Nature competition between Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port香港港口和深圳港口之间的自然竞争
Starr(1994) pointed out that the competition between two single ports is initiated and backed up by the port authorities under two state governments. The former British colony constructed its first terminal in Hong Kong and graduated became the load center in its region in 1970s. Since the open-door policy was performed in 1978, Shenzhen, a city next to Hong Kong, set up a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) had attracted many investors to come especially in manufacturing industry. Consequently, hinterland of Hong Kong port had speeded to the entire Pearl River Delta (PRD) and even the whole Guangdong province because of its well-developed port system. During 1990-1995, 90% of Guangdong province total export was exported in containers through Hong Kong (Wang 1998).斯塔尔（1994）指出，两个港口之间的竞争是在两个州政府发起并备份港口当局。这个前英国殖民地在香港兴建的第一终端和毕业成为20世纪70年代在其区域内的负荷中心。由于门户开放政策，深圳，毗邻香港的城市，在1978年成立了一个特别经济区（SEZ），吸引了众多的投资者参与进来，尤其是在制造业。因此，香港港口腹地速成整个珠江三角洲（珠三角）乃至整个广东省因为其发达的港口体系。在1990-1995年期间，广东省出口总额的90％，出口集装箱通过香港（王1998年）。
However, terminal operators in Hong Kong tried hard to offset its high costs of land and labor through improving their efficiency and expand the economic of scales. At the same time, they stepped into China to find alternative by investing potential ports in China. Yantian port was newly established in 1990s designated by government as the future container hubs for international trade. Since the container port industry requires high capital investment and technology intensive, high quality management is vital for port business. China government introduced experienced foreign port operators to manage the newly constructed port. As a result, many mainland China port was invested by Hong Kong major port operators and developers. For instance, as illustration in Figure 3, the regional structure showed that Hutchison Port holdings (HPH) had deeply penetrated ports business in mainland China. YICT in Shenzhen and HIT were invested by common developer of Hutchison Port Holdings.然而，在香港的码头运营商力图通过提高效率和扩大经济的规模，以抵消其土地和劳动力成本高。与此同时，他们走进中国寻找替代投资潜力的中国港口。盐田港是新成立于20世纪90年代由政府指定为未来的国际贸易集装箱枢纽。由于集装箱港口行业需要高资本投资和技术密集，高品质的管理是至关重要的港口业务。中国政府出台了经验丰富的外国港口运营商来管理新建成的港口。因此，许多中国大陆的港口投资香港主要港口运营商和开发商。例如，图3中的插图，区域结构表明，和记黄埔港口控股（HPH）已经深渗透端口，在中国大陆的业务。深圳盐田和HIT投资由和记黄埔港口集团共同开发。As a result of easing restrictions on access to Chinese port,, the monopoly position of Hong Kong container port was broken since more and more shippling liners began to call at Yantian since last decade,. Yantian port, associated with Chiwan and Shekou port (collectively knows as the port of Shenzhen) has brought severe competition to port of Hong Kong because of its significant competitive advantage of low labor and transportation cost and its more convenient connection to hinterland transportation networks(Song,2002). That is due to trucks transport can eliminate the process of crossing the border line between Hong Kong and mainland China so that cost and time can be saved.作为访问中国港口，放宽的结果，香港的货柜码头的垄断地位被打破，因为越来越多的shippling客轮开始打电话过去十年以来，盐田。盐田港，赤湾和蛇口港（统称知道作为深圳港）已经带来了激烈的竞争，香港港口，因为其显着的竞争优势，低廉的劳动力和运输成本和更方便的连接腹地的交通网络（宋，2002）。这是由于卡车运输可以消除跨越香港和中国大陆之间的边界线，因此，可以节省成本和时间的过程。
Yap et al. (2003) revealed that many primary load centers in East Asia will face the intense competition from other ports in closed proximity of location and sharing hinterland. Thereby, the competition between Hong Kong and Shenzhen port are inevitable trend. Haynes et al.(1997) and Yap et.al (2003) pointed out that port competition leads to higher efficiency and lower cost in port operation. As the logistics node of supply chain, port development enables economic benefits to origin and destination hinterlands through improving efficiency in the supply chain systems
Cooperative relationship between ports港口之间的合作关系
With the globalization of economy and the potential growth for containerization, the develop opportunities are generated for ports associated with severe competition. Juhel (2000) initiated the co-operative relationship between ports can allow themselves to provide a more flexible distribution services. Avery (2000) commented that a strategic alliance between adjacent container ports enables ports to survive in the severe competitive environment.随着经济和的潜在增长为集装箱化的全球化的中，，的发展的机会被生成的为与严重的竞争相关联的端口。 Juhel（2000年）发起的联营港口之间的关系，可以允许自己，，以提供一个更灵活的分销服务。艾弗里 – （2000年）评论说，一个的战略相邻的的集装箱港口之间的联盟可让的连接埠，，以在严重的竞争力的环境中求生存。Recall to Figure 3, because Shenzhen and Hong Kong have common ownership of Hutchison Port Holdings, the co-operation exists between these two ports. Brandenburger and Nalebuff (1996) initiated the new strategic approach – “co-opetition”, which is the mixture of competition and co-operation. Applying to Hong Kong and Shenzhen port, their relationship can be serous taken into account for “co-opetition”. That means they form a co-operation as well as competition relationship to gain a win-win strategy rather than win-lost one.
Song(2002)claimed that terminal operators may develop a stronger position in the competitive marketplace by adopting a co-operative strategy with other ports. It can not only offer a mutual benefit to co-operation organization to reform their market position but also enables them to increase their market power. As showed in Figure 4, Song(2002) also analyzed the maritime industry referring to Porter’s(1980) five forces model. facing the strengthening bargaining power of customers (shipping lines) and increasing industry rivalries, market power of container port becomes weakened(refer to figure 3-A & 3-B), Co-operation with other ports such as forming joint venture can enhance their market power and competitiveness in the marketplace. Yap and Lam (2004) emphasized that positive impact from port cooperation through complimentary collaboration can achieve their higher competitive strength.宋（2002）声称，码头运营商可能采用与其他港口的战略合作，在竞争激烈的市场上的发展更有利的地位。它不仅可以提供一个互惠互利的合作经营组织改革自己的市场地位，但也使他们能够增加其市场力量。正如图4中显示，宋（2002）也提到波特（1980）的五力模型分析海运业。面对客户议价能力加强（航运公司）和行业竞争的增加，集装箱港口的市场力量减弱，与其他港口，如形成合资合作可以增强他们的市场力量，在市场上的竞争力。邑和林（2004）强调，口岸合作的积极影响，通过免费合作，可以实现更高的竞争力。http://www.ukassignment.org/dxazessay/
Thus, in the severe competitive market environment, in order to create and enhance port hub statures in the industry, ports need to develop their competitive advantages based on the unique core competencies (Notteboom and Winkelmans,2001). This is vital due to the inevitable trend of horizontal and vertical integration in the transport industry. Simply rely on traditional transshipment traffic functions may worsened the competence because the globalization impact causing cargo flows more freely. Thus, “co-opetition” strategy could be a best approach for ports’ long-term development. Co-opetition strategy allows ports to make use of their respective core competences and complement their weak point so that to achieve a win-win situation.因此，在严峻的市场竞争环境下，为了塑造和提升港口枢纽个子行业，港口需要发展自己的竞争优势的基础上的独特的核心的能力（Notteboom和Winkelmans，2001）。这是非常重要的，因为在运输行业的横向和纵向一体化的必然趋势。单纯依靠传统的转运交通功能可能恶化的能力，因为全球化的影响导致货物流动更加自由。因此，“竞合”战略，为港口的长远发展可能是一个最好的办法。竞合策略允许港口利用各自的核心竞争力和补充他们的薄弱点，使之达到一个双赢的局面。