指导美国ESSAY :以美国公园建筑设计为对比分析中国城市公共建筑工程设计研究，本文从案例分析，实证研究调查手段，探析了中西方公共建筑设计中的人文文化融合City Wall Riverfront Park Design in Xi’ an, P. R. China：Focusing on urban context, continuation of the historical culture and the life style of local people
AbstractTable of contentList of figuresChapter 1 Introduction1.1 Nature of the problem1.2 Sustainable development包括生态可持续发展，经济可持续发展和社会文化可持续发展，本文主要研究社会文化可持续发展1.3 Research aim and objectives1.4 Research questions1、社会文化可持续性发展在滨水公园设计中的作用及意义？2、现在大多滨水公园的设计都套用别的成功模式，反而忽略了城市的文脉，那么在滨水公园设计中应该如何考虑城市的文脉，在具体设计中应该如何体现？3、我国许多滨水项目将沿岸原有构筑物，历史遗迹一律拆除，任意大规模开发，毫无历史文化的延续性。历史文化的延续性在滨水公园的布局、结构及景观上是如何体现的呢？4、指导essay 对于现代滨水公园毫无地方特色，忽略当地人们生活方式的问题，在将来的设计中应该如何考虑？1.5 Research and design scope1.6 Research methodology (Thesis structure)Chapter 2 Context2.1 China’s situation2.2 An approach to human-oriented in China2.2.1 Urban context2.2.2 Continuation of the historical culture2.2.3 The life style of local peopleChapter 3 Lessons from the past3.1 A study of urban context 3.1.1 Lessons from Europe and USA 3.1.2 Lessons from China 3.1.3 Case study: Point State Park, USA3.2 A study of continuation of the historical culture solutions 3.2.1 The relationship of continuation of the historical culture and waterfront park 3.2.2 Considering continuation of the historical culture in waterfront park design3.2.3 Case study: London Thames Barrier Park3.3 The life style of local people 3.3.1 Influence of the local people’s life style 3.3.2 Methods to apply the life style of local people3.3.3 Case study: Dujiangyan Square, Sichuan, China3.4 FindingsChapter 4 Design of City Wall Riverfront Park of Xi’ an4.1 Site inventory4.2 Project context4.3 Organizing principles4.4 Planning conception 4.4.1 Reflection of urban context 4.1.2 Continuation of the historical culture#p#分页标题#e# 4.1.3 Expression of the life style of the local people4.5 Function division4.6 Plan structure4.7 Landscape designChapter 5 Conclusion and recommendations5.1 Lessons learned5.2 Areas for further researchReferenceProposal 1.指导essay Research background Waterfront is a specific space of a city; it refers to “the land or buildings adjacent to rivers or oceans; or the parts that cities and towns are adjacent to the body of water” (Ann, Dick, 1996). Waterfront, according to the different nature of adjacent water body can be divided into the Riverside, lake side and seaside. The general concept of Urban Waterfront is "a certain region where Land and water in the city link collectively" (Vallega, 2001). It generally composes by waterside, the water line, and Land three parts.
It has the most intensive natural factors, the most abundant natural process of geography, at the same time human activities and the city interfere is very intense, it can be said that is one of the strongest areas impacted by the natural process and human activities jointly.
Urban Waterfront is an important resource of urban development. to improve the urban environmental quality and to enrich geographical features it plays an extremely important value. In the growing concern on the ecological environment and sustainable development influence, urban waterfront’s unique position has raised people’s general concern. As for The transformation of the old city and urban renewal, urban waterfront revival is the world trend and is considered as the construction of urban planning and economic development focus. How to conduct effective use and investment has become the key to development.
As is indicated in 1990 "the head of the Osaka International Conference on water Spirit", in recent years, people in order to improve the urban environment comfort and enhance the characteristics of geographical features, begin a new awareness of the potential for urban waterfront. on rivers, lakes or Sea open space, environmental revetment, the revival of the historic waterway and waterfront construction and design, etc., people try to carry out different forms of planning. Such as "plan to build the port area" of the River Thames in London; "1992 Olympic Village Nova Icaria plan" of the waterfront in Barcelona of Spain; New York Lower Manhattan Hudson River Waterfront Trail tour design; Penn’s Landing development plan of Delaware River shore in the Philadelphia; Nagoya Comprehensive Improvement Plan Kawasaki in Japan; Japan Toyama 21st century water park bell Tongcheon plan and Fu Yan Canal Park plan; Osaka "island" Waterfront Veranda repair plan; Singapore River region update plan and so forth. As Japan’s new generation of architect 毛纲毅旷 saying "the city once again returns to the waterfront, which is a global movement, the movement is a return from the world’s automobile-centered way of thinking. The 21st century is the era of super-Earth, waterfront in this moment of the universe is linked with the special status."#p#分页标题#e#
In China, urban waterfront development and utilization are also started. Different from the Western developed countries’ development backgrounds; China’s Riverside area development is in an increase premium period. These areas have not undergone a remarkable recession; the main purpose of development aims through the improvement and transformation of the waterfront environment to promote the development of urban industries, as well as city to provide more living space for dwellers. Remediations along the Haihe River in Tianjin, Nanjing Qinhuai antique buildings, the Hefei City wall riverfront park have begun to take shape. In addition, cities and towns of the south of Yangtze River protection and updates have also been more and more concerned about. Beijing’s north-south water system transformation, the transformation of West Lake of Hangzhou, Ningbo three rivers and six coastal planning, Changsha also will intend 500 million to transform the Xiangjiang coast. But overall, China’s urban waterfront building is still in its infancy and technical exploration stage, there are still some problems, mainly include: (1)design concept abandons the traditional extension At present, many of the waterfront landscape design projects enter the City Beautiful Movement errors, in a simple pursuit of modernization; there is no local characteristics and identification. Some of Chinese city waterfront development projects begin quickly based on the social tide of "the popular of Plaza, green, waterfront development", due to the lack of overall planning guidance, the overall concept is not strong, and the design theme is not clear, often is too single, there is uniform appearance, so lacks space identifiability. (2)Ignore the historical background of the geographical Urban form and urban cultures have a corresponding relationship. However, the current waterfront development projects have been ignored the application of traditional culture and local characteristics in the design; or can not combine the planning the design and traditional culture well, making the city waterfront forms lack their own characteristics. Some development projects dismantle the history and culture of the original material carriers, such as buildings and historical sites rather than repair, destruct and damage a large number of valuable historical information; more do not considered the existing old buildings or sites but randomly large-scale development near them, which can not integrate the region characteristics, but seriously damage the original waterfront features and contours, artificially fragment urban space form. (3)Regional factors are considered less, less respect the local way of life of people but just copy other cities’ construction of the waterfront landscape mode.
These issues are worthy of Urban Waterfront builders and designers to pay attention.
2. Research significance Since the early 90’s in 20th century, China’s Urban Waterfront Planning and construction bring increasing attention. Waterfront Park as one of the strongest strips jointly impacted by the natural process and human activities, in the cities’ natural and social systems has a wide range of functions. Waterfront Park can not only improve the ecological environment along the coast, reshape the city beautiful landscape, improve the quality of life of the people, can but also increase the city tax revenue, create employment opportunities, promote new investment, and obtain good social image, and then promote other parts’ development of the city. On the cities’ Outward expansion gradually extends to the connotation of historical conditions, China’s Waterfront Park renovation and re-development also shows the growing trend of development.#p#分页标题#e#
In developing the western region process to change the backwardness of Xi’an, to enhance the city’s overall image, to reduce the gap between the eastern developed regions, together with the National Development Goals of the 21st century, the natural landscape and the environment protection along the river of the urban waterfront area are very significantly important.
At present, the domestic urban waterfront design study is hot and popular, but design research that is suitable for Xi’an Waterfront Park is basically blank. Also, Xi’an Rivers are different from other regions. Xi’an Rivers have the special geological and hydrological features: less mountain-type, more plain-type; the flow is consistent with geological structure line; water is rich, seasonal variation is greater; and of multi-bending. These special environmental conditions more need serious analysis and study, under specific environmental conditions to design. Only a single use of a certain mode can neither well achieve the original design, or tend to lead to more negative effects and unnecessary loss.
This shows that to explore a plan that is suitable for Xi’an Riverfront Park is essential. For Xi’an urban development along the river, as well as other cities’ development along the waterfront are of great guiding significance. This is the purpose of this study.
3. 指导essayResearches review3.1 Domestic Researches In recent years, as people pay attention to the waterfront landscape ecological protection and construction. Related design of the waterfront areas of theoretical research has gradually enriched. Since the 90’s of 20th century, it has been more active, first of all the relevant scientific research in colleges and universities start, such as: Tsinghua University, Huang Lei and Wu Xiaojiang and Tongji University, Liu Binyi make a series of studies; At the same time, a lot of researches results on the waterfront also indicate in dissertations, conference papers and journals. For example, the "modern research" in 2003 introduced "Love Mother River" topic, which includes a number of experts and scholars’ views Including specific examples, the foreign landscape analysis, as well as a summary of lessons learned, in the hope that brings or will bring inspiration and help the implemented river landscape planning and design projects and. In which Peking University the director of the landscape design Center for Dr. Yu Kongjian’s "urban rivers and waterfront zone" rectification and beautifying" from the ecological, aesthetic aspects discusses the significance to preserve and restore rivers and waterfront areas of natural forms. The article also talks about the function of urban river and the painful lessons learned. In 2004 "Chinese Garden" journal, Shanghai Tongji University the Architecture and Urban Planning Department of Landscape Science and Tourism Liu Yi’s "On the landscape water remediation planning and design of the embankment" from the ecological, river dynamics, landscape, etc. the four perspectives analyzes and discusses the revetment construction of the ecological environment enhancement, security and stability of the structure, visual landscape and hydrophilicity. In addition, there are many such as "Urban Planning", "Journal of Urban Planning", "Chinese garden", "modern architecture" and other publications have the design of the waterfront-related column.#p#分页标题#e#
Domestic Research on the waterfront area works mainly include Zhang Zhongwei,Fenghui, Peng Zhiquan edited the "Urban Waterfront Design and Development" which is relatively early to systematically introduce the urban waterfront development. This book introduces urban waterfront development and the basic principles of motivation, but also uses the larger space to introduce foreign examples of waterfront development, and analyze and discuss the examples. Liu Binyi’s book "Urban Waterfront Landscape Planning and Design" from the waterfront landscape based theory, combined with national conditions, format, detail discuss the city’s waterfront landscape and its planning and design dynamics, theory and methods, supplemented by rich domestic practice and projects, hoping to improve the quality of the construction of the waterfront landscape. Yang Chunxia doctoral thesis "river-crossing city form and design" from the perspective of urban design explores the development of the river-crossing city’s morphology and design method, which also have more detailed discussion of rivers and urban landscape, the relationship between landscape of riparian waterfront and urban landscape. But China’s waterfront landscape planning and design research monographs and reference materials are still relatively small, and the study is relatively single. In the author’s contact extent, the design of the waterfront areas is the waterfront space, as well as the development of the waterfront areas. Although, there are also some master’s thesis, the research on the waterfront natural landscape and ecological have been explored in more detail, but mostly from a macro angle of view conduct principle exposition in waterfront landscape and ecology of the spatial pattern, or the design research on the restoration of waterfront areas’ historical and cultural landscape, on how to reflect the regional characteristics of the waterfront landscape design exposition, or on the basis of geographical, location characteristics, rivers regional factors, the landscape design is basically a blank. 3.2指导essay researches abroad In foreign countries, the earlier book on waterfront-related design is in 1988 edited by Hoyle Seoul "Waterfront Update", for the first time on the global waterfront it develops a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon. The book contains 15 articles written by geographers, economists and urban planners. In the theoretical Discussion part, the researchers summarize the drivers of waterfront development and existing contradiction. In the case analysis part, the situation in North America is overall recalled, at the same time, it has a number of detailed case studies, such as Toronto, Rotterdam, Manchester, Baltimore, Hong Kong. In addition, for example, in 1989 the International Center "Cities on Water" with headquarters in Venice published the "Urban Waterfront – a new water area of urban development", because its vast authors are part of the waterfront development projects’ participants, and they expressed their views against the waterfront development, but also for some cases they triggered a heated debate, so the book is also known as "Waterfront Planner meta-expression."#p#分页标题#e#
In addition, at the same time Western countries some famous architectural magazine also begin to pay attention to urban waterfront projects, one after another publish such album. Britain’s Architectural Review, respectively, in 1987, 1989 and 1998, published three albums, in other magazines such frequency is rare. Other magazines such as Japan’s Process: Architecture in 1984 published a waterfront album; Britain’s Architectural Design in 1995 was in the name of Architecture & Water to produce an album. The United States Landscape Architecture in the February 1991 published a so-called "New urban Waterfront" album. In addition, the waterfront landscape design-related books also include Richard Marshall’s works on the waterfront city — "post-industrial society of the urban water foreshore" and so on.
In Asia, related theoretical writings mainly include the "Waterfront Landscape Design" edited by Japan Society of Civil Engineers in 1988. It is a more comprehensive and detailed study about Urban Waterfront actual planning, designs, construction. In another example, the Japan Center for river management of the waterfront edited a book to explore the natural landscape design concept. The book is "natural waterfront landscape design concepts and practice", which is to discuss river natural landscape design concept, and its main contents are mainly about the experiences of Switzerland and Germany’s protection and creation the state of the natural landscape. "hydrophilic waterfront facilities planning and design" is Edited by the same organization. the book revolves around to introduce and explore space hydrophilic activities center facilities planning and design methodology, aims to carry out design for the people relaxation and walking, swimming and other water activities in the waterfront edge. And provides references and guidance in creating full charm hydrophilic space and the construction of the waterfront landscape design.
Waterfront landscape design can not be separated from the theoretical researches on landscape ecology, therefore, the related works include Forman R. T. T. Godron’s "Landscape Ecology" and "Some general principles of landscape ecology"; In addition, there are on the eco-city construction "Ecocity Berkeley – Building Cities for a Healthy Future" written by Richard Register and others have analysis on the landscape ecological aspects. In addition, devoted works, John O. Symonds’ book, "Landscape Architecture – Site Planning and Design Manual"; Tom • Turner’s book "Landscape Planning and Environmental Impact Design"; Geoffery and Susan Jellicoe’s book "diagram of human landscape – to shape the history of the environment"; I.L. McHarg’s book "design with nature" and so on.
4. 指导essayResearch content and methods 4.1 research contents#p#分页标题#e#One of the most important characteristics of Waterfront Park design is that it is a complicated issue that involves many areas. Each city’s rivers, or the waterfront area have its own unique needs and cultural characteristics, which determines the Waterfront Park planning should be able to meet the characteristics of different cities, it must be a multi-angle design. It requires designers to comprehensively analyze urban river or the waterfront area and the city’s functional combination, hydrophilic, water place’s area, transport, water wildlife and ecological environment, the city’s unique historical continuity, the city’s image and so on. Therefore, how to establish the correct design concepts and explore the design mode of the waterfront has very important significance.
The paper first outlines the worldwide waterfront development process, domestic and foreign waterfront building experience, from the socio-cultural sustainable development point of view, analyzes the waterfront park design elements, sums up the 10 waterfront Park design principles. Based on the findings and the Xi’an City Wall Waterfront Park’s status quo, the author conducts planning design on the City Wall Waterfront Park.
4.2 Research ideas The dissertation is based on Xi’an City Wall Waterfront Park for the study object, through a combination of theoretical research and empirical analysis, from the perspective of social and cultural http://www.ukassignment.org/daixieEssay/meiguoessaydaixie/sustainable development discusses the waterfront park planning ways. The specific research ideas are as follows: (1) A systematic summary of domestic and foreign scholars’ researches on Urban Waterfront Planning; (2) From the social and cultural sustainable development point of view, reach the conclusion of the waterfront park planning ideas, principles and methods; (3) Makes use of the outcomes, conduct a planning and design to the Xi’an City Wall Waterfront Park.
4.3 Research Methods This study combines the theory and practice, combines second data and survey, as well as a large number of case studies. In addition to case analysis, but also conducted empirical analysis to survey, in order to achieve the purpose of analysis from theories to practice and then through practice to test theories.