary to the basic spirit of the rule of law.Campaign-style law enforcement is refractory chronic illness for many years, the people on the "concentration and control, driving a duck" and other campaign-style reflect the strong law enforcement, spent a lot of manpower and financial resources do not say, on the rebound after exercise, laws and regulations, like a piece of rubber, insufficient rigidity elastic surplus. Law Enforcement is one of the parties to reflect the most concentrated, particularly in the food safety, removal of illegal construction, illegal trading, hawking and other areas of chaos, in a particular sensitive period, often to "strengthen law enforcement." However, due to the interference of various factors, some law enforcement authorities but has not really form an effective recurring management, who do not deal with complaints that are not, or only in the "rectification Week", "rectify month" to carry out the enforcement blitz. Due to the lack of daily supervision, so the impact and effect of law enforcement authority, so that the offender had undue chances, learned guerrilla. Some law enforcement agencies for the completion of the hidden targets and the choice of low enforcement difficult, not easy to be handled cases lead to conflicts or punishment.For various bans, people selectively blind or deaf, this and related selective enforcement. Since the promulgation of the law, anyone should be strictly adhered to, law is not strict in the pipeline. When the inevitable practical legal effect in black and white, people will respect the law, and encourage law-abiding habit, the rule of law can therefore form the basis of society. To mobile warfare approach to implementation of the law, the law does not mean that normal functioning, this occasional episodes about the law, the law will lead to gradual loss of social norms role. When laws are often idle, violations can not be stopped or punished in time, people will not develop good habits compliance.Despite great efforts to carry out the national legal education, legal awareness of citizens, but there are still many people who do not want the infringement court, fear of contact with the Judiciary happen. Their concerns are high litigation costs, low efficiency, the burden of proof difficult problem, because the parties often wearied by this thing, a waste of resources. In practice, the situation is not uncommon 19.The true realization of the legitimate rights of the often elusive, so that "a public official unfinished, something not the case knot knot" has become the norm. This negative behavior also reflects the gradual loss of laissez-faire judicial credibility.Social integrity resources are scarce, "trust" between people missing, the expense of others, which is the current social tensions outstanding performance. Distrust is the most contagious social psychology, the patient questioned the doctor's benevolence, consumers suspected operators to Germany, the masses do not really committed cadres, officials tend to doubt people's mind, only the letter of heartless poor, the rich concerns about poor will tumult, Shi aid those moments beware blackmail, recipients also afraid of straying into the trap. Distrust, making the value of community can share a handful. Trust does not exist, is bound to produce indifference. If we say that the process of industrialization destroyed the natural vegetation, then the market will undermine the process of vegetation community. The current lack of social integrity can be described as shocking degree. In fact, this cost is not necessarily the market must go through the process, if we can improve the process of market-oriented system, and establish rules, the situation is not so bad as it is now. Due to disregard the rules, defy the system, not only undermine social order and economic development, but also undermines social justice, hinder social progress. Social areas of commercial fraud, selling fake goods, false impersonator phenomenon repeated, people on the "fake shoes", "fake", "lip-synching", "fake relics" and so hated. These phenomena further exacerbated social tensions of the direct consequences resulting is: bad money drives out good money, so that honest people to give honest; Today is the victim, tomorrow is the victimizer; less at risk for, you are going to become the first shot of the person; escape to the social reality beyond the moral, social relations become law of the jungle.In a variety of social relations, especially mutual trust between cadres, public relations, the doctor-patient relationship breakdown is staggering. Excellencies (public authority, public welfare, public concern is high) field when dealing with specific issues duties if not fair, that is, the destruction of social trust. In between cadres for example, grassroots cadres of formalist style abhors degree of recognition for the masses of cadres getting low, cracks between cadres, cadres and the masses do not really safeguard the interests of the people do not recognize the work style of cadres. "Farmers organization of grassroots cadres in particular, distrust is a direct consequence of social control and mobilization capacity of national decline."  If this trend continues, it will hurt the basis of social identity, and further damage the relationship between cadres, threatening the ruling party ruling safety. Today's mass work, and in the past the biggest difference is that the masses gradually increased awareness of their rights, the right to appeal is increasing. Can protect the interests of the masses, can be adjusted depending on whether their cadres stand wholeheartedly "accountable to the people."Bitcoin, then, is merely the first and, for the time being, the best-known example in a new category. In many ways it is akin to Napster, the pioneering file-sharing service that upended the music industry in 1999 by allowing internet users to call up almost any song at will. Though Napster, unlike Bitcoin, was illegal, it demonstrated that there was enormous demand for what it provided, prompting many other services to spring up in its wake. Just as Napster paved the way for BitTorrent, iTunes and Spotify, Bitcoin has triggered a surge of innovation in digital money.So let a thousand altcoins bloom. In the meantime, if you are lucky or clever enough to have owned an asset whose price has risen 60-fold in a year, it might be time to sell.Urbanization, narrow space, information technology for intense, fast-paced society relations provides external environment. Today, all regions of the world is a step toward urbanization, China does not have an exception. Nobel laureate 斯蒂格列茨 that the new century, China is concerned there are three major challenges, primacy is Chinese urbanization. The 21st century, China's urbanization is not only determines the 660 million urban residents live and work, it is a major problem determines the ultimate fate of China's hundreds of millions of farmers. Because urbanization process is to reduce the farmers, but also narrow the urban-rural divide and achieve common prosperity in the process. It is predicted that by 2050, China's total urban population will reach 10 – 11 million words, from now on, China will have 12 million annually farmers into urban population. Urbanization process is the process of urban residents and the new into the original urban residents shared urban resources, this process there is inevitably a problem of social tensions. Work pressures resulting family tensions, competition for survival into the employment process, resulting in strained relations between the weak and strong working capital resulted in tense labor relations, social responsibility, resulting in the absence of affluent tensions between rich and poor, the market rules had not been apparent, privileged arrogance is common contributed to the overall tension of the current "hatred," "hatred officer," "hatred monopoly" interpersonal social phenomenon that is a direct reflection of tensions. Social tensions, it is easy to intensify social contradictions, so simple complicated social problems will increase social transaction costs, will eventually everyone damaged.Here, k is the flow rate (which outlines a series of factors, such as interest rates, inflation and the expected rate of personal and non-personal wealth of), Y represents the "permanent income" concept. As can be seen from this formula, the school focuses on monetary income or wealth effect, but not as great importance as the substitution effect Keynesian monetary financial assets other alternatives. In "A Monetary History of the United States 1867-1960," a book with a series of statistics to prove Friedman, long-term changes and long-term changes in the actual number of real money incomes to maintain a close relationship. Demand for money by the disposable income effect, but not the current concept of revenue can be measured in revenue, but the concept of long-term expected earnings. Any difference between the money supply and demand, and only by changing the permanent income rather than changes in interest rates can be adjusted. Currency Keynesian school on the following assumptions made significant amendments: the price changes and interest rate linked. It means that there is a general demand function, relying on this function, the lower the price will track by moving the LM, and a higher level of output and the occurrence of contact. Thus confirming the price for output in a highly rigid. British economist David Laidler believes that the concept Friedman monetary analysis used in permanent income, prompting the success of two aspects: (1) Why resolved velocity varies according to the period, rather than changes in interest rates depends on the question; (2) explains why the short-term money multiplier (△ Y / △ M) value will be great, and therefore proves the currency in circulation revenue is the main mechanism in macroeconomics, and the money supply is decisive policy variables .In a nutshell, monetarist school emphasizes the demand for money can be observed in most of the variables (one of the most important is the permanent income) stabilization function. Because of the interest elasticity of money demand is low (meaning that a small substitution effect between money and other financial assets), the main way to make money to keep supply and demand balanced, the income level is changed accordingly. It follows that the policy conclusions, the money supply is both important policy variable is the best policy indicator.However, the monetarist school is currently facing several embarrassing Criticism. The criticism is mainly include: although (a) the money supply and its corresponding function is important, but the interest rate proposed by Friedman's argument is not important, but many people were opposed; most (2) the money supply is endogenous instead (ie, not supplied by the monetary authorities decided) exogenous; (3) Friedman on monetary imbalance between supply and demand will show changes in the nominal income of the argument is likely to be "wrong"; (4) the introduction of the permanent income hypothesis, monetary analysis, there is superfluous too, because the long-term stability of the currency in circulation can be endogenous factors to explain the money supply itself. The biggest difficulty monetarist school that they failed to make views on monetary exogenous factors (ie, money supply by the monetary authorities and not the interest rate decision) for most people to accept. Tobin famous American economist believes that several propositions monetarist school can not blend together harmoniously, the middle and the corresponding lack of the necessary logical connection ."Monetary philosophy" is one of Simmel's most important works. In this book, Simmel its unique form of interaction theory, revealing the interactive nature of social relationships influence for his exhaustive study of the social exchange relationship, especially in the social media currency for social exchange relationship arising as a result of. Simmel believes that it is the currency of social exchange relationship with the media, leading to a growing separation of modern society between the individual and the products of labor, leading to the objectification of social relations. Therefore, he will focus on capitalist social relations and cultural conflict analysis on the economic exchange relations, especially on monetary relations. Although not all of the economic exchange are based currency as a medium, but the process of historical development, the currency as a medium of exchange, the importance of the exchange process more and more obvious.Simmel analyzes the value of the general sense, and the relationship between money and value. In his opinion, the value of separation of subject and object exist among, in these, distance plays an important role. In other words, the value of things exists in the relative distance between us and among us if things are too close, too easy to get, there is no value. Of course, if the distance is too far away to not get the point, there is equally little value. In the social and economic life, the currency would have such importance. On the one hand, money creates distance between persons and things, if people do not have money, you can not get something; on the other hand, money also can help people overcome physical distance between themselves and as long as he has money, they able to get anything of value. In other words, money in people's social life plays a dual role, both to increase the distance between persons and things, while providing a way to overcome this distance.Value exists in the separation of subject and object being, or that person's presence in creation and human alienation process itself, this view is of great significance, is based on this view, Simmel embarked on monetary analysis . In his view, the currency for commodity exchange provides a universal standard of value, appeared before the currency, commodity production and exchange had been produced, but in no case money as a medium of exchange, the commodity production and exchange can only order in the form of barter exist. This exchange form is very difficult. With Simmel's words, is an abstract value of the goods can not be specific, there currency provides a common metric for a variety of goods, so that a variety of goods can be carried out according to common metrics compared with each other this promoted the production and exchange of goods, expand the depth and breadth of exchange. Currency exchange pattern before the appearance of barter, the exchange of goods involved in the span of time and space are limited. Appear currency, to break this limit. Meanwhile, the emergence of money, but also greatly expanded the types of goods, and even the people themselves have become commodities.Simmel Another important feature of monetary analysis is made of the currency as a form of human interaction, the currency is entirely a sociological phenomenon, is a form of human interaction, which is characterized by the more to the fore, The more centralized social relationships, reliable and harmony. He stressed that the exchange process itself can create value, or increase the value of the goods, in his view, the parties involved in the exchange, are considered sold only in the lower-value goods, in exchange for higher-value goods, in order to succeed . In a case of money as a medium, to pursue currency will therefore have a special significance. In modern society, money becomes a pure exchange tool, its value only in the exchange process can be achieved. In this case, the pursuit of money itself makes this tool itself becomes the purest purpose.