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By August 18, 2022essay代写



I, on the public power and political power is defined 一、关于公共权力与政治权力的定义

1, on the definition of the powers1、关于权力的定义

"Power" is an ancient concept, whether in China or Western countries, very early on "power" concept been discussed. In China, "power" concept has three basic meanings: First, measure the degree of the trial justice, such as Confucius said: "move right amount of trial testimonies, repair waste officer, Masayuki Quartet Yan." Second, restricting or controlling others capacity. Early figures such as Legalism Legalism that "Yin and bowed to unworthy persons, but also the right light." Again, "Zi-day operation," said: "The parental rights of people who can not handle." Three represents the average or equilibrium, such as the Clean Liu kui generation of scholars in the "Ida", a book, said: "Take the world of fields, and the world of people, the total number of its right, and the people of the sub-fields which can be obtained." In the West, a representative of the American scholar Peter Broughton said: "Power is an individual or group to impose its will on other people's ability, despite resistance, these individuals or groups can also be done through deterrence." German Max Weber said: "Power is an actor despite opposition have the possibility of carrying out their own will, regardless of the basis for such a possibility is based on what is. "Mike Le Rose Gold said:" Power is a relationship between people, let a person Another person told their ability to do things. " Power is a social relationship, and only in the person's activities involve the presence of others when it is power, power is always with human directional, meaning the power to exercise control of others subject to the ability to carry out their own will.“ 权力”是一个古老的概念,不管是在中国还是西方国家,很早就对“权力”这个概念进行过探讨。在中国“ 权”的概念有三种基本的含义: 一是指衡量审度之义, 如孔子说:“谨权量, 审法度, 修废官, 四方之政行焉。”二是制约或控制别人的能力。如早期法家人物慎到认为,“ 贤而屈于不肖者, 权轻也。”又如《庄子·天运》说:“亲权者不能与人柄。”三是指平均或平衡,如清代学者刘大櫆在《井田》一书中说:“取天下之田,与天下之民,合计其数而权之,而民各分其可得之田。”在西方,具有代表性的美国学者彼德·布劳认为:“权力是个人或群体将意志强加于其他人的能力,尽管有反抗,这些个人或群体也可以通过威慑这样做。”德国马克斯·韦伯认为:“权力就是一个行动者所拥有的不顾反对而贯彻自己意志的可能性, 不管这种可能性所依据的基础是什么。”迈克乐·罗斯金认为:“权力是人与人之间的一种关系,是一个人让另一个人按其吩咐做事的能力”。权力是一种社会关系,只有在人的活动涉及他人的时候才存在权力,权力总是具有人指向性的,意味着权力主体对他人实施控制以贯彻自己意志的能力。

2, the definition of public authority

Engels said: primitive forms of public power is controlled by people together, coordinate and manage the power of social living together; primitive form of public power generation in the human need to live together, and its basic function is to mediate and manage the process of living together possible disputes and disputes; primitive form of public power to identify and protect the natural equality of all members of the Community, the premise and foundation of democratic rights. [3] Early Modern bourgeois society thinkers on the public nature of the power to make a full theoretical proof, the formation of the ideological consensus of sovereignty of the people, a typical theoretical, systematic point of view of "divine right theory" "natural rights theory" "sovereignty of the people" and so on.3, the definition of political power the definition of political power representative are: (a) political power is in fact a particular relationship of forces, the political power of the body in order to achieve and maintain their own interests to have the object of restricting political power capacity. (2) is in the political relations of political power, the power to force the body to rely on certain political forces, in order to achieve a certain effect on the interests of the object of a political force powers. (3) state power (political power) should reflect the will of the ruling class, and as the representative of society as a whole, in order to guarantee the implementation of coercive power to manage public affairs. Marxism believes that: "Political power is in the history of social and economic development to a certain stage of the product, when human society only after the class a unique phenomenon."In summary we can find: the concept of prominent public power is the power between subject and object "public" relationship, that this power is conferred by the crowd, the power must serve the people, must also be the audience's supervision, so , the exercise of public power can not be a one-way, and must be authorized by the powers that formed the public relations of mutual restraint. The concept of political power is the power of the main highlights on the object "cure" relationship, ie, the right to manage the crowd, is a top-down one-way power, this can easily be turned to the management of tyranny, domination or oppression , resulting in abuse of power. Political power is the product of history, it has historically.

Second, the public authority and political power at different points

A public authority and political power essentially different, public power is built on the basis of the public interest, and political power is built on top of class interestsCitizens, authorities and officials of the relationship between: citizens will be entrusted to the public power authority, the authority responsible for the implementation of specific officials, accountable to citizens, subject to citizen oversight. In this multi-agency relationship in the citizens are the ultimate owners of public power. History of political thought in the human representative perspective "has divine right theory", "violence", "the social contract says," and so on. Exercise of political power is highly centralized and one-way, the operation of power from the citizen oversight, in shady politics after a ruling class tool.2, public power and political power of the different basis of legitimacyThere are two aspects of the understanding of legitimacy: First, in line with legal norms and principles; two members of society is co-sanctioned by the value. Max Weber said: "Legitimacy and build motivation in physical, emotional or value of rational motivation motivation is not the same desire on the subject, which does not constitute a reliable basis for ruling that any rule to consolidate its persistence, should evoke legitimacy of faith. " The legitimacy of public power is to be shared by members of the community recognized the value. Members of the community to get handed their citizenship recognized and trusted members of the community the authority exercised by the authority of agents and members can monitor the operation of its power, once the Authority in the exercise of their powers major mistakes, members of the community can be re-selected Their power agents, public power is functioning members of society generally accepted value. The legitimacy of political power base is in line with legal norms and principles. Legitimacy and legal norms do not exist necessarily linked, the legitimacy of political power in the country appears, with laws and regulations and other relevant principles and norms before the formation and are guaranteed genuine political power play is to look at whether it meets relevant state laws and regulations.3, the public authority and political power different value orientationsPublic power is the power of all members of society, maintaining that all members of society generally essential interests, authority is exercised by all members of society to hand over power, it is only an agent of the members of society, the value orientation of public power is all members of society a basic value orientation, which represents all members of society in the face and deal with all kinds of contradictions, conflicts, relations between the fundamental value of the position held, attitudes, and demonstrated the value of the basic tendencies. Political power by some interest group or class elite domination exercised its power to object, it represents the fundamental interests of its subject, its values ​​manifested in part the value orientation of the ruling elite. 4, public power and political power to pursue different objectivesObjectives pursued by public authorities is to protect the public interest of all members of society, and let it get the maximum protection and enhancing and promoting the progress of human civilization. The political power of the ruling group must all, its goal is to ensure the fundamental interests of the members of society on the basis of the basic maintenance of social stability, in order to maximize the maintenance of the ruling clique and the pursuit of self-interest maximization.5, the public authority and political power operation mechanism differentDynamic mechanism of public authority from the public, the dynamic mechanism of political power within the ruling group from superiors; in the run mode, the public authority must adopt an open run, political power is a closed operation; operational transparency of public power is far higher than that of the political transparency of the operation of power. In the public authority, the interests of citizens is a public authority agency's core operations, its citizens Satisfaction decide its fate. In political power, the level of administrative bureaucracy promoted the political axis runs to win higher satisfaction and joy officials determine the political future of this dynamic mechanism typically manifested in the highly centralized feudal polity.6, public power and political power constraint mechanism is differentBinding mechanism is an agent or manager in accordance with law and regulations, values ​​and cultural environment of the client's behavior or manage objects from the material, spiritual and other aspects of behavioral constraints and constraints in order to make it converge or change mechanisms. Public power constraint mechanism consists of civil, social, marketing and agency composed of four areas, public power is reasonable to rely on these four aspects of running the mutual coordination and supervision, the parties to play their due role. In modern democratic political system, the legal constraints and norms of political power is the most important way to legitimate political power must exist, run by law, political power constraint mechanism is required by laws and regulations of a mechanism.Foregoing discussion, we can see that the public power and political power, there are many differences. Although public power and political power have similar properties, both in their functions are basically the same, but political power is alienated public power.


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