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2022paper代写英国纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University):对中国目前养老金制度的补充意见及建议

By August 20, 2022essay代写

2022paper代写英国纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University):对中国目前养老金制度的补充意见及建议

2022paper代写英国纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University):对中国目前养老金制度的补充意见及建议

Additional comments补充意见

Improve pension policy of enterprises提高企业养老金政策

The substantial diversion of pension funds is not only because of defects in system, but more is negative expression of imposing. Although basic pension is mandatory in regulation, it only achieved through enterprises accounting check, but only mandatory for each single person. In fact, escape from contribution can be surprisingly easy. Even though there is only 8 per cent of salary to be paid from individuals, enterprises have to contribute 20 per cent of whole employees wages, that is, an increase of 20 per cent of staff coasts. This is not a pleased regulation of every enterprise.大量挪用养老基金,不仅是因为在系统中的缺陷,但更多的是表达阴性气势。虽然基本养老保险是强制性的调控,只有通过企业的会计核算实现,但每个单人唯一的强制性。事实上,逃离贡献更是出奇地容易。即使是只有8%,个人支付的薪金,企业必须作出贡献的全体员工工资的20%,也就是说,员工海岸同比增长20%。这不是每一个企业都愿意调控。

With immature capital market, low-end industrial structure, lots of small- and medium-sized enterprises can only rely on meagre profits to survive. Before China’s capital market has achieved large-scale transformation of industrial structure, 20 per cent of staff costs contribution is not affordable for many enterprises. Especially this contribution is only a mandatory policy without effective tax-free policies. Thus, a large number of such enterprises will evasion. On the other hand, the return rate of individual accounts is way of ideal level, and fundamental pension requires more than 15 years contribution record. People would like to receive benefits but not pay. Asking people with low-income wages to join in the really long-term pension plan and make regular contribution is almost an impossible task.随着资本市场的不成熟,低端工业结构,许多小型和中小型企业只能依靠微薄的利润生存。之前,中国的资本市场已经实现了产业结构的大规模改造,许多企业20%的员工成本的贡献是不相宜的。尤其是这方面的贡献仅仅是一个强制性政策没有有效的免税政策。因此,这样的企业将大量逃税。另一方面,个人账户的回报率是理想水平,基本养老金需要15年以上的供款纪录。人们想获得好处,但不支付。盘人工资收入低,投身于真正的长期养老金计划,并进行定期的贡献几乎是一个不可能完成的任务。

There are many ways to avoid pension contribution in practice, and government has no tough legal punishment for escaped people. In this case, even if strengthen coercive power, in addition to arouse resentment of, it will bring no benefit. Effective improvements could be: awarded preferential policies to small enterprises and vulnerable areas, given support to difficult areas. Let people voluntarily join in the state pension system.有很多方法在实践中避免退休金供款,并逃脱的人,政府没有强硬的法律的惩罚。在这种情况下,即使加强强制力,它会带来任何好处,除了引起大家的反感。有效的改善可能是:获得优惠政策的小企业和弱势地区,困难地区给予支持。让人们自愿参加国家养老保险制度。

Guaranteed real individual accounts保证真实的个人账户

Although pension coverage is 76 per cent in urban, regular contribution payments are not sufficient, as a result of the shortage of funds, and misappropriation of individual accounts. The successful examples of real individual accounts pilot programme in 13 places were given a lot of government subsidies. The only way of guaranteeing real individual accounts is independent those funds from government. As long as funds are still in the hands of government, it is inevitable of misappropriation when financial shortfall appear in any future.虽然养老保险覆盖率在城市为76%,定期供款是不够的,由于资金短缺,挪用个人账户。实个人账户试点方案在13个地方的成功例子,给予了很多的政府补贴。保证真实的个人账户的唯一途径是独立的那些政府资金。只要资金仍然在政府手里,这是不可避免的挪用资金短缺时,出现在任何未来。

Population Policy adjustment人口政策调整

China is the biggest population country, has the world’s 1/5 of population. In order to avoid population explosion, family planning policy is forced out of the worst. However, until today, this policy has become a double-edged sword and caused parties to discuss. It goes without saying that the aging accelerated, while negative effects of educating next generation. If government could consider about adjusting the family planning policy appropriately, at least it will reduce a serious issue of labour shortage when aging society arrived.中国是人口最多的国家,拥有世界上1/5的人口。为了避免人口爆炸,计划生育政策是被迫出此下策。然而,直到今天,这一政策已经成为一个双刃剑,并引起各方讨论。不用说,老化加速,而教育下一代的负面影响。如果政府可以考虑适当调整计划生育政策,至少会减少严重的劳工短缺问题,老龄化社会时抵达。

Speed up the pension development in rural areas加快养老在农村地区的发展

The pension coverage in rural areas is 12 per cent today. Since a large number of young labours into cities, rural have much worst aging issue than urban. Meanwhile, rural elderly have very poor income and do not have children around in long-term. Lost of rural elderly living in hardship.

Today, thanks to rapid economic development, people feel very hopeful about the future. Such social issues of urban and rural contradiction, rich and poor gap, would still maintain the stability on the surface due to positive attitude of the entire society. Bust if such problems cannot be improved in a long-term, then will lead to great social unrest.

The prerequisite of speed up pension development in rural areas is developing rural economy. It benefits of attracting young people return home, reducing population burden of major economic cities, and narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, alleviating social contradictions.

Individual accounts establishment of peasants is indeed for long term, but must lean the lessons of urban pensions, ensuring guaranteed real individual accounts, preventing phenomenon of “empty account”


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