2022report格式留学生指导澳洲essay：Ethnographic Techniques 需求
Ethnographic Techniques Choosing a presentational role and participating and observing in the field
Participant ObservationParticipant Observation is the main method of ethnography and involves taking part as a member of a community while making mental and then written, theoretically-informed observations.
OutlineLearning through first-hand experience. Initial stages of awkwardness and strangeness, and living a ‘multiplex life’. Becoming a more active seeker of knowledge. From distance to immersion, and how far to take participation. Participant-observer positions: being covert or overt; http://www.ukassignment.org/ gaining an insider role; asking what you aim to achieve; and practical considerations.
Learning through first-hand experience. What is participant observation?Both participating and observingBecoming an insider (or adopting an outsider perspective)Getting involved, and writing about itGaining access
Initial stagesGeneral gatheringGetting in/ RecruitmentChoosing a roleGetting on with the jobFeeling strangeAvoiding a case of ‘Pyles’.
Becoming more activeHow far to participate What to do in the fieldWhere to go and who to talk to What data to collect and how
Distance and immersionThe participant observer oxymoronParticipant observation includes: Access, rapport, asking questions, While avoiding ‘going native’Observation aims to be detachedParticipation is involved
Relations in the fieldMaking friends and building relationshipsIssues of reciprocityKey informantsConfining one’s work in time and placeNegotiating relationsEmotional labour
Participant observer positionsthe complete participant, participant as observer, observer as participant, complete observer
Participant observer positionsbeing covert or overt; gaining an insider role; asking what you aim to achieve; and practical considerations.
The participant observation continuumRemember your aims for participationFor accessFor immersion and empathyFrom full immersion to minimal participation