The American culture, in a sense, is the extension of European culture, because the American language, she of the population structure, and her national spirit from Europe. On the other hand, the U.S. and European culture with different, because European settlers in North America continent go after Indian driven, in a barren desert land created marveled at the splendid civilization. So, talking about American culture and social etiquette, we must take care of European and American cultures is gay, and to pay attention to the phase of the opposite sex. Culture is a wide range, content complex title, involves people in social life and all aspects of the communication. The author in the form of 杂谈 worked, American culture briefly summarized. KuanRongXing.
America is a nation of immigrants, it ancestors came from all over the world. People are moving to the United States, not only geographically move it, and they are the country’s appraisal and customs brought to the new residence. Because the miscellaneous, each person is very outstanding differences; Because the difference is very common, people would not have paid special attention to unity. As time passes, the American cultural convention formed a higher degree of KuanRongXing (tolerance), to heterogeneous culture and different evaluation the tolerance, acceptable attitude. At this point, American society feasible custom than any other country in the world to come broad.
Politically speaking, this KuanRongXing in terms of the pursuit of freedom and rights to freedom of maintenance. From religious, it reflects different faith harmonious coexistence. Look from life range, it appeared in different RACES, different ethnic community peace get along. To cap it all, in the United States, everyone basically can choose any different ideas, beliefs, life style and traditional habit; People can also considerably keep their customs and instrument. For example, the jews can celebrate their religious holiday, and christians is able to their Christmas and Easter. Then for example, the Chinese can in Chinatown in Chinese life and work; In the same way, immigrants to Vietnam in their "little Saigon" according to Vietnam way of business management, and engaged in all kinds of activities.
American tolerate sex, in addition to the above the United States is an immigrant country this factor, but also with the American people about the frequent migration. It is well known, the American history in the development of a important part is her KaiFaShi west. At that time, American settlers or trek, riding in the car, from the east side to the west, from the south to the north, where there is opportunity, to go there. Frequent migration and the constantly changing people to live is always in the "flow" condition, to temporarily faces all sorts of different phenomenon more easy to tolerance and accept. In addition, often migration also to be able to help people enlarge my horizons, know more know broadly, to a different customs the sympathy, understanding, and gradually formed a diversity is better than the openness of the oneness of concept.
Because the American KuanRongXing is stronger, so few americans put their will impose on other people, and the Chinese Confucius "do unto others as you would be done by" value very like. For example, the husband may be a republican, but he must never pushed him that support the Democrats wife change political position. Similarly, the mother may be a Catholic, but she can never forced her that was converted to a Muslim son to change religious beliefs. In the daily habits peace transaction processing, the tolerant spirit but also common occurance, are common.
Americans to be informal known to the world. At the office, people often can see "white-collar" don’t wear a jacket, don’t tie in the office work. A telephone conversation, they go back a depend, the foot to rest on the table, leisurely leisurely in the phone "kan" on a half a day. On the campus, dressed in jeans, American professor foot Nike shoes into the classroom. What is more, the professor said strength, will be a bottom to go to the platform on sit, the butterflies to a voluble, regardless of age, regardless of sex. More often the case, is the United States between father and son, mother and daughter of the relationship between the amiable, relaxed. Whether in the film, or in real life, we always see the elders and the young generation mutual pat on the shoulder, unrestrained lens. All this comes from americans to be informal (informality) habit.
From the cultural perspective, the American people are informal habit and their democratic equal ideas related. We know, the United States history development process, not the feudal society this stage. Noble, a pariah, grade, the royal family and other European mainland popular a set of things, in the United States have no or no real meaning. People to family, status, identity not very value: more important are the actual performance of itself. This raised in the United States in the early stage of the development concept to a great extent, has become a traditional American culture of "deposits". Because everyone value equal rights and people interact with each other in need not excessive pay attention to all kinds of overelaborate etiquette. On this point, people as long as pay attention to the United States to meet the way when playing for will understand. Whether the subordinate see boss, or the students meet teachers, the average American just smile and say Hi or Hello can, and don’t need to add various kinds of first street. Also, the americans in a social situation SanXi business meetings or more diversity, less people one by one and to say goodbye, but to everybody waved and said, "Well, we see you" (Well, so long everybody). Do not say people lack of respect each other, but the people of the matter of habit.
To be informal is to make people more easily in contacts, at ease some, thus faster shorten the distance between people. Perhaps this is the American character, cheerful one reason.
Titles and call
Because American emphasis on equality, their social rank idea is relatively weak, so they don’t have family hereditary titles. Instead, the American people like to use professional title as a call, because it on his own "earn", not from in the hereditary. His attempt for example: harry Judge (Judge Harley), Senator Smith (Senator Smith), General Clark (General Clark), Dr Brown (Dr. Brown), Professor Green (Professor Green), reverend Wright (Father White), Cohen teacher (Rabbi Cohen, to the respect of the jews language), Gray Bishop (Bishop Gray), etc. Engaged in other industries, americans to "sir", "young lady", "wife" proportion.
The americans first meeting, if don’t know each other’s title, but to show him respect, they used "sir" (sir) or "lady" (madam) call. Be you of so called will immediately understand, you don’t know how to call him, so he will place the call to tell you. Generally speaking, unless one engaged in a professional work, such as doctors, professors, etc, the American people don’t use official title. This is because American emphasis on friendly, neglects relationship, and do not take the title status. Americans believe that, even if the direct address of a person’s name, people can also said to him respect. In fact, most americans don’t want their own for age or social status and the relationship between want others to special respect him. This will so that they don’t feel comfortable and feel the distance of each other too separate widened. Many American people even think "sir", "wife", "miss" call too serious, so, they tend to call names. For example, "don’t call me Mrs. Smith, call me Sally good". Americans think, call him by his first name, often easier to being friendly and loved. Of course, the paper, people must be even with a name, like "Mary Smith, this is John Jones." Just beginning, introduced may still use each other’s name is called for, such as "miss Smith", "Mr Jones", etc. But before long, wait for the other party to know, talked about speculation after, one of them would ask, "do you mind if I use your name call you?" In general, no one would mind. So, both sides will call name, to continue their conversation. Therefore, the American people come together to chat, rarely used title or words like "sir".
Europe, Asia and other countries the rich, in order to show the style, or from the housework trivial to extricate, often hire maid, cooks and driver who serve and his family. In the United States, this situation is not much, because they pay attention to "do-it-yourself" (do it yourself). In the United States, whether doctors, professors, lawyers, businessmen, they all cook, clean, the market purchase. They have social identity, but don’t think do housework will lower their decent identity. They also have economic strength hire "nanny", but I thought I’d be doing, not necessary. The somebody else away, people can often see big professor, a doctor you cook cooks cooking. As for mowing the lawn, sorting out the garage and paint the roof of such as unskilled work, social identity not only no tired feeling, but will joyfully into them.
"Do-it-yourself" habit and the American frontier spirit has close relationship. Imagine, the men in the west of the desolate, people and wilderness forever, and natural coexistence, from basic dietary daily life to complex medical education, all must depend on yourself. After many years’ of influence, and the "do-it-yourself" self-reliance spirit and deeply into the culture of the United States casting of genes. In addition, in the American people, not only reflect people’s DIY independent spirit, and people still can from "begin" after the results of their ability and see their value.
Of course, the "do-it-yourself" culture and other reasons. Americans like to practical, and hire others work is actually buy services. The average American, as long as their capable, competent, and didn’t want to spend money please help others, think this is unnecessary spending. Still, the American people are paying more attention to privacy (privacy), concern about the home halcyon. A stranger in the house often ambulating, will no doubt to privacy and caused the influence of quiet negativity. So, they don’t want to sacrifice privacy and peace for a at leisure.#p#分页标题#e#
Don’t like silent
And the United States have had contact with people who have the feeling, and westerners to several americans in the most bold and unrestrained, the most amiable, the most frank-this of course is the American lovely place. This is bold and unrestrained, easy-going character in "just" behave very significant. Americans once and people began opened, it will be writing just keep talking. They don’t like to do sit doesn’t work, if found interlocutors long doesn’t work, will soon get him to join ShenKan in.
Sometimes, they will ask if someone body unwell; Sometimes, he will ask whether interface what’s on your mind; Sometimes, they simply ask whether to ask for help. Silence for them, often means "talk", or "can’t compliment", or "don’t want to talk to you." Therefore, the American people chat after a few pause, speak both sides always tried to keep the conversation going until 谈兴 so weak. If the americans in a conversation about both found not approach, they often use silence to say: now that both sides of the argument is difficult to match, continued to argue the matter will be impolite, even hurt feelings. And that, as with silence with relief.
The pace of life
Americans natural disposition is good, move, gets involved. Like an energetic young people, the American people kept at it this busy that, seems to have never make not over of energy. The person in the city seems never to rush to what place; The country people are always in the farmland, chicken farm, barns, dairy farm run between keep; The office of the people had a similar words into mountain work (paper work) to do; The company secretary thumbs and kept the phone, send files. You walk in the street, we the people behind will step to get your super meteor ahead; You go to a restaurant, a rare to find with your cold; and the partner talking and laughing. The rhythm of the life like a foot on the spring and methodically constantly running, make up a busy, near crazy modern life in pictures.
The fast pace of the American way of life, and to the extent of their society is closely related to the fierce competition. The United States is a country with highly developed market economy, "the survival of the fittest" the law of its operation rule, not to advance is to go back, be it defeats. In order to survive and success, the American people have to fight and struggle, and fighting and struggle is one of the important aspects of the fight against time with others, the struggle speed, make oneself always in rely on status. This shows, the American people of the fast rhythm of life style is fierce society by their competition "persecuted" come out. Because this "persecuted" the ever-present, be everywhere, the American way of life of fast rhythm is habit is a second nature.
The United States is a respect individuality, advocating individualism country, individual struggle success story is "American dream" is the essence of parts. Whether from impoverished apprenticeship to Carnegie steel king of rich festivals, or even the house of people from Lincoln to compete on the presidency, they are ordinary americans with relish, dream of personal success story.
In many countries in the world, human relations, family background is one of the success of the necessary conditions, such as in Italy, people need the help of the godfather, in Africa, people must get the chief’s introduced. But in the United States, human relations is helps people to succeed, but more important, is a man’s efforts to wisdom, the enterprising spirit, courage and easy-going personality. The United States is a "do-it-yourself" society, people on the idea of equal opportunity persuaded in. There, success is not by the family "heirloom", also not give others. Individual progress, all in my own hard efforts and not the struggle; Individual progress, is also the main mark self value realization. In a certain extent, personal improvement measure is to see one of a person’s position advancement, for common sense tells people, any one unit, whoever does appoint people by abilities of the spirit, only those who have the ability, good performance, just may often get promoted promoted. In view of this reason, the American people to get a good job, one can often brings opportunities work, very seriously. Party b before, they all around, careful investigation, try to sure that job in its favor. Once found work environment adverse, americans will not hesitate to Celtic, for another job, namely job-hopping (job-hopping), because most americans will abide by the act is, the resignation for them what is not decent things; Instead, we pursue personal progress made it a symbol, is seen as a chance for advancement of a kind of effort.
China has a saying, "the ritual people don’t blame". We asked people to come home to eat, clearly made a table of dishes, but say to the guest: "today, no food, literally eat". The reason that we do so because we culture in modesty is a polite. However, the American people for this kind of "the wind" expression of manners found it hard to compliment. And most European countries people, the American people like to express themselves freely views and opinions. In their view, one, pull, not was necessary in the simple fact that add extra words before modification. For example: the American people please people go to his home away, they will be pointed at the table of dishes specifically told guests, "for your coming, we prepared these of delicious things, hope you like them". Americans believe that, I sincerely invite you to, of course, have to let you know that I sincerity is in. Since americans pay attention to frank, in the usual relationships, their things and people are ready to express your opinion, said mutually tell. They think, each different opinion is taken for granted, and so, people in the exchange of views and chat, for you will never difference of opinion and a fuss. In a word, as long as the words don’t angry, bitter, opinions dispute is harmless.
This kind of direct evaluation on reflected in use, the American people in the conversation "nonsense" (waste words) is less. They answer questions in others, like to use simple, but views clear "yes", "sure", "No", "of course" word. The simple answer is not said americans polite, or brain simple, but they are informal, frank candid personality of reflect.
Many people with the United States has this experience: when you appreciate a U.S. person, such as said he car well, speaks Chinese beautiful, he will GuanErYiXiao, say thank you. But when we praise the Chinese compatriots, such as saying that someone good writing, speak English fluently, he will modesty to connect said, "not good, not good", or "where, where". The humanism of the east and west of the difference is worth pondering, should also learn English learners caused the enough attention.
In eastern culture system, the critical spirit is a weak links. Or out of respect, or out of politeness, or out of fear, or out of fear, the people to question the little authority, let alone the challenge. In fact, these countries most heavily rating system comparison, people have long hierarchy by influence, and had the internalized in their heart, carry out in line. Since childhood, babble children were told, "adult word is always right". Young students have new discovery, often for wet behind the ears to confidently and authority theory a war chest. In the long run, people’s "rough edges" be ground flat, curiosity is constrained, critical spirit be way, each one become too compliant, parrot "echo" "echo" person. In western countries including the United States, people since the childhood training children asking questions, and cultivate their knowledge and a habit. The child proposed problem, the parents and the teachers not immediately give the answers, but persuasive voice to inspire, the induction, help children think together. Sometimes, the adults will charge the children themselves to the library for the answers, rarely for children "arranged" solutions. Life in this culture atmosphere, children and company out such a truth: any problem of the answers are not ready, it depends on the person looking for and thinking.
People in the United States this question, the exploring spirit naturally lead them to the authority or authoritative view critical type (critical) attitude. Young people and the elders opinions and argue for each other; Students and teachers will because don’t agree and "acrimonious debate" a; Novice and authority will for a different view and eyeball over. Americans do not respect for authority not questioning authority, but think that only through the free lectures to discrimination authenticity, thus gradually close to the truth. In addition, in the American people, the elements of the dignity of people is to have independent personality, and independent personality is the premise of independent thinking. To think independently, critical spirit is indispensable. Moreover, questioned and criticized, not the people in, but the person’s opinion and view.
The truth on polite
In many countries, people talk to each other, like pick each other glad to hear it said, rather than pointed out that the truth, so as not to hurt you. This is mostly out of polite (courtesy) and polite (politeness). But in the U.S. the eye, this kind of polite and courteous not as good as the truth important. Americans have a ethical values motto: "Honesty is the best policy" (Honesty is the best policy). In other words, in the more honest, kind, courteous, family reputation is less likely to suggest heavy, the American people the truth in the first place. Thus, in the American if to say something bad about someone, the most severe of one is "You can’t believe in him" (You cannot trust him).#p#分页标题#e#
Try for example. An American in driving on, on the way, he asked a stranger: "here under the distance a town how far is it?" In some put a polite in higher than the real position, the country may immediately think of Mr. The roadside GanLuZhe already exhausted, anxious to arrive at your destination, so they spoke, and said, "go down this road was" (Just down the road). He thought this answer can make GanLuZhe heart relief and then more vibration foot spirit. However, when the americans open a good half-day car to reach to the town he will not free mood, or even angry, feel cheated (feeling tricked). In his view, the man who knows the long trip, but knowingly deceive him. The same problem, the people of the United States how to answer? Americans believe that, if he knew the next town and 24 miles and said "Just down the road" is not honest performance. So, despite the tired to find extremely rich sympathy passers-by, but he is still the truth mutually tell: "there is a long way to go, and at least 24 miles". (You have a long way to go; at least 24 miles more). The way to may be disappointed, but he learned that his own situation, so also won’t produce misunderstanding.
Don’t understand asked, answer their questions
Americans pay attention to frank, and true value, so, no matter in class, or chat at ordinary times, encountered do not understand the question, or didn’t listen to clear sentences, they love being follow, figure out what a good grasp. The so-called "known for know the motto," also. In their eyes, don’t understand is not terrible, was enough to make people feel shame. Terrible and shame is the ignorant, smooth. Based on this principle, the American teacher prelect, if students don’t ask questions, and he think that students understand. He would never initiative to ask students to answer some of what problem, because he thought it was a party to the students things: for students, there is no need to consider face problems, if you don’t know, ask the student the basic standards is.
Once asked, the American people generally must give a clear answer, in a social situation, in talking to friends, in the workplace, is so. In the east and talk to people, sometimes, for the American people question XiaoErBuDa, often make americans feel puzzling, at a loss. This in a way will be americans as kind of a faux pas. Therefore, the americans to chat or get down to business, answer their questions as the basic manners. If really don’t know, or difficult to answer, but clearly, such as I don ”s happened to, I am afraid I cannot answer your for Must not be silent, ignore them.
People interact with each other, because they often speaks, hit it off, have a common hobbies and interests and make friends (making friends), this is the same in any society. What is different, in the LiuDongLiang small countries and regions, the friendship general development more slow, because on the one hand, people contact, on the other hand be cautious. And once made friends with each other, a friendship, they often try to maintain this friendship, not only depend on each other, and his own reputation and personality also "bet" up, even affected both sides of the other family members. So, in this society, the friendship will last quite long, or bush. But in the U.S. such a regional flow (geographical mobility) and the social mobility (social mobility) are very countries, making friends has its characteristics. Because people often migrate from one place to another place, they make friends in that was set at the friendship may close and firm. But once migrate each other, their friendship may soon disappear namely, both sides to find the right their new friends. Americans won’t because this friendship means of dealing with and feel "lady", more not felt he was each other’s contempt, or insult. In most cases, "getting" friends may keep communication, or call for an additional year or two, and then gradually interrupt contact. Interesting is, once have the chance to meet again, no matter how long interval, old friends will "reconciliation", a review of friendship, even continue to have close contacts for a period of time. Based on the way to make friends, the foreign guest to visit the United States the somebody else, you can freely, relaxed freely and they chat, play. They can share with people in the United States holiday, or even live together, and you don’t have to keep friendship for life worrying about the worry. Will americans, they invited the foreign guests to visit is from a friendship and hospitable, they pleased for this short friendship it can take time and energy.
Of course, though, americans are friendship is not very long lasting, but in making friends, they still emphasize sincere and trust and friendship with no false and deceit. Just because regional flow and the social mobility is frequent, did they formed a "hand in a group of friends, in a group of friends" way. This is not so much to chop and change, wider and wider than the world friend.
Invite (invitations) relatives and friends to participate in an activity can put forward to, also can use telephone and mail notification. In the United States, to attend a formal party or a dinner invitation, whether written notice or phone call, is invited as the reply, let invited a party know whether you attend. If accepted the invitation to suddenly find that can’t keep the after, were invited to a party is necessary to inform the male host (host) or the hostess (hostess), indicating that the cause of can’t keep the appointment. Really keep the appointment, what should the guests arrive on time, or in the agreement after the time of 5 minutes to 10 minutes. If early to words, the guest had better not immediately into the house, and can place outside the spinning in nearby look, until time to ring the doorbell again into the house. Did so, because americans on time for sexual particularly exquisite, their activities are often in strict accordance to the timetable laid operation. When americans invite others to eat away, the host or hostess mostly you cook cooking. To prepare for the good delicious dishes, he (she) in general to busy to sitting before. The guests came early, master attending guest cooking two head not landing, for both inconvenient, and host and guest too afraid of reckless. If the guest for some reason more than 15 minutes late for words, americans usually look forward to the guest call them, or they will be delayed for guests to but increase and anxiety. The dinner table, guests usually not left in a hurry, but sit awhile, chew. About half an hour or so, the guest rises to leave, and thank you again for men and women before leaving the host hospitality.
If the receiving party (cocktail party) or tea party (tea party), and other social activities of the invitation, people in general can find specific on the invitation of time, such as "afternoon 5 to 7". That case, was invited to people can be in 5 to 7 when between any of the moment to the cocktail party or tea party, of course, not in cocktail party near the end of the just hurried to go to. As for leaving time, the guest not necessary 7 when leave on time, slightly stay long hair some general. In the 7:30, the guest should consider got up and went home.
Pay attention to the social level in the country, the reds (place of honor) must be to VIP, to show respect. Americans in addition to formal diplomatic occasions in the outside, rarely pay attention to this one. Americans bowed to the people, not for each other identity grandeur and appear especially attentive, also won’t bowed more several times bow. No matter away at home, or ride a bus, americans usually nothing specific gate position to VIP arrangement. If so, americans are made to distance the master recently places, such as in eating, let the VIP sitting on the host or hostess side; In private cars in, let a guest on the driver’s seat of the table. Obviously, here said the "reds", have no nobility, prominent connotation, is more of equality and close of idea.
American civilization, accounting for a large proportion of material civilization. In the United States people, life is insurrection taken for granted. For this reason, they often with a look at the life level below the superiority of their people. From quite extent, americans tend to number to evaluate almost all all things.
When asked about the value of a person, the American people generally refers to can use to measure the value of digital, such as this person for years by education, there are a few years of work experience, a few times a reward, and yearly salary, by the Numbers seem to add up enough to reflect the amount of individual character, moral character, including, habits, etc, all of the problems. When asked about a enterprise success or not, the American people like to enumerate a long string of data, such as day, output value of the market share, years, the number of export by the number of employees, the workshop area, etc, it seemed that the data itself represents the enterprise life force. Because the United States people are number from the Angle, that things, they in solving problems and ready to quantify. For example, the government likes to say how much money used to pull out under the poverty relief plan; The party school like to say how much strength recruited spend how many minority students; Companies like to say how much capital investment for development in the new project; The labor department said a year like how many jobs and create, and so on. In these are good at digital expression of the people, as the once dial model, and the poverty relief plan is implemented; Once recruited into the minority students, racial equality problem would be solved; Once the money for new project development, social can benefit; Once the new jobs are created, people will be satisfied with. This is clearly a digital instead of actual solution by the question too.#p#分页标题#e#
Americans thought concept of the quantity concept largely reflects their pragmatic spirit. We know, the American people in different, France, Britain and other European people, they hate profound theory and abstract thinking. Pay attention to actual, practical and effective Benjamin Franklin, is the heart of the American role model and hero, and skilled in theology, good at speculative metaphysics of Jonathan, Edwards makes most americans to his stay at a respectful distance from sb, difficult to compliment. Generally speaking, any kind of beyond the philosophy of common sense to cause the United States people’s interest, many abstract things must deduce metaphysics into the most simple daily ethics are likely to accept the ordinary people. Practical master philosophy-true American goods, is the best example. From this Angle in the number of American the preference of the concept, we can understand the: digital give people a clear concept, see, touch it, truly, truly, ZhiDeYouSheng, therefore it for the American people and people judge things have provided the certain basis.
Love make the experiment
The national character, love make the experiment is one of her important characteristic. From the large range of speaking, the United States itself is one of the biggest experiment field. Since the Columbus "discovery" after the new North America, a group of and a number of immigrants into the United States, according to their respective ideal blueprint, in the United States for different types of experiment. The pilgrims in there to build a "land", the republican activists want to where to build a "datong world", pay attention to the economic development of the the vast and rich land into a "strong nations". From childhood the range look, generation after generation of Portland from all over the world, continue to take every opportunity to do a variety of trying. Some tried to in politics began, some managed to get rich in economy, also some for his own ideal dream and devoting. Whether large scope on, or small Angle range, the United States was regarded as a "land of opportunity" (land of opportunity), and therefore can be there on the experiment.
Because of the sex life make the experiment, the united national character growth out of the strong business spirit of the pioneer. When the development of the western region, many people taking risks and endured all sorts of difficulties, there being sow the land. The industrial revolution rise, many people take risks, in the iron and steel, petroleum and automobile industry a large investment, taste in the fierce competition and bitters. Because the chance, and less traditional and precedent restriction, the American people are happy to to new things for a challenge. They dislike the idea of conservative lead, don’t like the old things, and the total love refurbished pattern, try to do other people have not done. Because love make the experiment, and persistent spirit, bold and open, americans don’t miss experts, such as rules of discipline bound less pay attention to, and more willing to miss his–his own ability and good luck. American invention patent of the world’s first, this and they are not afraid of cultural customs authority, the spirit of the bold experiment that there is a close relation.
From the deepest sense, the American people love the nature and make the experiment by the American spirit of the pioneer derivative is because of the U.S. optimism thought. Throughout the history of the world, not a country like the United States that had hoped. Her superior natural conditions, the stability of her political order, her constant flow of talent source, and her conform to the law of development of the things a series of policies, make many, many enterprising, diligence and willing to do americans in this "land of opportunity" benefit profit, and the country is so constantly become rich and powerful. Then, the American people from these simple and was discovered in the fact that such a truth: now that the wild can be turned into good farmland, the village can be transformed into the city, so, in this world, as long as people unremitting efforts to struggle, there is nothing can’t do it, this is what we usually speak spirit of optimism. Optimism is the essence of it all depends on human effort, to the future with confidence, and love make the experiment is the import of efforts to innovation, the pursuit of victory. Visible, both success and positive belief in the struggle is down and mutual conversion.
Literally and restriction
Europe is formalist, like get bogged down in the details, German and British people in this respect was especially prominent. The United States are otherwise, wait for a person to act on flexible casually. Almost every English gentleman all know that they do not break how should do just like a gentleman; And the American people, despite the etiquette book through the city, but few in the etiquette and unified on customs. Except in the upper social situations, and American ordinary people in social interaction from various against most people close to the level of the sexual imho.
People in the United States with this attitude reflects their ideas. In the United States people, polite standard is drawn up by the people, they should not become the limit of stiff mode. Therefore, in the United States, without a court make social etiquette, also does not have the upper class forced provisions of this kind of etiquette. All kinds of social etiquette mainly according to people’s natural disposition is used to implement in action.
Since americans in the bound her behavior less, they were, in many ways played very literally. They speak casually, dressed casually, eating, literally, to the person’s attitude also casually. Reflected in the English language use, americans to its "use" attitude, and often makes some hidebound old literati saddened; And those widely Hu in folks of irregular expression, more make many grammarian ACTS sigh a helpless. As for language veiled show society in rank idea words, americans often despise an attend to ignore them. Also may be due to lack of discipline American attention, their discipline concept is light, it often makes the administration officials and enforce discipline of the people felt a headache. There is a kind of view, saying that British people think that abide by the rules is a fun, americans put him to some tough requirements as his provisions disrespectful, even insult. The party school, students loose discipline; American families, parents lax discipline their children; The United States army, soldiers freedom is famous far and lax.
Surprisingly, American education is successful, the children grow up to be good parents, most good citizens, the United States army also occasionally can play some battle. This seemingly contradictory phenomenon it might be explained: americans love freedom, don’t want to be forced to control, however, in really exercise free right, they are still bound by legal concept, measured in their scope "freedom is free and easy". In fact, though, americans are on the surface care work, don’t respect the law, but in fact, the American people are extremely advocate the rule of law. The world no nation as the United States does effort study law, no nation lawyer as the United States does in political and daily life plays such an important role. Americans can go to town with criticism of the President and congress language, but to the Supreme Court but the spirit of the fear of one another. Perhaps this is the American people on casual constraints and balance, she is the prime example of a fitting.
Individualism and the cooperation spirit
Speaking of individualism, it’s easy to think of heart, a mercenary force have perfumed unite bourgeois ethical values, and especially the way the United States this typical capitalist countries. In fact, the English of individualism (individualism) in the United States has two meanings. The first layer is its positive significance, refers to the independent ego, ego is the struggle, to control the persistent spirit of his own fate. The sense of individualism often has to do with the American image link: he is a brave pioneers, migration to the wilderness, and ManYi company, with their own wisdom and strength develop, laid the path to success, he has done all the full of entrepreneurial spirit and unique vitality. The second is its negative meaning, refers to the individual to pursue their own interests, buy others interests and public interests in the face, crazy request, insatiable greed. The sense of individualism often has to do with the American image link: he is a selfish speculators, in order to meet the personal desires, by hook or by crook, to the exclusion of all social and draws from nature useful thing, to social welfare and natural environment cold talk numbness, indifference. So to speak, the two layers of individualism mean the word the connotation inalienable overall, as a coin has its two sides.
The good point, the individualism to entrepreneurial spirit of the carry forward, it gives people a chance, given freedom, encourage diversity, so as to promote and promote the America of the industry, agriculture, science and technology, education, entertainment and sports. From the bad Angle, individualism of incontinence inflation to nature caused the most damage, the interpersonal relationship to the society and a thick layer of coldfrost. Many people in cold individualism competition, extrusion, or life, frustrated for the poor, or human distortion, cynical. Therefore, from the individualism positive, negative factors to see, the key to the problem is how to reward good jealous evil, and this is the American culture never properly solve the "difficult" ".
However, it is worth XunWei, americans although individualism strong, but they are willing to cooperation. So to speak, in addition to outside Britain, no country in western countries like the United States that is willing to some common purpose and voluntary associate; No country has the United States that the association of private and that have been very effective.#p#分页标题#e#
In the European continent, build a church, a college, a hospital, a charities, often time-consuming difficult, difficult. But in the United States, as long as individuals or groups are interested in it can easily establish such institutions. So, all kinds of organization established in succession, and the organization of the music good, prosperity of organization, influence business political organization, collection of historical data organization, planning the organizations of the future, the research of the culture organization, have guns, organization and so on. Almost everyone in the society has its own organization. This kind of phenomenon shows that people in the pursuit of individual character development and at the same time, still pay attention to the construction of community organizations, in order to ensure that the society can have order and stability, make personal interests and collective interests balance between to a certain extent.
Do STH unconventional or unorthodox
Americans may be the world’s most keen on, also avant-garde national. Either from the founding of the United States set up the United States federal government hired for, still the separation from the United States to see; Whether from the americans in the invention of the science and technology to create for, or from the americans in the construction process of innovation to see the painstakingly; Whether the contemporary American youth love from Richard "punk" head or Yin and Yang head for, or from American men and women wearing the dress dont see, the United States goes to show a different, the pursuit of having a unique style, a kind of very confident, persist in style.
Historically speaking, americans do STH unconventional or unorthodox spirit began in colonial period. At that time, many political or religious persecution of the European people, especially English, who believe that the European royalty and theocratic rule by, glamorous people are busy all day long intrigue, killed each other, causing the whole Europe has been constantly war, indeed, life hopeless. To escape the corruption of the world, the European people at risk his life, across oceans, came to the North America, the wasteland. The reason that they leave their homes and willing to risk, important is one of the reasons for in the "new" in the world to create a different from a different, in the old world society-the so-called "the mountain top city" (a city upon the hill), for the world to admire, let the world follow. In such a society, they will try to make new developed countries not only in government system and social structure with different European countries, but also in the thought idea and life styles and European countries form bright contrast.
From the cultural concept of speaking, americans do STH unconventional or unorthodox and their personal idea of closely related. We know, individualism is the morale of the outstanding individual the essence of value, advocate personal characteristics, and to highlight the personal value, complete personality mold, the inevitable requirement people different, do STH unconventional or unorthodox. Only then, just can make in their justification made chickens as an elite member, dominate. Because of life in this culture atmosphere, members of society everyone pursuing innovation, all are deliberately quality win, americans for the novel thing can not only accept with tolerance, but also often praised, a compliment. Perhaps because do STH unconventional or unorthodox ideas already deeply rooted in American culture the soil, so it is reflected in the United States all aspects of the social life. For example, some artificial some of the car so far, it has a kitchen, swimming pool, phone, TV, sitting room and other kinds of facilities. Some ingenuity, pull on his beloved person, sit on a hot air balloon launch slowly only after all this is announced to the wedding ceremony. Still others is more telling, but want to climb up to the electric wire pole, who can play against each other in hanging on the sitting time longer. This kind of pursuit of novelty examples can be found everywhere in the United States, to enumerate. I’m afraid that this is "guinness world records" are being broken, guinness world records published on the new version of the main reason is.
Break the mysterious
Many of the people in the world has a very strong sense of mystery, such as Africa and Latin American nations with some of the nation to nature, for god, of human things have profound mystery, etc. They or worship to these things, convinced, or to these things by fear, afraid to over the top half step. The americans and the people are different, few such mystique. If the americans found something too mysterious, they often can’t break it, make it exposed "true colors looming. For example. Politics in many countries often full of mysteries, the determination of national leaders, partisan faction contest, major policy decisions, and government mechanism of action process, etc, to the common people speaking is a permanent solution doesn’t open the fan. However, in the United States, politics like a an entertaining game, ordinary people can use newspapers, TV and the mass media, viewing politicians to fight each other, to tease each other, blamed each other and so on various aspects of the brilliant performance. Big to run for President, congressional hearing, small to students and SMC conflict, people can see from all the political game use trickery, interest exchange and GuanGuanXiangHu case, etc. As long as the us politicians play political games in abide by the rules and regulations, they can get as viewers for the voters of recognition. If politicians in violation of the relevant rules, such as Nixon watergate, Reagan’s Iran door events, so, they would have relevant organization investigation and inquires, and even make exposure. So, the American political because higher and less transparency mystery, the common people of the political mechanism of operation and thus is well known. Also, America’s religious zeal is high, but the fear of god and not hindered americans opened this world he created the crowds of courage and effort. From the development of the western border area, to outer space exploration, from the bottom of the resources, to the atmosphere of resources exploration, the American people do not seem to because god’s universal and was struck to live, but in this bold experiment, brave to use scientific knowledge to answer the secrets of nature.
Americans break the most significant example of the mystery of performance in their own understanding. The bible speak, god created man. In the United States, nearly 95% of the people who claim to believe in god. But the American doctor thoracotomy to break belly transplant heart, kidneys, "and all hands" behavior not only without objection, but with admiration. What is more, the American people should go against "god made man" of the historic sense, its guts to eke out her test tube babies. Of course, the most incredible is, the American sex education has been completely to "social". Sex as a known as oil and salt sauce vinegar, common sense, for thousands of years by human sexual mystery was revealed americans at all. In the open, free dominant in the country, is still in the mystery break expected. Just break a mysterious had gone very, has not been immune to privacy, it makes people feel a little "that".
The middle of the s, Darwin founded the science of biological evolution doctrine to natural selection as the core of Darwin’s theory of evolution, for the first time to the nature of the occurrence, development, make the materialistic and regularity explanation, overturned, and idealism of metaphysics dominance in biology, there was a revolution biology change. In addition to the biology, his theory on anthropology, psychology and the development of philosophy has not allow to ignore effects.
1, background in Renaissance and after thought enlightenment, the modern scientific rational thinking has been set up. Darwin’s age is 19 th century, it is out of be mention, advocate science in the previous stage, in the thought and the rational, natural selection for Darwin created evolution for thoughts basis; And the youth travel, is he accumulated the massive extends, caused him about species of thinking and eventually evolved into a complete system.
2, main points: he thinks, biological exists between the struggle of existence, the fittest survive, who were not be washed out, this is the natural choice. Biological it is through heredity, mutation and selection, from low to high, from simple to complex, from small to many species evolving, development. Above at 3 o ‘clock, is we often hear "the survival of the fittest", now genetics birth was born, therefore provides important evidence, in fact, natural selection and competition is the "genetic".
3, influence: theory of evolution in the history of mankind is the second major scientific breakthrough, the first is heliocentrism replace geocentrism, denied in the center of the universe of human arrogant complex; The second is the theory of evolution, the human down to the same level with normal biological, all life on earth, as humans have or far or near the blood relationship, completely broke the human puffed up, and have a under god, above all the folly of self-esteem. Fortunately, Darwin is not in the middle ages, so he not under Bruno’s treatment, people still give extremely high opinion, even religious, also represent a certain tolerance, of course, that and when religion, far less than the power in the middle ages.
4, debate: from two aspects of the debate: on one hand, the scientific community internal debate, on the one hand, the scientific community outside of the religious and evolution debate. In the world of science inside, there is no evolution is formed of debate and questioned, the fact that evolution has proved, doubt the establishment of the theory of evolution, but, in the evolution of the concrete forms and reasons, still dispute continuously, such as gradient and mutation of controversies (this has indisputable, evolution speed for different conditions and different), human evolution of the disputes,…… Religion and science of debate, this is part of the most people feel, is also the most influential field debate. Because people professional biology is meagre knowledge, we learned the middle school is the study conclusions, and no professional explanation, therefore, especially the Christian religion, is accustomed to distort biology and evolution, the evolution of science, described as the unruly, ridiculous, no evidence or fabricated……#p#分页标题#e#
American: from "the monkey trial" to the school teach creationism
With the growing secular Europe compared, in the more than 80% of the people of the United States, a religion, Darwin’s theory of evolution meet question and against more. The most famous is on July 10, 1925 Dayton town in Tennessee, held a worldwide attention, is called "the monkey trial" history of the century trial, Hollywood in 1960 according to the case made movies. At that time, the United States to promote religious Tennessee congress passed a bill, banned in school biology teaching of evolution, and only allow professor Christian creationism sous peine d ‘amende as much as $500. But the state in the town of Dayton young teacher John scopes are unwilling to go against the knowledge of science, in the biology to continue teaching of evolution, and the results were religious court, prompt attention of the public opinion of the United States. The plaintiff lawyer Bryan is a former secretary of state, once three times was elected as the democratic candidates for President, despite the famous human rights lawyer darrow to appear in court for the defense, but professor evolution is still was sentenced to losing. In 1987, the United States Supreme Court judge, creationism for religious doctrine, banned in schools to teach.
In the early 80 s, American religious circles and launching a new round of the theory of evolution counter-offensive, by religious scientists come forward, starting a "intelligent design" movement. They say that the world life complex range, only with Darwin’s theory of evolution is difficult to explain make sense, there will be a wise designers of the almighty. But they still cannot prove the existence of the designer, it can only skirt around him. They once let some schools began to intelligent design theory, the results of the parents of the students were strongly against, in 2005 the United States state court judge "intelligent design" for the new-look creationism, not a scientific theory, not in the classroom to teach.
Today, still have forty percent of americans don’t agree with Darwin’s theory of evolution. Charles Darwin in the two hundredth anniversary, the American media, a poll showed the theory of evolution, only 39% of americans believed, and 25% of americans are not believe, another 36% of americans of evolution and creationism unable to agree. And whether you believe in evolution and the education level and religion has great concern. Graduated from a high school in only 21% of people believe in evolution, and have graduate degrees in nearly 74% of people believe in evolution. In church the number who, the more don’t believe in evolution. Young people more than older people believe in evolution, but in the age of 18 to 34, among people, and only 49% of people believe in evolution.
In Chinese class, Darwin’s theory of evolution has been students and the teacher generally accepted. The other side of the states, but complicated: Darwin and under the banner of god creationism, has been fighting for many years.
S Darwin and god battle, Darwin and god’s first meeting in 1925.
At the beginning of the last century, the number of American high school students, surged to 1920 a total of about 2.5 million, is seven times as much as 30 years ago, more students are exposed to evolution. In 1925, Tennessee Dayton, middle school teacher John T • scopes, for professor evolution creationism supporters to court. At that time, the state law prohibits teaching in middle school in violation of any "bible" theory.
Obviously, scopes touched Christian about people come from bottom line. Creationism supporters, will be simplified distorted evolution for "people come over from monkeys is changed". They think that a man such senior complex organisms, could not through the long evolution; Man is god’s own design and manufacturing. The famous "monkey trial" as a result, scopes was fined 100 dollars. More seriously, the textbook publishers worry about the boycott of creationism, active cuts off the content of the theory of evolution. After 30 years, science education in the United States in evolution, few voice.
When the Soviet union lead the United States, in 1957, after the successful launch satellites, the people of the United States to sit still. On government funding, biological science research project team set up, americans are beginning to pay attention to and strengthen scientific education, biology curriculum reform is put on the agenda. The group editing and publishing textbooks, emphasizing disappeared years of evolution.
Results is obvious. In the mid 1960 s, nearly half of all American high schools used to support the new teaching material of the theory of evolution. In addition, the United States Supreme Court convicted in 1968 of the Arkansas anti-evolution laws in violation of federal constitution. This means that those who banned public schools to teach evolution laws are unconstitutional.
But the creationism did not dampen, they adjusted the strategies, proposed the scientific creationism. This is the 2.0 upgrade edition creationism, but essentially, it still is creationism. Scientific creationism fact book "the genesis flood", the latest scientific achievements as support "Noah flood" evidence, and believe in god, about 6000 years ago, according to genesis the description of the process, created the universe.
The religious beliefs dressed as a scientific sample, scientific creationism achieve great success in the 1980 s. In Louisiana, in the public school equal treatment of creation science and science of evolution guidance act, passed in 1981. Scientific creationism had entered the classroom, and obtained the legal guarantee. Then, the United States more than 25 state legislators to put forward, scientific creationism/evolution should be entitled to the same teaching time. In June 1987, the Supreme Court is to seven votes to two votes, sentenced to Louisiana’s guidance law is illegal, and will be their abolition.
S intelligent design theory of high-end course
The morning sun never lasts a day. Two years later, the creationism change again, become "intelligent design theory". To preach the theory, the United States thought and moral foundation, especially write "about the panda and people," a book. The book think, of all things is god, alien designer may or through time and space cell biologists. No matter how to package, intelligent design theory and creationism in essence is consistent, they make the same scientific mistake, need the same religious terms.
Intelligent design theory the high-end course. Through the academic rent-seeking, play with highly educated and academic position the advantage of people, a large conference, to keep the academia penetration erosion. Through lectures, television and the Internet, intelligent design theory to the spread of invasive. In 2008, the first film to creationism as the theme, accused the scientific community views of discrimination film "drive evolution" theaters. This one wheel in 1052 home theaters documentary, the main content is the scientific community plotting the creationism view of the scientists persecution, for public sympathy.
Like this, the sympathy of intelligent design theory people are beginning to remain high. Although the scientific community to quite a theory of evolution, but the social movement against evolution successive rise. And in recent years, "evolution from the United States in the middle school textbooks to delete the news" continues to hear. In 2005, the Kansas a hearing, in the starting a stir. This year in May, the state education committee for school science professor how "the origin of life" problem, listen to many social opinion, and will be update relevant teaching outline. The focus of the debates is whether, evolution can appear in the textbook as truth? Textbooks can absorb other opinion, such as creationism and intelligent design theory.
The BBC have launched a web poll. The results showed that 56% of people think the "theory of evolution is a perfect scientific theory, the present teaching don’t need to modify", others think that "many americans to question evolution, and education should reflect different faith".
In June 2008, Louisiana through a scientific education bill, which contains the content of the theory of evolution is against. The method that should be "allow and help teachers and school management personnel, in public elementary school and middle school to build a kind of atmosphere, so as to facilitate the students’ critical thinking skills and logical analysis ability and the training of open discussion can objectively what science theory". This clause, for in the public schools about creationism, critical Darwinian theory provides a new opportunity. In between god and Darwin, new fight and will open. Can foresee that, as a Christian influence by the country, in the United States, a similar battle will also continue.
S bush interfere with the theory of evolution
In 2002, President bush issued the no child left behind act (NCLB), is generally thought is the 1965 basic education since promulgated, the most important basic education a law. Key goal is to narrow NCLB student achievement gap, for all children to provide high quality education. One involving evolution education problem, might have more elementary school students accept the evolution theory, as early as possible, without doubt, arouse the creationism new counterattack.
Can’t ignore that bush is typical of religious conservative position in dealing with creationism, obfuscating the ambiguous attitude. And under 8 years, bush ban all stem cell research. Time, American society from Washington’s frequent antiscience mood, Darwin’s theory of evolution also will receive severe impact.
Proponents of intelligent design theory, also wander, on a cultural, scientific controversy, attacked those who only professor of school of evolution. They think, evolution explain the evolution of complex nature all content, it is just a kind of theory of hypothesis. This means that, other about biological come from theory have walked into class.#p#分页标题#e#
Pennsylvania, intelligent design theory will be included in the teaching content of the first states. In October 2004, the Dover city school district in the state of JiaoWeiHui regulation, middle school students in grade 9 before evolution course, must first understand the intelligent design theory. In the biology class, the teacher still need to read a statement: "evolution is a theory, not a fact". And then, also have other states began in classroom of evolution for critical introduction. In 2005, the United States about 24 states and local government to consider science course of similar changes. In Georgia, cloth county, biological in the textbook has labeled as write have a similar statement stickers. Want to tear off sticker, have to get the court permission.
In 2005, President bush said in an interview at, agree with professor in the school of intelligent design theory, think that students can contact and evolution of different theories. The rebellious scientific not responsible for comments, no doubt, let evolution is injured. In August, 2006, the United States "science" an investigation shows that, almost forty percent people think that evolution is a fake, accept the theory of evolution was significantly lower in other countries. In 34 countries, http://www.ukassignment.org/mgessaydx/2012/0306/19304.htmlranked second. In contrast, Japan and western European countries the approval of the theory of evolution is more than 80%.
In 2009, is undoubtedly evolution of the year of fist exhibition. Borrow Darwin’s 200th birthday, the origin of species published 150 anniversary, the United States each big science organization and the mainstream media spare no effort to publicity of the theory of evolution is correct. At present, already enumerate 31 countries will hold 281 games of activities, there are 170 games will be held in the United States. The Obama White House beginning, also explicitly support evolution education, no doubt is a good news.
S science is also created by god?
In the United States, the living creature teacher are the major teachers have a position. This is because, students want to read medical, must first learn biology. Some of the living creature teacher in the school, and a small privilege-pick the best students, with higher academic institutions carry out cooperative research, to provide students with internships.
But the living creature teacher in treating the evolution, not complete reunification, such as some states of middle school, professor evolution is illegal. Have Chinese americans in the blog describe such a sight. Biology teacher didn’t believe that Darwin’s theory of evolution. The teacher and the students agreed that everything is created by god. When American students hear that the Chinese people don’t believe in god, United States students curiously ask her what Chinese people believe. She wanted to think, proudly told them: "the Chinese believe that the science." But as the United States of classmate answer than she also proudly: "science is also created by god."
In high school, as long as the credits to 22 points can graduate, scientific accounts for the three points. Science courses including biological, earth, chemical, physical, weather, and other disciplines and each course one credit. Students can choose course combination. This means, there could be a part of the students would not choose biology curriculum, hard to reach to the evolution of the content.
As a modern scientific the most important theory, the theory of evolution if not for people to accept, with potential harm is obvious. Students, parents and teachers, need to recognize all sorts of creationism appearance, but that can matting good biological medicine and life science foundation.
19世纪中叶，达尔文创立了科学的生物进化学说，以自然选择为核心的达尔文进化论，第一次对整个生物界的发生、发展，作出了唯物的、规律性的解释，推翻了特创论等唯心主义形而上学在生物学中的统治地位，使生物学发生了一个革命变革。除了生物学外，他的理论对人类学、心理学及哲学的发展都有不容忽视的影响。1、产生背景在文艺复兴以及思想启蒙之后，现代科学的理性思维已经建立起来。达尔文的时代是十九世纪中后期，正是走出蒙提，提倡科学的前一阶段，在思想和理性上，为达尔文创立自然选择进化论提供了思想依据；而青年时的远游，则为他积累了大量的实据，引发了他关于物种进化的思考并最终形成一个完整的体系。 2、要点：他认为，生物之间存在着生存斗争，适应者生存下来，不适者则被淘汰，这就是自然的选择。生物正是通过遗传、变异和自然选择，从低级到高级，从简单到复杂，种类由少到多地进化着、发展着。 以上三点，就是我们常听到的“物竞天择，适者生存”，现在基因学诞生之生，为此提供了重要的证据，事实上，物竞天择，竞的是“基因”。 3、影响： 进化论是人类历史上第二次重大科学突破，第一次是日心说取代地心说，否定了人类位于宇宙中心的自大情结；第二次就是进化论，把人类拉到了与普通生物同样的层面，所有的地球生物，都与人类有了或远或近的血缘关系，彻底打破了人类自高自大，一神之下，众生之上的愚昧式自尊。 庆幸的是，达尔文已经不是在中世纪了，所以他没有受到布鲁诺的待遇，民众仍然给了极高的评价，即使是宗教，也表现出了一定的宽容，当然，这与当时宗教权力远不如中世纪有关。 4、有关争论： 争论来自两方面：一方面是科学界的内部争论，一方面是科学界以外的宗教与进化论争论。 在科学界内部，没有进化论是否成立的争论和质疑，进化的事实早已确凿无疑地证明了进化论的成立，但是，在具体的进化形式和原因中，依然争议不断，如渐变与突变的争议（这个已经不争了，进化速度因条件不同而不同）、人类进化历程的争议、…… 宗教与科学的争论，这是民众感受最多的部分，也是争论最有影响力的领域。因为民众专业的生物学知识很贫乏，中学时代我们学到的只是研究的结论，而没有专业的解释，因此，宗教尤其是基督教，则惯于歪曲生物学和进化论，把进化论描述为非科学的、蛮横的、可笑的、无证据的或者是捏造的…… 美国：从“猴子审判”到学校禁教创世论 与日益世俗化的欧洲相比，在超过80%的人信仰宗教的美国，达尔文的进化论遇到的质疑和反对更多。最著名的是1925年7月10日美国田纳西州戴顿镇举行了一场举世关注、被史书称之为“猴子审判”的世纪大审判，好莱坞在1960年根据此案拍过电影。当时，美国宗教徒推动田纳西州议会通过一项法案，禁止在学校生物课讲授进化论，而只允许教授基督教的创世论，违者罚款高达500美元。但该州戴顿镇的青年教师约翰•斯科普斯不甘违背科学知识，在生物课继续讲授进化论，结果被宗教徒告上法庭，即刻引起全美国舆论的关注。原告律师布莱安是前国务卿，曾三次被推选为民主党总统候选人，尽管有著名人权律师达罗出庭为被告辩护，但是教授进化论依然被判败诉。到了1987年，美国最高法院判定，创世论为宗教学说，禁止在学校传授。 上个世纪80年代，美国宗教界又发起新一轮对进化论的反攻，由信仰宗教的科学家出面，掀起一场“智慧设计”运动。他们宣称，世间生命复杂繁多，仅凭达尔文的进化论难以解释得通，必有一个全智全能的设计者。不过他们始终无法证明这个设计者的存在，对此只能顾左右而言他。他们一度让一些学校开讲智慧设计理论，结果遭致学生家长的强烈反对，2005年美国州法院判定“智慧设计”为改头换面的创世论，而非科学理论，不能在课堂传授。 今天，依然有四成美国人不认同达尔文的进化论。在查尔斯•达尔文诞辰二百周年前夕，美国媒体的一项民调显示，对进化论，只有39%的美国人表示相信，而25%的美国人则不相信，另有36%的美国人对进化论和创世论莫衷一是。而是否相信进化论与受教育水平和信仰宗教有极大关系。高中毕业者中只有21%的人相信进化论，而具有研究生学历者中近74%的人相信进化论。参加教堂礼拜次数越多者，越不相信进化论。年轻人比年长者更相信进化论，不过在年龄18到34岁的人群中间，也只有49%的人相信进化论。 在中国课堂上，达尔文的进化论已被学生和老师普遍接受。大洋彼岸的美国，情况却扑朔迷离：达尔文与打着上帝旗号的神创论，已经较劲很多年。 ■达尔文与上帝的争斗，达尔文与上帝的首次交锋发生在1925年。 上世纪初，美国中学生人数激增，到1920年共约有250万，是30年前的七倍，更多的学生有机会接触到进化论。1925年，田纳西州代顿市中学教师约翰•T•斯科普斯，因教授进化论而被神创论的支持者告上法庭。当时，该州法律禁止在中学讲授任何违反《圣经》的理论。 显而易见，斯科普斯碰触了基督徒关于人从何而来的底线。神创论的支持者，将进化论简化歪曲为“人是由猴子变过来的”。他们认为，人如此高级复杂的生物，不可能通过漫长进化而来;人是上帝亲手设计并制造的。这场著名的“猴子审判”结果是，斯科普斯被罚款100美元。更为严重的是，美国教科书出版商担心神创论者的抵制，主动删减掉进化论的内容。随后的30年，进化论在美国科学教育中，鲜有声音。 当苏联领先美国，于1957年成功发射人造卫星后，美国人坐不住了。在政府资助下，生物科学课程研究项目组成立，美国人开始重视和加强科学教育，生物课程改革被提上日程。该小组编辑出版的教科书，就重点强调了销声匿迹多年的进化论。 成果显而易见。上世纪60年代中期，近半数美国中学采用了支持进化论的新教材。此外，美国最高法院还于1968年宣判阿肯色州的反进化论法律违反联邦宪法。这意味着，那些禁止公立学校教授进化论的法律都是违反宪法的。 但神创论并未偃旗息鼓，他们调整了应对策略，提出了科学创造论。这是神创论的2.0升级版，但从本质来说，它依然是神创论。科学创造论的奠基性著作《创世纪洪水》，把最新科学成果说成是支持“诺亚洪水”的证据，并坚信上帝在大约6000年前按《创世纪》所描述的过程，创造了宇宙万物。#p#分页标题#e# 把宗教信仰打扮成科学样，科学创造论在上世纪80年代取得巨大成功。在路易斯安那州，《在公立学校平等对待创世论科学和进化论科学的指导法案》于1981 年通过。科学创造论堂而皇之进入课堂，并取得了法律保证。随后，美国超过25个州立法者提出，科学创造论应与进化论享有同等教学时间。1987年6月，联邦最高法院则以7票对2票，判处路易斯安娜州的指导法案非法，并将其废除。 ■智能设计论的高端路线 好景不长。两年后，神创论再次变身，成为“智能设计论”。为鼓吹这一理论，美国思想与道德基金会，特意编写《关于熊猫与人》一书。该书认为，万物的设计者可能是上帝、外星人或穿越时空的细胞生物学家。无论如何包装，智能设计论与神创论在本质上是一致的，他们犯同样的科学错误，执迷于同样的宗教条款。 智能设计论好走高端路线。通过学术寻租，发挥具有高学历和学术职位人士的优势，举办大型研讨会，不断向学术界渗透侵蚀。通过讲座、电视以及互联网，智能设计论的传播无孔不入。2008年，第一部以神创论为主题，指责科学界观点歧视的电影《驱逐进化论》上映。这一首轮在1052家影院公映的纪录片，主要内容是科学界密谋迫害持神创论观点的科学家，以争取民众同情。 如此这般，同情智能设计论的民众开始居高不下。尽管科学界一致力挺进化论，但反对进化论的社会运动逐次兴起。而近几年，“进化论将从美国中学课本中删除的消息”仍时有耳闻。2005年，堪萨斯州的一场听证会，在全美掀起一场波澜。这年5月，该州教育委员会针对学校科学课程如何教授“生命的起源”问题，听取社会多方意见，并将可能修改相关教学大纲。争议的焦点在于，进化论能否作为真理出现在课本中?课本能否吸纳其他意见，比如神创论及智能设计论。 全美广播公司特意发起一项网上民意调查。结果显示，56%的人认为“进化论是一个完善的科学理论，目前的教学不需要修改”，其他人则认为“许多美国人质疑进化论，而教育应该反映不同的信仰”。 2008年6月，路易斯安那州通过一项科学教育法案，其中正含有反对进化论的内容。该法认为，应“允许并帮助教师及学校管理人员，在公立小学和中学营造一种氛围，以利于学生的批判性思考技巧以及逻辑分析能力的培养，能客观开放地讨论所学的科学理论”。这一条款，为在公立学校讲述神创论、批判达尔文进化论提供了新的机会。在达尔文与上帝之间的，新的争斗又将展开。可以预见的是，作为一个深受基督教影响的国家，在美国，类似争斗还将源源不断。 ■布什妨碍了进化论 2002年，布什总统颁布《不让一个孩子掉队法案》(NCLB)，被普遍认为是继1965年基础教育法颁布以来，最重要的一部基础教育法律。NCLB重点目标是缩小学生成绩之间的差距，为所有孩子提供高质量的教育。其中涉及进化论教育问题，可能会让更多小学生尽早接受进化论理论，无疑激起神创论者新的反击。 不能忽略的是，布什是典型的宗教保守派立场，在对待神创论上，闪烁其词，态度暧昧。而当政8年，布什禁止一切与干细胞有关的研究。期间，美国社会频现源于华府的反科学情绪，达尔文的进化论亦受到严重冲击。 智能设计论的倡导者，也四处游走，展开一场文化、科学论战，抨击那些只教授进化论的学校。他们认为，进化论解释不了自然界复杂演变的全部内容，只是一种假说性理论。这意味着，其他关于生物从何而来的理论都得走进课堂。 宾夕法尼亚州，成为将智能设计论纳入教学内容的第一个州。2004年10月，该州多佛市学区的校委会规定，中学九年级学生在学习进化论课程前，必须先了解智能设计论。在生物课堂上，教师还需宣读一份声明：“进化论只是一种理论，不是事实”。随后，亦有其他州开始在课堂对进化论进行批评性介绍。2005年，美国约有24个州及地方政府考虑对科学课程进行类似更改。在佐治亚州的科布县，生物课本上也贴上写有类似声明的贴纸。想揭掉贴纸，得先得到法庭许可。 2005年，布什总统接受采访时表示，赞同在学校教授智能设计论，认为学生可以接触与进化论不同的理论。这一悖逆科学的不负责言论，无疑让进化论很受伤。 2006年8月，美国《科学》一项调查显示，美国近四成民众认为进化论是假的，对进化论的接受程度明显低于其他国家。在34个国家中，位列倒数第二。相比之下，日本及西欧国家对进化论的认可度超过80%。 2009年，无疑是进化论大展拳脚的年份。借达尔文诞辰200周年、《物种起源》出版150周年纪念，美国各大科学组织和主流媒体不遗余力地宣传进化论的正确。目前，已列举出31个国家将举行的281场纪念活动中，有170场将在美国举行。年初入主白宫的奥巴马，亦明确支持进化论教育，这无疑是个好消息。 ■科学也是由上帝创造的? 在美国，生物老师都是有地位的主科教师。这是因为，学生想读医科，必须首先学好生物。一些学校里的生物老师，还有点小特权——挑最好的学生，跟高等学术机构开展合作研究，给学生提供实习机会。 美国文化论文但生物老师在对待进化论上，并不完全统一，比如某些州的中学，教授进化论是非法的。曾有美籍华人在博客描述过这样的情景。生物教师居然不相信达尔文的进化论。老师和同学一致认为，世间万物是由上帝创造。当美国同学听说中国人不相信上帝后，有美国同学好奇地问她中国人信什么。她想了想，自豪地告诉他们：“中国人相信科学。”哪知美国同学的回答比她还自豪：“科学也是由上帝创造的。” 在高中阶段，只要修到22分学分就能毕业，科学占3分。科学课程包括生物、地球、化学、物理、气象等学科，每个学科一学分。学生可自由选择课程组合。这意味着，可能有一部分学生不会选择生物课程，难以接触到进化论内容。 作为现代科学最重要的理论，进化论如果不为民众所接受，潜在患害是显而易见的。学生、家长与老师，都需认清神创论的种种面目，惟如此，才能铺垫好生物医学和生命科学的基石。