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2022matlab代写品牌管理与策略Brand Management and Strategy

By August 15, 2022essay代写

2022matlab代写品牌管理与策略Brand Management and Strategy

2022matlab代写品牌管理与策略Brand Management and Strategy

Q1:Discuss strategies global brands can use to minimize consumer ethnocentrism when entering new, foreign markets.讨论全球品牌可以减少消费者民族中心主义在进入国外市场的新策略。本文首先给消费者民族中心主义的背景。然后它将讨论消费者民族中心主义的影响。最后,减少消费者民族中心主义策略被证明。在购买产品时,消费者会考虑和评估从许多不同的方面,包括原产地、广告、价格等,原产国,这是一个最重要的因素,会受到消费者民族中心主义的影响(mockaitis et al,2013)。夏尔马和辛普定义消费者民族中心主义”的消费者,让他们从自己的国家购买产品和拒绝外国制造的产品”的感受(在班达拉和miloslava,2012,pp. 5引)。根据Purwanto(2014),产品质量感知和消费者购买意愿会直接影响消费者的民族中心主义。Purwanto(2014)指出,消费者民族中心主义对国内产品质量产生积极的影响。这就意味着消费者倾向于评估国内品牌比国外品牌更为积极。除此之外,消费者民族中心主义对购买意向的影响。消费者民族中心主义倾向于拒绝国外品牌产品(Purwanto,2014)。例如,欧洲迪斯尼没有法国市场。纽厄尔(2013)解释说,欧洲迪斯尼忽视欧洲文化和继续采用美式风格在巴黎引起抗议法国的民族因为法国人认为迪士尼作为一个入侵。一般来说较高的种族中心主义的消费者,更多的负面情绪,他们觉得在购买外国产品因为他们要保护国家经济和就业(莲子et al,2012)。显然,国内产品质量高的评价也会导致购买意愿的积极作用(Purwanto,2014)。民族中心主义使消费者认为国内产品的质量比国外更好的产品,因此,他们更愿意买本地产品。在高消费者民族中心主义的国家,全球品牌固有的缺点。The purpose of this essay is to analyze how global brands mitigate the effect of consumer ethnocentrism when exploring new markets. It will firstly give a background of consumer ethnocentrism. And then it will discuss consumer ethnocentrism impact. Finally strategies of minimizing consumer ethnocentrism would be demonstrated.When purchasing products, consumers would consider and evaluate from many different aspects including country-of-origin, advertisement, price, etc. Among them, the country-of-origin, which is one of the most significant factors, would affected by consumer ethnocentrism (Mockaitis et al, 2013). Sharma and Shimp define consumer ethnocentrism as “the feelings of consumers that compel them to buy products from their home country and reject foreign-made products” (cited in Bandara and Miloslava, 2012, pp. 5).According to Purwanto (2014), product quality perception and consumer purchase intention would be affected directly by consumer ethnocentrism. Purwanto (2014) notes that consumer ethnocentrism has a positive impact on domestic product quality. That means consumers tend to evaluate domestic brands more positively than foreign brands. Apart from that, consumers ethnocentrism has effect on purchase intentions. Consumers with ethnocentrism will tend to reject foreign brand products (Purwanto, 2014). For example, EuroDisney failed in French market. Newell (2013) explains that EuroDisney ignored European culture and continued to adopt American style in Paris which caused protest by French with ethnocentrism because French considered Disney as an invasion. Generally the higher ethnocentrism consumers have, the more negative emotions they feel when buying foreign products because they want to protect national economy and employment (Renko et al, 2012). Obviously, high evaluation of domestic product quality will also lead to positive effect on purchase intentions (Purwanto, 2014). The ethnocentrism makes consumers think domestic products have better quality than foreign products, consequently, they are more willing to buy local products. In high consumer ethnocentrism countries, global brands have inherent disadvantage.Thus, the influence of consumer ethnocentrism cannot be underestimated. Global brands need to take appropriate measurements to minimize consumer ethnocentrism. First of all, global brands are supposed to emphasize local connection. Consumers would feel be respected if global brands connect local traditions so that consumers would have positive attitudes towards those companies (Kipni et al, 2012). Global brands would benefit from making consumers think that the brand understands local cultures and is part of host country. Johansson and Ronkainen (2005) also assert that if consumers prefer home-grow companies, global brands could adopt localization strategy to cater to consumers. Global brands could modify advertisement by using local star and adding local cultural element or change shop design, etc. For instance, Carlsberg, a famous beer brand, made a huge success in Poland. Carlsberg promoted its products by embracing Polish elements such as advertising that Carlsberg beer was made with Polish water. That made Polish consumers consider Carlsberg as Polish friendly brand (Kipni et al, 2009). Another example would be Mr Clean turning to Mr Propre in France (Johansson and Ronkainen, 2005). Mr Clean changed brand name in order to accord with local linguistic habit and avoid confusion with other products. Therefore, it is critical for global brands to make ethnocentrism consumers believe that the brands are trying to connect and adapt domestic cultures. Secondly, global brands should take full advantage of mass media. Ural and Kucukaslan (2011) demonstrate the importance of media channels. Consumers are surrounded by mass media, most consumers’ perceptions of global brands come from those channels. That report suggests that global marketers should value the effect of mass media and learn to utilize mass media to promote products properly. Holt et al (2004) also say that attitudes of consumers towards global brands will be affected by mass media and comments on the Internet. Puzakova et al (2010) state that consumers who have higher exposure to mass media have higher acceptance to global brands. That is because mass media such as TV programmes and movies usually include numbers of global brands. Those brands would be shown indirectly by scene, dialogue and characters life so that the brands would be added vivid and deeper meaning (Puzakova et al, 2010). That could make consumers more familiar with the brands and win consumers’ favours and support. If a product frequently appears on a consumer’s favorite TV show, the consumer would have desire to purchase this product (Morton & Friedman, 2002). Hence, global brands can change or mitigate ethnocentrism consumers’ prejudices towards global brands by mass media.What’s more, building a credible myth could add extra value to a global brand. Global companies should give the brands a identification. That means global brands need to tell consumers what the brands represent and what kind of person consumers would be considered if consumers purchase products of these brands. Global brands should not sell product or quality simply, the brands ought to deliver an image and sell an ideal (Holt et al, 2004). For instance, Marlboro, a very big cigarettes brand, successfully linked the brand with cowboy. Cowboys signal strength, independence and power which are what men want to aspire. Cowboy image made Marlboro be one of the most recognized brands in the world. A successful brand myth could establish emotional connection with consumers. Creating a myth could make the brand have a unified image so that consumers may ignore the country-of-origin. Last but not least, global brands should pay attention to social responsibility. Holt et al (2004) claim that social responsibility is the third consideration when consumers choose global brands. In general, consumers expect global brands shoulder greater social responsibility than local brands. For instance, Shell’s has been blamed for a long time because it planed to sink its oil rig which would cause global warming. But consumers do not strictly require local companies to protect environment. If global companies violate ethical principles, consumers have less tolerance towards global brands. According to Stewart (2013), public refused Nike products in Indonesia because of abusing labour. Nike outsource production overseas due to cheaper labour. Nike offered very low wages and abused workers physically and mentally such as kick, screaming with insulting words, etc. When this situation had been reported, it created a huge stir in Indonesia. However, public usually tend to ignore local brands with these problems (Holt et al, 2004). The Press also does not have so much interest in investigating or reporting local brands ethical issues. Therefore, global brands should work harder to improve image of corporate social responsibility than local brands. Companies could use more environmentally friendly materials, sponsor sports events, participate charity activities, etc. Nevertheless, Holt et al (2004) point out subsequently that only taking social responsibility is not enough. Nowadays, some actions would be considered by consumers as just promotion methods instead of contribution to society. Hence, global companies need to make consumers believe that they sincerely want to pay back to the local society. Then, how to make consumers believe? Global brands can learn from P&G. P&G found out that many people were utilizing unsafe water by investigation. In order to mitigate this situation, P&G developed a purification system. P&G used its own resources and sacrified some interests to help people and society, which successfully makes consumers regard its activity as non-profit (Holt et al, 2004).#p#分页标题#e#In summary, consumer ethnocentrism would influence the evaluation of consumers towards product quality and affect consumers purchase intention. If the advantage of global brands is not obvious, consumers with high ethnocentrism culture tend to buy local brands products. In that case, it is not easy for global brands to compete with local brands. Therefore, there are four strategies may help global brands to achieve greater market share in a foreign market. The first one is to set up local connection. Localizing some features could get close to consumers and lessen hostility. Second one is using mass media to change consumers’ bias. Apart from that, global brands could build emotional connection with consumers via creating a brand myth. Finally, taking social responsibility by appropriate methods could improve brand reputation and make consumers believe the brand is beneficial to the local society. Q3: A firm selling cement to businesses (B2B) has asked you to compose a social media promotion to build their brand equity and brand identity. List and discuss six key factors you would include for the cement firm’s B2B social media branding promotion.一家公司销售的水泥企业(B2B)要求你组成一个社会媒体宣传来建立自己的品牌资产和品牌认同。列举和讨论的六个关键因素就包括水泥企业的B2B社交媒体品牌推广。The aim of this paper is to help a cement firm to do B2B social media branding promotion. It will firstly introduce B2B and compare B2B and B2C. In the second part, the importance of brand equity and brand identity to B2B will be described. In the last part, it will discuss six key factors for the cement firm’s B2B social media branding promotion.With the development of electronic information technology, e-commerce is gradually becoming mature and increasingly important in the business area. B2B (business to business) and B2C (business to consumer) are the two most commonly used types. Although these two types use similar pattern, there are still some difference between B2B and B2C marketing. In short, B2B marketing differs from B2C marketing in three aspects—market structure, buying behaviour, marketing practice. For instance, consumer number of B2B is fewer than B2C but the demand is larger. The sales cycle of B2B is usually longer and complex. Relationship is really critical for B2B while consumers of B2C may pay more attention to products (Wilson & Woodside, 2001). Due to the different features between B2B and B2C, B2B is supposed to implement different marketing and brand management. A brand identity refers to the message sent out by the brand through its name, features, visual appearance, and advertising (Kapferer, 1992). Aaker (1991) defines “brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm or to that firm's customers”. Both brand identity and brand equity are essential to B2B. Hunter and Lindberg (2007) demonstrate that " in B2B setting, customers are willing to pay a price premium for their favorite brand, to recommend it to others, and to consider buying brand extensions". Therefore, a company ought to highly value its brand identity and brand equity. The social media promotion is a good way to build brand equity and brand identity for a B2B company. One thing to note is that within the process of utilizing social media to do branding promotion, there are six factors cannot be ignored by the cement firm.According to Kumar & Mirchandani’s seven step model on social media marketing communication effectiveness, it can be concluded the following six factors is significant for the cement firm’s B2B social media branding promotion.The first factor is the conversations shown in the platforms. Conversations in the social media platforms will influence consumers attitude to a brand. In B2B setting, if a consumer has not used a brand, his perception to the brand will mostly comes from evaluation from others in the platforms. Therefore, the cement firm’s need to monitor the conversation in the social media platforms in order to improve brand equity and brand identity so that the firm can know consumer trends and may hire people to post beneficial information of the firm. In addition, as the cement firm uses B2B mode, it should focus more on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter and blogging. That is because Facebook, YouTube, Pinterest and Instagram are the mainstream for B2C while LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter and blogging are more important for B2B (Stelzner, 2014). Also the cement firm could promote via local popular social media.The second factor is persons who might spread the message of the cement firm. Those persons may be Middlemen and end users. Middlemen who directly do business with the cement firm will spread the message about the reputation and employee's quality of the firm to their clients or people from the same industry. Therefore, the cement firm should make a good impression and establish good relationship with them. For a cement firm, most end user would be builders who will post message about the cement quality. The firm could ask for feedback from builders actively.The third one is commonalities among influencers. By investigating or observing the commonalities such as activeness, clout, talkativeness of the receiver and likemindedness of influencers, companies establish profiles which would be useful for locating influencers and encouraging them to engage in the firm’s campaign. The cement firm could adopt Customer Influence Effect to organize and analyze information. Customer Influence Effect is one of the most common used file which is based on three aspects that influencers prefer—message spread, influence and social impact (Kumar and Mirchandani, 2012).The fourth factor is locating potential influencer. The cement firm need to find potential influencers who are interested in cement product or anything related to cement. In order to find specific influencers, the firm could try Stickiness Index. The tool could help the cement firm to count people talking about topic related to cement through social media so that the firm can choose potential brand ambassadors (Kumar and Mirchandani, 2012). By doing this, the firm could find who can praise and promote the brand effectively.The fifth factor is hiring. After finding potential brand ambassadors, the cement could hire some of them to assist social media promotion. The hired brand ambassadors could improve the cement firm communication in social media platforms by giving the evaluation of cement firm product, posting experience of transaction with the firm and so on. This spread method would make more and more people will know the brand and the word-of-mouth advertisement could increase the credibility and improve promotion effectiveness. The brand equity and brand identity of the cement firm will naturally lift.The last one is incentivizing influencers. Appropriate incentive such as discounts, giveaway and social network could motivate influencers to work hard. Also the firm could stimulate influencers by offering points. That means when the influencers convince someone to purchase cement product, influencer could get points. The points can be used as discount and the more people ambassadors influence, the more benefits the influencers achieve (Kumar and Mirchandani, 2012).In conclusion, B2B is rapidly developing. The differences between B2B marketing and B2C marketing are reflected on the market structure, buying behaviour and marketing practice. Brand equity and brand identity play a significant role in B2B setting. In order to improve brand equity and brand identity, social media is a good choice for the cement firm. While doing social media promotion, six factors should be pay attention to. The firm should monitor the conversations shown in the platforms to grasp consumers’ trend and attitude. The firm is also suppose to identify spread messages persons, investigate characters among influencers and set up profile to find the potential influencers who are interested in the product. After that, the cement firm could hire someone to propagandize favorable side of the brand by word-of-mouth. Meanwhile, necessary incentive is indispensable.Q4: Discussing the impact of the tag line and graphic on Patek Phillippe brand.讨论标记线和图形枚百达翡丽品牌的影响。This essay aims to the effect of the tag line and graphic of Patek Phillippe brand. It will begin by briefly introducing Patek Phillippe brand and the tag line and graphic. Then it will review several theories relevant to nostalgia. In the end, the essay will analyze the impact of Patek Phillippe advertising tag line and graphic on the brand.Patek Philippe is a high end swiss luxury watch manufacture. It is said that a luxury watch can reflect a person’s taste. The luxury watch usually links with persons’ identification and image (Szmigin and Piacentini, 2014). A excellent watch is worthy of collection. The goal of Patek Philippe is to create watches which can be passed on through generations. Patek Philippe’s notable slogans is “You never actually own a Patek Philippe. You merely look after it for the next generation.” The advertisement graphics of Patek Philippe are not the same every year, however, the theme is always the same which is about relationship between parent and child. The picture shown on the question describes a father showing his son how to start or fix a motorcycle.#p#分页标题#e#The conception of Patek Philippe marketing is nostalgia. There are various definition of nostalgia. According to Holbrook and Schindler (1991, pp. 330), one of the most common definition, nostalgia is "a preference (general liking, positive attitude, or favourable affect) toward objects (people, places, or things) that were more common (popular, fashionable, or widely circulated) when one was younger (in early adulthood, in adolescence, in childhood, or even before birth". Generally companies want to use nostalgia to stimulate customer's purchase by emotional power. There are four meaningful moments of nostalgia—everyday past, uniqueness, tradition and tradition which is associated with brands or specific objects (Kessous and Roux, 2008). Correspondingly, Kessous and Roux (2013) note that targets of nostalgic brands can be divided into four groups. They are kidults, traditional, transitionals and trans-generationals. Each group represents a different nostalgic anchoring. Obviously, Patek Philippe brand targets trans-generationals and belongs to uniqueness category. Patek Philippe concentrates on interpersonal relationships and advertises symbolic and transmissible feature of their watches. According to Reisenwitz et al (2004: pp. 56), " there is a tendency to value anything old ", because people miss past times which are more true, comfortable, warmer and less competition. In that case, nostalgia advertising has become increasingly popular. Admittedly, the nostalgic brand does have some strengths than the non-nostalgic brand. Using nostalgic tag line and graphic would contribute to Patek Philippe from the following 4 aspects.In the first place, nostalgia affect consumers’ attitude towards advertisement. Most often, consumers’ perception to advertisement is negative. Most consumers think advertisement campaign is false, profit-making and so on. Advertisement with nostalgia can be helpful to solve this situation. Muehling et al (2014) observe that consumers tend to response positively to nostalgic-themed advertisements. Muehling & Pascal (2011) also prove that nostalgia could cause positive effect on advertising. Nostalgia advertising could bring consumers to the back, after that, the advertisement would evoke familiarity. In general, people will more trust what they are familiar with rather than a new one. Therefore, nostalgia could make advertisement more reliable. Patek Philippe’s family relationship theme tag line and graphic could make consumers recall the good memories with parents or children and arouse consumers’ heart tremble so that the utilitarian of advertisement would be mitigated. The advertisement would be more attractive, get closer to consumers and achieve its maximum impact by nostalgia.Secondly, nostalgia is conducive to boosting consumer moods. Orth and Gal (2012) indicate that when consumers are in negative mood such as anxiety, discontent, etc, they may look back past wonderful memories. The negative mood will promote consumers to use nostalgia as a repair to bad mood (Orth and Gal, 2012). Therefore, nostalgia could result in positive changes in consumers’ mood, which is favourable to purchase intention. Patek Philippe’s warm nostalgia advertisement could heal spirit of consumers that may be wounded in this complex society. The advertisement could make people feel comfortable, peaceful and love. Positive mood could motivate consumers to purchase. And people shopping with good mood will improve impression towards Patek Philippe brand.What’s more, nostalgia could reinforce the storytelling of a brand. That is because nostalgia could let consumers re-experience the important moment, then, set up a special connection with consumers. Consumers will have resonance and be easier to understand the deep meaning of advertisement by nostalgic marketing. Kessous and Roux (2015) advocate nostalgic brands could generate more storytelling than non-nostalgic brands. Muehling and Pascal (2011) state that nostalgic advertising could make consumers feel the advertisement is talking to them and the product is created for them. Moore et al (2002) also contend trans-generational brands benefit word-of-mouth communications. The more storytelling a brand has, the more content the brand has, which will stimulate consumers to buy the product shown in the advertisement. Patek Philippe adopts family relationship as a symbol the brand. Seeing the tag line and graphic, every consumer will have their own understanding. And every consumer could imagine a complete story rely on the life experience. Apart from that, the black and white color of Patek Philippe promotion graphic will heighten the atmosphere and make the story shown in picture more real. The rich storytelling of Patek Philippe cause the brand more vivid and attractive.In addition, nostalgia could add extra emotional value to the brand and product. Lowrey et al (2004) point out that nostalgic advertising would mark an important event in one’s life, which would make the brand more affective and symbolic. Thus, the brand would beyond monetary value by enhance interpersonal relationships (Lowrey et al, 2004). For Patek Philippe, the watch would be regarded as a symbol of family relationship instead of just a commodity by nostalgic advertising. Consequently, the price of the watch does not have to exactly coincide with the quality and function of the watch. Patek Philippe could uplift brand level and price much higher to enjoy an increase in revenue.To sum up, the tag line and graphic Patek Phillippe using are nostalgic advertising. Patek Phillippe uses the nostalgic advertising to let consumers review the past. Nostalgia mainly affect Patek Phillippe brand by emotion simulation. It can change consumers’ attitude towards advertisement. Nostalgia could reduce utilitarian of Patek Phillippe advertisement and enable the brand to show the care for consumers. And nostalgia could boost consumer moods to increase consumers’ purchase desire. Apart from that, nostalgia could enrich the brand content. It could enhance the storytelling of Patek Phillippe, improve the brand image and make the product more attractive. 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