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2022cs作业代写价格留学生essay指导:女性在管理方面取得非凡成就

By August 15, 2022essay代写

2022cs作业代写价格留学生essay指导:女性在管理方面取得非凡成就

2022cs作业代写价格留学生essay指导:女性在管理方面取得非凡成就

引言:在过去的几十年里,尽管女性在提升队伍管理方面取得了斐然的进步,但是大家普遍认为她们在这方面所取得的成绩无法与在教育、事业领域所取得的成就相提并论。在许多国家,在董事会任职的女性数量一直是少数,尽管有一半的劳动力是由女性构成的。坎特认为与男性相比,女性被分配到更不重要的职位和部门。在大部分国家,在管理阶层,男性数量远超过女性。近年来,在一些发展中国家,许多机构向女性敞开了大门,但是在大多数情况下,她们处于较低或中间管理级别。沃思发现在被调查的41个国家中,有将近一半的国家,在立法机构、高级官员和管理阶层,女性典型地占到百分之二十到百分之三十。布鲁斯特等人指出在英国,女性在执行董事仅占百分之二,在非执行董事会中占百分之十。在一些国家,例如,在希腊,公司并不对女性开放大门,只有极少数努力通过它们要求的女性攀上了管理阶层的上端。在一小部分国家,如朝鲜和斯里兰卡,在立法机构、高级官员和管理阶层,女性连十分之一都没有占到。根据美国的研究表明,在26个非洲国家里,女性在管理和行政部门平均任职率为百分之十五。在法国,2000年,在国内一百强企业中高管里女性仅占百分之五点三。在澳大利亚的200强企业中,女性在董事会占据百分之八点六。2009年3月份地国际商务报道表明,中国女性在高级职位中占了百分之三十一。尽管全球数据表明,女性将继续保持在管理职位的上升趋势,但是成就率却很低。看起来实际就业男性更受欢迎。In the last several decades, although women have made considerable progress in ascending to management ranks, it is generally acknowledged that the rate of their advancement has not kept pace with their increasing educational achievements and career commitments (Ruderman, 1996). In many countries the number of women at board level is minimal, though almost half the workforce is made up by women. Kanter (1977) indicates that women are assigned to less critical positions and divisions than men. In most of countries there are much more men in top level management than women. In some developed countries, many organisations have opened the doors to women in recent years, but in most cases have kept them in the lower or middle-level managerial ranks. Wirth (2001) finds that in nearly half of the 41 investigated countries, women typically hold between 20 and 30 percent of legislative, senior official and managerial positions. Brewster et al. (2008) find out that in the UK women comprise only 2 percent of executive directors and 10 percent of non-executive directors. In some countries, for example, in Greece the corporate doors have not opened to women and only an extremely small number of the women who have managed to pass through them have advanced to the upper levels of the managerial ladder. In a few countries, such as the Republic of Korea and SriLanka, women hold less than 10 percent of legislative, senior official and managerial positions. According to the United Nations (2000) of USA, women’s participation in management and administrative positions averages 15 percent across 26 African countries. In France, women occupied 5.3 percent of the top positions in the top 200 companies in 2000 (ILO, 2004). Among Australia’s top 200 companies, women hold 8.6 percent of board positions (Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency, 2004). International business report in March 2009 shows that in China women hold 31 percent in senior positions. Although global data show that women continue to increase their share of managerial positions, the rate of progress is slow. It seems that employment practices still favour men over women.While considering about the reasons why this situation exists, there may be many different answers. Investigation Report on the Status of Current Chinese Youth Population (2008) indicates that until 2007 men are 18 million more than women in China. The 2008 world factbook (CIA, 2008) shows that total population of India is 1.06 (male/female); Egypt is 1.02.; Sudan is 1.03. And the world sex ratio is 1.01. So the situation that there are more men in senior management seems to be consequent because of more men in the world. Unbalanced sex ratio is considered to be one of the reasons. Victoria (2001) points out that the need to actually strive and reach the top for the sake of being at the top, the prestige, respect, awe, power it gives may be more important for men than women. The attitude between men and women is different. More women than men may be content to know that they have done a good job, to be appreciated and feel that they have contributed to society at the level they are at rather than be at the top. Men need to be “on top” to be fulfilled. The ambition of men is normally much stronger than women, so that it could continuously keep men on moving into top level. Another reason is the factor of culture. According to different countries, the culture is quite different. In the past time, especially in Asia and Africa area, in most of countries women had less positions and authorities than men. Even until now, in most parts of Africa, there are many countries in which men could marry more than one woman legally. It means women are treated unequally in some countries even now. In those countries, it is certainly that employment practices favour men over women. While following the history river, the culture is deeply influencing the people. People are “forced” in a certain norm that could not be easily broken up because of that the culture affects all aspects of the country, including employment practices. In following part, it would debate the extent culture impacts on employment practices and draw comparisons between China and UK.Before doing comparisons of the extent culture impacting on employment practices, it is necessary to analyze the data including demographics and national history in order to understand well the culture between UK and China. According to the data from CIA for recent six years from 2003 to 2008 , China population is almost 1,330 million, and the total land area is 9,326,410 sq km. UK population is almost 61 million, and the land area is 241,590 sq km. China is still considered to be the big country of population, and the total number of men is more than women. Oppositely, in the UK there are more women than men. And the male ratio of China in that age bracket is more than UK. Normally, the age bracket is considered to be the workforce age. Therefore, it seems to be natural that both in China and UK there are more men than women in workforce. But does that mean men should meet with great favour as a matter of course? In order to find out the accurate answer, it is necessary to analyze the current status within using the fresh and correct data.Farrell (2005) finds out that men are more popular when employer pays the same salary. Employers consider that men are physical strong and could be put into the serious situation; at least men can do quite a lot of manual labour. In China, the number of labour force in agriculture is 43% . According to that, in Chinese agriculture, it still needs many physical labours, such as ploughing and sowing because of that there are no advanced agricultural machines in some parts of China. Therefore, men are more popular in those places. In the UK the main labour force is in services, but within considering about the main UK industries, there are followings: machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods. In these industries, obviously men are more welcome than women.Harkness (1996) indicates that in the UK the pay gap has been closing, and the New Earnings Survey reports a rise in the ratio of median hourly pay of full-time women to men from 65 percent in 1970 to 73 percent in 1976 and a more gradual increase thereafter to 80 percent in 1994. In contrast, the relative earnings position of women working part-time has changed little for over two decades. But until now men are being paid significantly more on average than women in Britain. A recent study by Accenture (2006) in six countries including UK, reveals that women’s representation at the executive management level of organisations does not exceed 13 percent and that the “glass ceiling” is prevalent across all six countries, but varies in thickness. In the younger age groups, men are clearly pulling ahead of women in terms of career.In the UK, for those aged 30 and under, 51 percent of women are still working as non-managerial employees, compared with 47 percent of men (Lyonette, 2008). This difference begins to widen significantly in the next age bracket and continues to do so in the older age brackets. This analysis demonstrates that, although women start out in employment on a relatively equal footing with men, proportionately, they fail to reach the most senior levels. Previous qualitative research (Twomey et al., 2002) finds out that many young women in accountancy field, on considering the impact of work on family, may be satisfied with the level they have reached and not pursue promotion; others may even leave the profession altogether. Lewis (2007) finds evidence of an emerging new culture or “counterculture”, arising mainly from younger employees. However, she adds that some senior managers were recognising the different approach coming from the younger employees and seeing the advantages of adapting to more focused ways of working, even though their views still tended to be gender blind.#p#分页标题#e#In China, though much more women succeed in entering the labour market than past, it doesn’t mean to bring along the bridging of the wage gap. A recent paper from Schein (2007) reports upon the strength and inflexibility of the “think managers – think male” attitude: over the last 30 years, corporate men in China have continued to see women as less likely than men to possess requisite management characteristics. The Chinese males show the strongest degree of managerial sex typing. Chinese women have been considered men’s appendage for many thousands of years of feudal society (Xihong, 1992). In most of poor areas in China men are still keeping the control power in normal families, though in big cities, like Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing, women are treated more reverent. Gender discrimination is often not considered as such, but rather as a true difference based upon a belief in the males’ basic superiority (Korabik, 1992). “Men are the heaven and women are the earth, destined to follow the will of heaven” (Ren, 1993). This kind of thought deeply impacts on Chinese people until now, and even still exists in their subconsciousness. Women were paid less than men, and were ineligible for bonuses because they could not stay for after-work study session or overtime. They were dismissed early but were not paid for time taken in nursing children or preparing meals at the beginning and end of the day. Older women were retired five years earlier than men and often provided childcare for their daughters-in-law. Shu and Bian (2003) find out that a stable gender gap in pay data with females earning about 83 percent of male wages on average across all jobs, ages, and time periods included in the study. Granrose (2007) finds out that Chinese women would be less likely to value achievement goals, and would be more likely to have career goals compatible with family. Therefore, most candidates of senior management are men. During these several decades Chinese culture changed significantly, some old values have been retained and some values have changed. The career goals in a market economy in contemporary are increasingly a function of individual rather than government choice, and collective loyalty to the firm or the society may be declining however collective values as expressed by commitment to family relationships may remain.Though the world is changing and women are becoming more and more respectful in more and more countries, in both UK and China nowadays, whilst it is the truth that men are more favoured than women in organisations, not only from the proportion of senior management, but also from pay gap and some others aspects. The inherited elements of culture are deeply influencing over country. UK has about 2,000 years history started from Roman Empire times, the different attitude between men and women maybe start from then. China has more or less 8,000 years history. Women have been treated unequally for such a long period, and it might even become normal. No matter 2,000 or 8,000 years, both of them could be considered quite a long time that could make most of things become natural. So the situation exists as certainty rather than accident. But everything is under changing and developing. In China, people’s attitude is improving; more women appeared in top management level of organisation. And in job advertisements there are less gender discrimination sentences appeared, such as “men only” and “men first” is little seen recently. And recently, Chinese government is under drafting new laws about sex discrimination, especially in employment part. And most of job agencies and recruitment websites forbid employers to use any words or sentences that may be considered as sex discrimination in the express terms in recently five years.Comparing with China, UK did better. Martin et al. (2008) find out that in the UK there are more and more female directors in UK’s organisations. New laws are made for making people to have more equality. In 1975, sex discrimination act came out. Main areas covered sex and marital status, applies to women and men of any age, including children. Though it is not special for women, indeed, women would benefit more. In 2002, employment act came out, and one of its provisions is for equal pay. There are more legislations or regulations came out, such as Equal Pay Act 1970, Employment Equality (Sexual orientation) Regulation 2003, Equality Act 2006, Gender Equality Duty 2007 (European Social Fund, 2007). UK is on the highway of human equality.Although China’s history and UK’s is quite different, the attitudes of the males are not that much different. By focusing on both organisational and domestic issues, even when women are highly qualified and committed to careers, the lack of change in the division of domestic responsibilities means that women are not competing with men to the same degree. Nevertheless, it can be predicted with some confidence that, unless such changes are made, and until men are willing to share domestic and childcare responsibilities more equally, women will continue to under-achieve in the profession, and thus the gender gap in the careers and remuneration will persist into the foreseeable future. It is not an easy mission to change people’s common attitude and country culture, in order to have real equality certain long time period is necessary. But now it is believed that more and more organisations are concerning diversity, women would be treated more equally. For instance, Barclays, one major global financial services provider, commitment to gender equality across the business is reflected through a number of initiatives designed to promote and support women in the workplace. In 2005, men comprised two-thirds of the intake for Barclays UK Retail Banking graduate programme. In contrast, of the 2007 intake more than half the graduates were women. International business report in March 2009 shows that there are women in senior management in 80 percent Chinese private enterprises, and the Chinese female proportion of executive level is in the lead of world.Recently, market competition has eliminated pressure and control by the central government to adhere to the gender equality proposed in the constitution resulting in fewer women than men being hired and promoted to upper levels of management in the growing private sector of the economy. Female and male employees are equally motivated to work hard, to achieve and do a good job and are equally loyal to the organisation, the society and their superiors. Women and men are ready and eager to contribute to organisations that are willing to give them a chance and women are particularly motivated by situations that give them opportunities to learn. Especially in such downward economic situation, gender diversity is becoming more important to organisations. So both measures of female representation is equally important: firms that simultaneously have greater gender diversity in executive boards and top management teams may perform better than firms with lower diversity in just one of the two groups of executives. It is necessary to provide a strong argument for having more women on top management positions that will be promoted later through the “glass ceiling” to more gender-balanced boards. Capek (2006) says that “Gender is the thread that, when pulled, unravels the Emperor’s old clothes”. Understanding gender is essential for creating agile, effective learning organisations, for understanding difference, and for institutionalising deep diversity and norm knowledge. And by definition, understanding gender is essential for practicing effective employment. But one additional factor should be considered, a factor that transcends the particular woman called upon to decide. A woman’s decision to proceed or not to proceed with litigation will affect, in some way, the workplace status of every other working woman (Gregory, 2001). Ultimately, sex discrimination will be eradicated only if women steadfastly challenge their employers’ discriminatory policies, practices, and conduct, not only in both UK and China, but the entire world.

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