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The main aim of the study focuses on how water supply systems are implemented in small towns in rural communities in Ghana. Predominantly, examining the process of implementing Small Towns Water Supply Systems (STWSS) in Ghana, and also evaluate the results of the implementation process, why it has been implemented successfully in one town and not the other, by further identify and compare the factors that may have facilitated or impeded implementation. Two towns are studied (Jukwaa Krobo and Mfuom) both in the Twifo Heman Lower Denkyira district in the Central Region of Ghana.


The government of Ghana, after independence in 1957, has pursued many different economic reform policies such as the Economic Reform Programme (ERP), Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), and Public Sector Reforms (PSR) etc. to ensure rapid development across the country. Since water is life and a public good that government must provide, it is very important that improving this service must be core to governments’ agenda. In some parts of the world, citizens do not pay for this service like India and Norway. Clean drinking water and domestic water supply are universally accepted as an important goal of development in India, hence it is generally perceived to be a free good (Thomas and Grindle 1990 p: 1169). Water is essential to life and no citizen must be denied of it, however, access to water is very important but its quality must be ensured by government. The water sector was not left out in the changing reforms being initiated by the government in an attempt to extend this service to all the other parts of the country and improve delivery of service. Though various agencies of government shared the responsibility of providing potable water to its citizens, in 1965 an Act was enacted, (Act 310) to formally give the Ghana Water and Sewage Corporation (GWSC) the sole responsibility to `provide and manage potable water supply and sewage services for domestic and industrial purposes throughout the country”, that is for both urban and rural Ghana (Republic of Ghana, SIP 2008-2015).

The water sector has seen several changes and challenges with the aim of increasing access to potable water especially to rural communities / small town’s whiles emphasizing on rural development. It is believed that, people living in rural areas are more than two thirds of Ghana’s population, and in the middle of the 1990’s it was estimated that only 35 % of these rural本站提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041 dwellers had access to quality water, the total population was about 17.5million at the time[,,contentMDK:21204612~menuPK:3266877~pagePK:51236175~piPK:437394~theSitePK:73154,00.html. ]. As a result, people were plagued mainly with diseases that are water related such as diarrhoea, skin diseases and intestinal and guinea worms infestation. Reported incidence increased, and was brought to government’s attention for action but later became its priority which necessitated a long term policy reform that could address the problem.#p#分页标题#e#Through government’s continuous efforts, successive policy reforms were made in the water sector. The National Community Water and Sanitation Programme (NWCSP) was launched in 1994, thus, “the programme seeks, among others to achieve an accelerated and equitable delivery of improved water and related sanitation facilities to rural communities and small towns within the context of a decentralized local government system administration” (GOG, STWSP, 2003). Ghana’s Decentralisation programme was initiated in 1992, with main features enshrined in the 1992 Constitution to decentralize authority to the people at the grassroots, followed by the Local Government Act 462 which was the actual legal framework for the implementation of the decentralization policy. NWSCP was very timely so that public services will be provided in closer relationship with the beneficiaries to facilitate successful implementation. Improving access to potable water to rural to all small towns in Ghana where communities are involved in the planning, implementation and management of the system in line with Ghana decentralization objective.One of the aims among others was to reduce rural urban migration and a strategy to develop rural communities and accelerate implementation of specific services for its citizens.The policy “entailed effective community participation in the planning, implementation and management of the water and sanitation facilities” (GoG, NWP, 2007, p: 49), basically, the strategy employed here is to shift water management responsibility to the local communities where access was very low. In that same year, Community Water and Sanitation Division (CWSD) was created to manage solely rural water and sanitation (ibid: 49).Moreover, in 1998, Act 564 transformed CWSD into the Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) to support the NCWSP, provide technical to the District Assemblies and facilitate the provision of safe water to rural communities and small towns(ibid, p: 49). This was to encourage user participation in decision making, and ensure efficient supply of safe water and initiate a demand responsive approach, implemented and managed by the local people and the private sector. The CWSA mainly supports the District Assemblies in this regard in more than 110 small towns in all the 10 regions where they are currently established. Whereas similar reforms established the Ghana Water and Sewage Company Limited (GWSCL) Act 461, 1999, formerly the Ghana Water and Sewage Corporation GWSC, to focus on providing larger urban communities with safe water and sewage in Ghana. Whilst small towns water supply has been transferred and devolved to the District Assembly supported by CWSA. Therefore, the main rationale to separate the provision of urban water from rural water supply was to facilitate the expansion and accelerate the supply of potable water to the entire country. Also, GWSC was relying solely on government subsidy, meanwhile government had limited resources at its disposal invariably, concentrated its coverage to the urban areas.#p#分页标题#e#In 1998, the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS) conducted, revealed that, the sources of drinking water in rural communities in Ghana are as follows, wells (47.2%), natural sources (33.9%), pipe-borne (18.9%), as a result 81% of the rural population depended on untreated water. Subsequently, the 2000 census on water supply estimated 59% for national access to water and 41% for rural access ( Republic of Ghana, POM, 2004 p:11). The desire to attain the MDGs target of 73% for rural areas by 2015 is extremely not encouraging. Even though access rates improved marginally, the sector has experienced some level of improvements, as well as encountered some problems which may be attributed to the economic downturns, poverty, financial constraints, resources, poor management of projects, monitoring and evaluation etc, which is reflected in the figures already given. Progress of implementation of water projects over the years has not seen much success, therefore to further attempt to improve the situation which affected the poverty situation in Ghana, the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS 1) was launched in 2002 then later was succeeded by the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS 2, 2006) which has become the official framework for Ghana’s development agenda to tackle poverty. Also, it highlights on “increasing access to potable water and sanitation and reinforced the need to accelerate interventions especially to new investments in guinea worm endemic areas” (GoG, SIP, 2008-2015, p: 16). Furthermore, the key benefits is to achieve health outcomes and sustained poverty reduction, similarly, government’s draft water supply policy so that through the Community Water and Sanitation Programme, public health will be improved and affect the economic wellbeing of rural and small town communities[ ]. The introduction of these reforms has waived the sole responsibility from government but allows private sector participation, NGOs, and donor/ development partner funding to facilitate implementation.However, since Community Water and Sanitation (CWS) is one of governments main development priorities, it forms a major part of the goals of GPRS, reflecting in areas like the本站提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041 provision of basic infrastructure and social services, the promotion of decentralized and accountable governance, by enabling the private sector to develop through the provision of community water and sanitation services to boost investments in the water sector. (GoG, POM, 2004 p: 11). Then also, it is estimated that in 2004 out of 20.6 million total population, with 11.9 million people living in rural areas, only 5.8 million people had access to safe drinking water, therefore access to water supply is about 49% as against the MDG target of 73% (GoG, POM, 2004, p:11-12).#p#分页标题#e#Interestingly, several development partners have been attracted to provide financial support for the implementation of Small Towns Water and Sanitation Projects, some of these projects includes World Bank International Development Agency (IDA) Community Water and Sanitation Project (CWSP, STWSSP) phase 1 &2, District Based and Sanitation (DBWSSC) by Danida, CIDA in Northern Region Small Towns and Northern Region Water and Sanitation Project (NORST, NORWASP), EU Small Towns Project. Their contributions have greatly made impacts on efforts by government to increase access to safe water. Currently, only 56% of the general population in Ghana has access to safe water, being the estimation given in 2007-2008[] as against the programme target by NCWSP to increase access to 85 percent by 2015. That means more than half of the population in rural areas depend on unsafe water supply resulting in the high incidence of guinea-worm infections and other related water borne diseases which continue to plague people living in rural settlements and small towns and rural areas. Although, much has been achieved in terms of meeting the MDG target of 76% it is still very low, progress has been slow and it is believed to be due to poor implementation of projects and lack of financial support. The World Bank plays a lead role in supporting developing poor countries to tackle the incidence of poverty and has continued to play an active and pivotal role in rural water sector in Ghana for many years. From the World Bank Report “in 1994, the Bank funded the full scale implementation of the national sector strategy and followed this up with an Adaptable Progam Lending (APL) to deepen decentralization of rural water supply services as a means of scaling up access to water supply in Ghana [ Same as 1]. Therefore, it assisted the districts to expand and refine rural water supply and sanitation programmes. Their progressive involvement has enhanced implementation of the Small Towns Water Project and has contributed to the effective, intense, quality supply of safe water to rural communities. According to the World Bank report “The first phase of APL (in support of the Community Water and Sanitation Program) closed on December 31, 2004, and successfully provided potable water to over 750,000 people o f the rural population”[ Proposed Additional Funding]. #p#分页标题#e#Following continuous agreements between the government of Ghana and the World Bank International Development Agency (IDA), they are financing the second phase of STWSS in six regions of Ghana (Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Upper East and Upper West, Central and Western Regions) in the amount of 26 million US dollars in 54 communities in 42 District Assemblies to serve an estimation of 500,000 people living in rural communities with sustained, decentralized safe water supply, which was approved 27th July, 2004 and will closed in April 30th, 2010[ ].

In June 2007 an additional fund of 10 million US dollars was approved by the World Bank for the successful completion of projects, the reason is to make up for the increased cost of materials due to global economic crises causing prices to increase, therefore cater for unanticipated costs. And also the population of some of the beneficiary towns were actually more than anticipated as such, the project design had to be adjusted. How has this affected the implementation of the projects?

As at April 15th 2009, about 360,000 people already had obtained access to safe water supply systems in 40 small towns showing about 72% completion and target attainment[ Additional Funding worldbank website].It is a generally believed that so long as the government is focusing attention on the implementation of small towns water, and development partners are contributing so much with funds and technical assistance, then meeting the target of the MDGs is possible to increase water coverage to rural areas and access to safe water will improve automatically. Local level 本站提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041implementation of STWSSP over the years has provided a significant platform for decentralization of service delivery in water and sanitation to be deepened and has achieved satisfactory results. Despite the fact that generally implementation results have recorded satisfactory results, challenges peculiar to each town setting cannot be overlooked.According to Thomas and Grindle (1990, p: 1165) implementation efforts are highly variable, ranging from successful to unsuccessful, an interactive and ongoing process of decision making. It is against this background that I carried out this study in two communities in Ghana where STWSS has been implemented and identify and analyse those factors that may have contributed to the variation in implementation performances, and conclude based on these findings.Significantly, this proposed study is sufficiently worthy of pursuing due to the diverse benefits and insights that will be drawn from its findings. Few studies have been conducted in the small towns’ water sector to assess the nature of implementation since its inception. But with the little that has been discussed in the World Bank IDA reports, CWSA implementation reports and by other consultants’ monthly reports at the district level, it focused mostly on the general implementation challenges. Therefore my desire to do a vivid field studies at the local level in the small towns rural villages where implementation actually takes place will unveil deeper insights into identifiable variables that may not have been discussed in similar studies.#p#分页标题#e#Though previous study reports have recorded variations in the progress of the implementation process. My study tries to identify the core and specific factors that influence or impede implementation of small town water supply systems, explains the implementation process results to enrich the discipline in the field of implementation study. Firstly, to give a deeper, broader and better understanding of the factors that facilitate or hinder the smooth implementation of projects at the community level with local tendencies cultural factors at play. Open further research avenues in this area, inform policy makers, government, development partners, private sector organisations, District Assemblies, CWSA and all stakeholders. More so, the main implementation theory that am basing my research on to critically, assess the factors that facilitate or impede the implementation process that affect performance / output of the STWS project, but has not been widely used and tested in Ghana, as they will draw meaningful ideas that will be valuable from the selected communities, since they may apply knowledge gained from findings to other similar projects and programmes. On the other hand, findings will unveil and pre inform other projects in other places on how to better manage embedded challenges if possible eliminate in future, especially during implementation process to influence output,.Lastly, serve as a point of reference for other researchers to test in other communities and contribute to knowledge, this is a gateway into other researchable arena and to ensure that those challenges identified will be addressed fully to facilitate smooth implementation of projects. I have chosen this study because few research has been conducted on this topic., 1.3 Statement of Research ProblemIt is generally known that the implementation of policies and programmes in developing countries has been a challenge for decades for which Ghana is not an exception. Surprisingly, implementing STWSP in rural areas on a whole, has not been that bad with respect to meeting the MDG target (76 percent), but the challenge emerged with time at the local level (district and community) where implementation actually takes place. However, I agree with the statement in the overview in the National Water Policy of Ghana that “water is essential to the existence of man and all living things” and central to many activities (GOG, NWP 2007, p: 1). Water is an economic and social good and constitute a social dimension of poverty, access to water addresses the needs of women and the poor. Therefore, providing safe water and increasing its access is a crucial step to ensuring good health and consequently facilitate economic growth, sustained poverty reduction and rural development (ibid p: 6). In Ghana providing safe water and ensuring its proper implementation to meet the MDG target of 76 % by 2015 has been on the heart of government’s development agenda for the past decades. From the NCWSP, government’s goal is to increase access to safe water to 85 percent beyond the MDG target by 2015. Evident in the establishment of NCWSP in 1994 to transfer water provision responsibility to the District Assemblies, and creation of CWSA in 1998 to support and to facilitate the process. . In sum, it reaffirms its greatest desire to increase access to the rural areas.#p#分页标题#e#Since it is believed that, increasing access to safe water supply significantly influences efforts to reduce poverty. Identification and provision of safe water supply being highlighted in four of the GPRS goals shows how important it was to the previous (NPP) government and its sustenance and pursuance by the current (NDC) government. Thus, a reflection of changing government’s key concern as well as the donor community. This demand driven / responsive approach aims at involving the communities in planning, implementing and managing the systems. How has it been successful so far?In as much as various reports and publications have commended progress of implementation, meeting the MDG target is quite uncertain. In year 2000, it was revealed through the population and housing census that about 41% has coverage of water supply in most rural communities, which is seems very low (GOG, STWSP, 2003 p: 1). Then in 2004 it increased to 49% in rural communities (POM, 2004 p: 12) and in 2007-2008 the overall access to safe water remained at 56% , being the reason for high reported cases of guinea worm infections and water related diseases that are still endemic in rural areas. On the other hand, though, there are reports that it has achieved good results so far, there are publications which states otherwise in some towns, one of which was on the 20th March, 2009 that STWSP were suspended in 5 communities in Upper West in 2008 whiles 19 others earmarked to benefit from 37 boreholes under the 本站提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041Guinea Worm Eradication could not be implemented due to lack of funding from government and its development partners. Besides, 45 boreholes in deprived communities were also abandoned[].It is hoped that development partners/ donors have assisted the CWSA through government by providing funds for the implementation of small towns’ water supply projects. The difficulty in making improvements in meeting the target in my view is due to the fact that these donors have embarked on separate projects in the regions, different reporting systems and requirements, there is no proper coordination of this project. Although progress achieved towards meeting targets needs to be improved significantly within the next few years, statistics derived from the basic socio-economic characteristics for regions in Ghana gives a clearer and better picture of coverage of water supply in each region.

From the table above, analysing the total number of population in these regions, populations of communities that NCWSP has to cater for as well as the population without any improved water service, Upper West Region recorded the highest percentage of water supply coverage (87%), Central Region recorded the lowest percentage of coverage of about 33.8% an indication that the projects are successfully being implemented whiles others are still behind schedule. Dispersed projects by individual donors, weak monitoring and institutional capacity by the District Assemblies who are the direct implementers, and other factors peculiar to the communities is a consideration. It is as a result of this that prompted this study to identify the factors responsible for this variation especially in the Central Region on IDA water projects. #p#分页标题#e#The World Bank IDA Small Towns Water Supply Systems (STWSS) has seen some level of success in general. As at April this year, the project had achieved 72% of its target for access to safe water but not without challenges with implementation at the small towns. Central region has received financial support in ten (10) Small Towns Water Supply Systems in five (5) Metropolitan / District Assemblies (Awutu Senya, Upper Denkyira East, Asikuma Odoben Brakwa, Twifo Heman Lower Denkyira and Assin South). IDA 2009 p:2-3. Subsequent report on the status of implementation of STWSS IDA projects in the central region revealed interesting results.Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo were small towns with the least and the highest percentage levels of completion belonging to the same district that is Twifo Heman Lower Denkyira District. Mfuom had 38 percentage whiles Jukwaa Krobo had completed by 78 percentage though they are both expected to end at the same time by the 15th of October 2009. More so, the 本站提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041variation has been a major concern for the CWSA official at the headquarters as well as the task Team Leader for the project because the completion date was almost due at the time of data collection, so officers were sent there to assess the progress and find out the cause of the delay.Obviously, from the table, implementation has been successful in some small towns than others, in spite of the fact that programmes are effectively implemented when implementers are closer to the beneficiaries and the beneficiary population is involved in decision making throughout the process of implementation. According to Crook “decentralized governments are more responsive to the needs of the poor than central governments, thus, more likely to conceive and implement pro-poor policies”. Phd 9*4 This may not be automatic in the context of Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo, therefore this study is carried out to identify specific factors that could facilitate or impede implementation of the STWSS in individual small town. The question I seek to answer is why development partners are pumping more money, the additional fund given by the World Bank for the projects serves as an evidence, government is preparing a proper policy platform for its swift implementation, provides financial support and competent personnel, strengthened the institutions involved in implementing the projects and efforts made by all the other stakeholders, people are supportive yet Mfuom is doing badly? What factors or local conditions may have contributed to the success in J. Krobo and otherwise in the other town?Factually, in Ghana, rural water has fairly received the needed attention in terms of water supply but more importantly has faced some challenges during implementation, and management of the project. The World Bank has steadfastly supported this project in six (6) regions (Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Central, Western, Upper East and West), 54 communities in 42 District Assemblies to serve an estimation of 500,000 people. As such am motivated to find out to what extent their projects are implemented and the factors that influence implementation. #p#分页标题#e#According to Thomas and Grindle, their ‘Linear Model of Implementation’ states that once policy decisions are made it is either implemented successfully or unsuccessfully (p: 1164). Urban water supply was separated from rural water supply service in Ghana to facilitate the implementation of the projects to accelerate access to safe water to reduce waterborne diseases like cholera, guinea worm infections which plague the rural poor due to unsafe and polluted sources of water.This thesis attempted to The Assignment is provided by UK Assignment find answers and explanations to those potential factors that may determine the variations in implementation results in a comparative study in two small towns in one district in Ghana.1.3 Research Questions In the light of the discussed problems, the major focus of this study is to examine the factors that facilitate or may perhaps impede the successful implementation of STWSS locally in the small towns selected and explore how the World Bank has complemented efforts of government to increase access to safe water supply in the rural areas in Ghana. The following objectives shall be pursued:To identify the main factors that facilitates OR impedes the successful implementation of the Small Towns Water Supply Systems (STWSS) in the selected localities (Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo).Examine how project objective and implementation design, interorganisational collaboration, behavior of target group, environmental factors influence the implementation process to affect outcome in the selected study areas.Identify challenges encountered during implementation and how it is being addressed.Enumerate how the cultural beliefs, traditions and land disputes and conflicts affect the implementation of the water systems in each case. Find out the role of women and involvement influence implementation process.Outlining the research questions is very important to establish boundaries to specifically highlight on the essential aspects of the study intents to achieve the actual objectives stated above. In view of the above objectives, the following questions will be answered through this study.What are the major factors that influence the implementation of STWSS in selected towns understudied.How do these factors ( project objective and implementation design, interorganisational communication and collaboration, resources, behavior of target group, affect the implementation process and output in each community, and why it may ensure successful implementation or not?Why is the project facing challenges peculiar to each community and how is it being addressed in terms of strategies employed to deal with it?How do cultural beliefs, local traditions, land disputes and conflicts affect implementation in each community?Why gender sensitization is important to its implementation and how the role of women promotes implementation, specifically at the community level where implementation takes place at the grassroots?#p#分页标题#e#2.0 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKFor purposes of this study which focuses on implementation of STWSS and to further assess the factors that either promote or impede the successful implementation of small town water supply systems or not. The variations in implementation results in the selected areas creates a lot of curiosity to further find out why, how and what factors are accountable. Fortunately, there are a pool of rich available theoretical perspectives that can provide a concrete and vivid grounds to explain the situation. It is a very important exercise to be able to identify factors that contribute to an understanding of the variation in implementation as well as lay the foundation upon which the study will be carried on, considering factors in the Ghanaian local context will be examined. These theories have been used extensively in several researches and have helped to understand how implementation can be viewed as a process, identify certain factors that may influence implementation, establish the relationship that exists between these factors that may lead to achieving or not achieving the goals of the project. In addition, it has been tested empirically in the Ghanaian context by previous researchers and has been very insightful.Since there are several implementation theories in social science research, there are several implementation theoretical frameworks that give comprehensive explanations to implementation research. Fundamentally, this examines the theoretical perspectives upon which this study was carried on, it further presents a detail discussion on the rich and diverse theories, besides, it provides understanding into implementation research by scholars in the field. Despite the availability, the challenge is that, how can one identify the most relevant to my study context? The good news is that the literature available comprises of both the theoretical and empirical work which contains very useful information into methodology and ideological perspectives that shape the study of implementation.The theoretical perspectives were selected to make it easier to develop hypothesis, confine it in a desirable research design and employ appropriate methods to collect data which were tested empirically to provide basis for the analysis. According to Yin (2003: 10), ‘case studies are generalisable to theoretical proposition and not to populations or universe’. Therefore, in carrying out such a study, theoretical frameworks upon which data from the field will be tested on is very vital, an opportunity to expand and generalize theories (analytical generalization) fundamentally on the following implementation ideas discussed. Since there are numerous theories on implementation research, in determining the most appropriate in the context of my study, the question I ask is, what do I want to study? How do I identify the factors relevant to the context of my study and why? And how far do I want to go with the study? #p#分页标题#e#Smith (1973: 199) cited by Van Meter and Van Horn (1975: 452) argues that problems of implementation often occur in Third World Countries. But I think this is contextual, though it has been a challenge in Africa. Some reports have it that STWSS has been fairly implemented but at the actual towns it is a different issue all together. Failure during implementation of policies and projects has led to vast abandoned and uncompleted projects causing a delay in our development process. In my study, I tried to find out why there are variations in the implementation results in Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo where this was identified, and then identify the factors that explain this variation (successful and not successful)Selected theories possess hypothesis that are testable empirically and have been helpful to find answers to these questions. Therefore in the context of my study, sticking to one particular framework was unable to capture all the relevant factors to explain this assertion. I intend to borrow ideas from the following scholars mainly Winter Soren’s Integrated Implementation Model (IIM) (2003) as well as from Van Meter and Van Horn 1975 (Implementation Process) and Thomas and Grindle (1990) (Interactive Model of Implementing Public Reforms- the Strategic Management of Reform). According to Hill & Hupe (2002: 11) “comparison between what is observed and what is expected” can be used to measure implementation failure. Therefore, the disparity between what is observed and what is expected in implementing STWSS in the selected small towns can best be analysed through the lenses of these theories as well as empirical evidence.2.1 The Concept of Implementation ResearchImplementation is defined by Howlett and Ramesh (2003:185) as The Assignment is provided by UK Assignment “the process whereby programs or policies are carried out, the translation of plans into practice”, and also relates to how governments put policies into effect, in other words putting policies into practice. In addition, Berman notes that ‘implementation is the carrying out of an authoritative decision, i.e. a policy choice (1978: 160), Ayee (2000: 9) also maintains that, “policy process is concerned with the execution – in particular, its implementation, efficiency and sustainability”.As such, implementation means carrying out policy ideas to meet the expectations of the policy planners. Implementation is the third stage in the policy process, and it is suggested by many scholars to be the most critical stage in the policy process. This is because, the success or failure of a policy is perceived to be dependent on the implementation process which can tremendously distort the success of whole policy process. The evolvement of implementation research is a little over 30 years, yet, after the development of literature on implementation research, none has been singled out and adjudged the general theory universally accepted yet exhaustive knowledge can be drawn from various scholars. #p#分页标题#e#One of the pioneers in this regard is Pressman and Wildavsky (1973) cited by winter 2003(151) who made the first step into implementation research endeavour in his book ‘implementation’. Initially, these scholars focused on the problems, barriers and failures of implementation and proposed ‘goal achievement’ as their standard and dependent variable which was very conspicuous in implementation research in the 1970’s. Winters (2003, p: 151) article stressed on the fact that Pressman and Wildavsky concluded from one of their cases that the ‘complexity of joint action’ made up of federal, regional, state, local government actors, courts, affected interest groups, private firms, media who had a part to play in implementation are the major problems to implementation. Later Eugene Bardarch in 1977 also developed the ‘implementation game’ which discusses the political game actors exert throughout the policy process to achieve their personal interest which creates conflicts and consequently, change the shape of implementation. Others were of the view that, it is not only bad implementation designs that can cause problems but also the tools used to execute policies, programmes and projects. Erwin Hargrove (1975), Walter Williams and Richard Elmore (1976) were part of the first generation implementation research. After several criticisms were leveled against the former the second generation erupted, these were top down, bottom up approaches to study implementation. ‘Top Down’ approach is where government officials, policy makers, top officials, politicians make policy decisions for the administrative machinery to carry it out, or for bureaucrats to execute the decisions. Hierarchical in nature since it followed a structural implementation process. Sabatier and Mazmanian (1986) were the first to develop this approach, other scholars (Winter, 1986b; May 2003) criticised it because it “ignored the policy formulation and design” stage, proposed to be of profound significance during the implementation process cited by Winter 2003,p: 153On the other hand, the second approach, ‘Bottom Up’, developed later was in response of the criticism leveled against the previous approach, that, it neglects the role played by ‘street level bureaucrats’ Lipsky (1980). In view of that, ‘bottom up’ was developed and assert their direct impact on the implementation of policies, and focuses on the importance of the formal and informal relationship between and among bureaucrats to facilitate the implementation process. Lipsky (1980) claims they are the ‘real policy makers’ since in delivering their duties they have discretionary powers they use in executing policy intents. Elmore (1982), Hull and Hjern (1987) made a lot of impacts too.Whiles the first generation dwelt on theory generation, the second generation (top downers, the bottom uppers) contributed a lot of knowledge to develop theories in implementation research to generate diverse knowledge. The contention among scholars paved a way for the synthesizers because both sides of the argument was very insightful but they rather unconsciously ignored the salient ideas coming from the other sides which seem to explain the reality and of a great deal of importance. #p#分页标题#e#Similarly, synthesizers tried to reconcile the seemingly incompatible ideas developed already. It was later realised that both approaches complemented each other, since both had unique strengths and weaknesses. Several suggestion were made by scholars like Elmore (1985 in his forward and backward mapping, Matland 1995, Hull And Hjern 1987, Sabatier (1986) in trying to clear up the disagreement suggested that either models be used in different situations that are best suited, top down for policies with limited funds and when one legislation dominates, where as bottom up gains its relevance in situations where several different policies are directed towards a problem and where one is primarily interested in the dynamics of the different local situations (Winter 2003, p:154). Based on this, my study employed the bottom up approach as defined by Sabatier, since the implementation of STWSS is done locally in two different towns with dynamic situations, local situations as well as on the progress of the project.Similarly, one exclusive synthesizer is Winter, who do not actually try to synthesise the top down and bottom up approaches “but rather to integrate a number of most fruitful theoretical elements from various pieces of implementation research – regardless of their origin” (Winter 2003, p;155). However, it provides a rich and solid model for its resourcefulness from varied theories covering the three generations o implemrntation research. According to his model, in order to determine how a project like STWSS in Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo has performed, first performance results must be linked in the context of the project policy objectives, further more performance results and outcome are a product of the implementation process. Meanwhile the process involves a number of factors interacting to produce results that determines the outputs as well as outcome. Winter (2003: 206) suggest that, goal achievement should not be the dominating standard dependent variable, instead emphasis must be dwelt much on performance and outcome in relation to the policy objectives. What makes the achievement of goals difficult? Goals can be achieved in terms of policies, programmes or project performance either successful or failure may not be in the interest of the beneficiaries or recipients. What then must be the core for assessing the success or failure of programmes? Though, there are controversies regarding key concepts on implementation research, whereby a category of scholars center their discussion only on the implementation process, others on the implementation performance/output. Below is a discussion of the theoretical perspectives the study was conducted on.2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK – Policy ImplementationThe basis of this study is finding out the factors that either impedes or facilitate effective implementation of Small Town Water Supply Systems in Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo based on specific implementation theories and perspectives. Identification of the factors are carefully done after extensive discussion on policy implementation theories and perspectives. The diverse opinions and arguments from Winter (2003) Integrated Implementation Model, Van meter and Van Horn (1975) PolicyThe Assignment is provided by UK Assignment Implementation Process, augmented by Thomas and Grindle (1990) Interactive Model of Implementation, form the basis for this study.#p#分页标题#e#Winter (2003; 208), asserts that “the roots of implementation problems can often be in the prior policy formulation. Therefore, problems of implementing a project like STWSS may not be dependent on only what goes on during execution but also the policy formulation and design stages also matter and can influence its success or failure.In this study I did a comparative study of Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo water supply systems to assess the implementation results, whether projects has been successful or not, following discussions on the factors that influence each condition. In order to achieve this and increase the chances of testing my hypothesis based on these theories among others, I positioned the study mainly in the Integrated Implementation Model (IIM) by Winter (2003). Purposely because, it focuses on the implementation performance / output as well as outcome (dependent variable) to determine the implementation results which are discussed by variables that form the process, and criticallly highlights the importance of policy formulation and design and its ensuing repercussion on implementation process and results. However, it is quite extensive, simple and contains flexible variabless that can easily be used in any context and also provide a distinct approach to dealing with the difficulties of implementation. The actual implementation process consists of organizational and interorganisational behaviour, street level bureaucrats’ behaviour, target group behaviour interacting in a socio-economic context, its consequences on results (output / outcome). Obviously, it is a peculiar model since it is appropriate for the context of this study the fact that it takes into consideration what goes into the policy formulation and design to influence results and emphasise on target group behaviour. Nevertheless, what is lacking in this model is that it fails to discuss in detail the interactions and interrelationship among the independent variables and each of the variables constituting the policy process. Also, it does not say anything about resources which in the context of Africa is a very crucial factor since limited resources has been the cause of the many challenges faced with implementing projects.Basically, it has been observed that, it is difficult for scholar to come to an agreement, whiles some focus on the process of implementation as the dependent variable (Lester Goggin 1998) others concentrate on implementation performance \ output (Lipsky, 1980) and others outcomes (Hull and Hjern, 1987; Mazmanian and Sabatier, 1981). According to Winter, (2003: 208) the standard for evaluating the results of the implementation process is that, the model centers on both performance and outcome in relation to the official policy objectives.First of all, the model considers the policy formulation process and design as the key influence on implementation. Others are of the view that unsuccessful implementation is as a result of the activities that goes on in the implementation stage. That alone is insufficient; rather, what happens at the initial stages of formulation goes further to affect the implementation process and output in a socio economic context. It is believed that strong link between policy formulation, design and goals are necessary for successful implementation.#p#分页标题#e#The other factors influencing the implementation process are organizational and interorganisational behaviours, the structure and design of the implementing organization not withstanding the collaborations, cooperation and coordination that exists among various organizations affecting the behaviour of those who work within those organizations and will determine their level of commitment. The target group behavior represents the beneficiaries willingness, involvement, reactions as it affects the policy design performance and results.Winter’s model is very useful in my study because it takes into consideration both the process and output of implementation to measure implementation results, which in my opinion forms the solid basis for assessing a successful or unsuccessful project and in addition critically talks about target groups who are inevitably important in my study.Thomas and Grindle and Van Meter and Van Horn’s model suggest that implementation should be studied as a process and develops factors that must be considered during the implementation process. One important factor not discussed in the IIM are resources, such as (human, technical, financial resources) are very crucial in the implementation of any program or project, Van Meter and Vann Horn, Thomas and Grindle’s model elaborates on it but not discussed under the integrated implementation model.On the other hand, another significant theory is the Policy Implementation Process (PIP) developed by Van Meter and Van Horn (1975) and views implementation as a process and places importance on how the ambiguity and clarity in the policy objectives can influence the process. It gives a vivid description of the relationship that exist among the individual independent variables shown by these six are comprehensively discussed, it includes the policy standards and objectives, policy resources, interorganisational communication and enforcement activities, characteristics of implementing agencies, economic, social and political conditions, the disposition of implementers, are employed. What is fascinating about this model is, it also exposes the relationship between the dependent and independent variables generating hypothesis that empirically testable having collected relevant data. This model was developed based on various theories the writers own research and ideas, hence producing very useful piece. From their model they suggest that “the probability of effective implementation will depend in part on the type of policy being considered, and specific factors contributing to the realization or nonrealisation of programme objectives will vary from one policy type to another” (Meter and Horn 1978, p: 461). In that sense, particular factors will be found appropriate depending on the type of policy or project being executed. Lastly, Thomas and Grindle contribution to implementation research analysis in their introduction of the interactive model of implementation to correct the criticism leveled against the Linear Model of Implementation, I their view only concentrated on valuable decisions where some scholars argued that well designed policies will automatically translate into prospects of implementation. The central proponent of this model is that ‘policy reform initiative may be altered or reversed at any stage in its life cycle by the pressures and reactions of those who oppose it. Interactive model views policy reform as a process, one in which interested parties can exert pressure for change at many points’Thomas and Grindle (1990:1166). #p#分页标题#e#On the other hand, it is indicative that the interactive model lays emphasis on the assertion that reaction to policy change may arise in the process of decisions and implementation. Through theThe Assignment is provided by UK Assignment introduction of strategic management of reform by Thomas and Grindle, it provides for decision makers certain recommendations that must be considered so that one can predict their possible influences on outcomes of implementing projects. They further explain and hypothesise that, the characteristics of the policy, will have direct influence on how people react or respond to change. The reaction (reject or implement) can stem from the public or bureaucratic arena based on the distribution of cost and benefits, extensive participation, policies or projects with short implementation duration generates support quickly, where benefits are visible and dispersed it can generate support and vice versa. Additionally, it informs policy managers on the required resources (political, financial, managerial) for a desired results. More importantly for my study, they are discussed extensively.VARIABLES FROM THE THEORIES2.2.1 Policy Formulation and DesignAccording to Pressman and Wildavsky (1973), “implementation cannot succeed or fail without a goal against which to judge it” cited by Van Meter and Van Horn (1975: 464). Winter 2003, 208 reveals that conflicts which emanate during the policy formulation process and symbolic policies[ Policies adopted to appear to address a problem] can cause unclear goals and means of achieving them. That is why disagreements and misunderstanding surrounding a particular policy or project must first be dealt with before implementation proceeds else it can continue to distort the implementation process. Ayee (2000: 9) adds that public policies fail if they are wrong, generates undesirable conflicts, dissension, opposition and possibly violence. Is none achievement of goals be blamed on only the implementation process? This is exactly what has been explained previously by Winter. Van Meter and Van Horn (1975; 464) are also of the view that when the statements of standards and objectives are ambiguous and contradictory, it becomes very difficult to identify and measure performance. Therefore, policies or objectives of projects must be clearly spelt out, consistent and possibly documented, devoid of any vagueness and conflicts, not open to different interpretations to aid smooth implementation.Also, the design of policies must be agreed upon with other stakeholders and beneficiaries for a receptive and successful implementation. Thus, there must be consensus, involvement, continuous negotiations, compromise and agreement among all stakeholders. Winter suggest that there must be familiar and appropriate mix of instruments for attaining those goals, a particular organisation must also be assigned to execute the project and resources required must be readily allocated. But the type of instrument will depend on the institutional context. #p#分页标题#e#Especially in the African context, it is very crucial to examine objectives and design of policies to ensure that it does not promote unacceptable cultural values that society may not be in favor. This account for Ayee’s (2000: 7) suggestion that the criteria for policy design should involve the ‘appropriateness of policies’.2.2.2 Organizational and Interorganisational behavioursIn most instances in implementing public policies and projects of the nature am pursuing, implementation involves a particular organization responsible for facilitating and coordinating activities, interactions, communications and interrelationship among other implementing agencies to achieve results. Therefore cooperation will be very much needed. In my opinion I think all the writers in a way agree on the need for clarity, precision, and consistency in standards and objectives to ensure that there is available and exact information for proper communication and flow of information within and between organizations, though complex and difficult (Van Meter and Van Horn 1975: 466). This is the only way expected roles and responsibilities can be carried out successfully. How can problems of coordination within and among organizations be reduced? Winter 2003: 209) suggests again that, policies should be designed to increase commitment and create a common interest, proper inter organizational relationship, coordination and exchange of information facilitates cooperation. Organizations depend on several others to survive, hence, “if different sources of communication provide inconsistent interpretations of standards and objectives or if the same source provides conflicting interpretations over time, implementers will find it even more difficult to carry out intentions of policy” Van Meter and Van Horn (466). Furthermore, the provision of technical advice and assistance, enforcement of sanctions both positive and negative and allocation of symbolic and material rewards facilitate implementation (ibid 467). It is very important to deal with this because it is crucial to effective implementation of policies.2.2.3 Street- level Bureaucrats behaviourOne of the key determinants for successful implementation according to Lipsky (1980) cited by Winter (2003: 209) is “the coping behaviours of street level bureaucrats systematically bias the delivery behaviour in relation to the policy mandates”. Underestimation of their influence will hinder implementation of policies since they are responsible for carrying out policies and have a lot of discretion at their disposal. According to (Lipsky 1980) "policy implementation in the end comes down to the people who actually implement it"[], those responsible for implementing policies can influence it in many ways. The perception of implementers, level of involvement in planning as well as availability of resources will have an impact on implementation, to succeed or fail. According to Van Meter and Van Horn (1975: 472), on the disposition of implementers, he argues that the deeper the understanding of the general intents of programs, the easier the possibility to implement programmes successfully and the rejection of the goals will lead to failure to execute policies. Similarly, Howlett and Ramesh (2003: 69) point out that, bureaucrats with their varied interests and perspectives makes it difficult to come to a common concurrence. Their cognition, response, awareness and compliance according to Van Meter and Van Horn are very crucial and affect policy performance. Van Meter and Vann Horn (ibid, p: 470), competence, degree of ‘open communication’, formal and informal linkages are characteristics that can impinge on an organizations ability to implement policies. Consequently, if decisionThe Assignment is provided by UK Assignment makers and implementers share common values about the program, it is quite easier to implement.#p#分页标题#e#2.2.4 Target Group BehaviorThough it was not widely elaborated in the model, it is a very important variable to me in my study. It includes individuals, citizens, or firms who are beneficiaries/recipients of a policy or project, like in my study the residents in Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo are the immediate beneficiaries. From Winter’s model (2003), he states that target groups “affect the performance by street level bureaucrats through positive or negative actions in co-producing public service”, thus demanding so much from them. Evident that not only do they influence the policies, but also the officials working on behalf of government positively or negatively, therefore, they become very important in this process, so they must be consulted and involved that is, their views must be incorporated in the way policies are crafted and executed, and in a manner that is favourable to them. Aryee (2000:10) elaborates on the fact that the responses of target groups to policy initiatives influence the quality of implementation. Furthermore, resistance and uncooperativeness from the beneficiaries, slows down or abolish certain policies entirely found to be one of the criteria for judging the success or failure of policies.2.2.5 Socio Economic ContextConditions’ prevailing at the time of implementation is very crucial, the social settings of a country, town or community where the policy is being implemented may affect the performance of the policy. Norms, values customs, regulations are to be given the needed considered. Also, prevailing economic factors and conditions such as inflation may result in increases in the prices of goods or devaluation of currency. Secondly, the attitude of individuals, other groups in society towards the program, Thomas and Grindle (1990: 1166) refer to it as response and reaction which may emanate from the public or private arena, to determine whether the programme will be implemented successfully. Based on the cost and benefits that they perceive may be derived from it. The economic conditions like the recent crisis resulting in the devaluation of local currencies may require additional funding for successful implementation since the initial funds allocated for the project might not be adequate. Are funds allocated adequately to sustain implementation? This must be given particular attention. The impact this may have on implementation is very severe, some questions being posed by Vann Meter and Vann Horn (472) are very important to note, Are the economic resources available adequate to support successful implementation?, To what extent will it be affected by the implementation of the policy? What is the nature of public opinion? To what extent are private interest groups mobilized? In order to develop my own framework from these theories, I had to consider resources critically to give a comprehensive and exact picture of the investigation conducted. Other variables 2.2.6 Policy ResourcesNo matter how enticing a policy or program may be, no matter how precise and clear objectives are, without resources and especially funds, it is impossible to implement policies. There will be no implementation if you have the men, competent, highly skilled and knowledgeable ones and there are no funds to get it going. Moreso, it may be insufficient to embark on the project fully to see its succeed. This is what is actually lacking in the Integrated Implementation Model that I would like to test in my research study. For every programme or policy to be accomplished and sustained , resources must be readily and sufficiently available. Therefore adequate resources cannot be compromised at all especially, funds, Van Meter and Van Horn (1975: 465) talks about resources other incentives that also facilitate administration and effective implementation. What are these other incentives? #p#分页标题#e#Howlett and Ramesh (2003: 185) also agrees to the fact that resources are very necessary, they are also of the view that funds must be allocated, personnel assigned, and rules of procedure developed, the best way to push policies into action, which are indispensable. Thomas and Grindle (1990: 1176-1177) in their model also argues that without political, managerial, technical and financial resources, policies can hardly succeed. This is quite elaborate that availability of these resources is needed for program sustainability. Ayee (2000:10) adds that “lack of direction, leadership or shortage of skilled or dedicated personnel’ can cause policies to fail. Competent staff at the district office, excellent leadership will accelerate implementation.2.2.6 Cultural factorsI consider this to be an inevitable factor that will influence the implementation of the Water project in Ghana, knowing that Ghana is a multi cultural state and tight bonds with these cultural beliefs affect the day to day activities and values of the Ghanaian. How does the socio cultural behaviour and beliefs of the people affect implementation of small town water supply? I strongly envisage that customs, beliefs, The Assignment is provided by UK Assignment traditions, of the people can affect the location, the process and the out put of this Water project. According to Harrison & Huntington (2000: xv) they “define culture in pure subjective terms as the values, attitudes, beliefs, orientations, and the underlying assumptions prevalent among people in a society”. In Africa it is well known that the community dominates the individual, therefore in Ghana our traditional society determines the way of life of the individual. So it is very difficult to abandon the established belief system since it remains absolute. “As soon as ancestral beliefs are threatened, the only possible choice is between the established order and chaos” (ibid: 71). In some communities they belief it is through the streams they continue to have contacts with their ancestors, others might think great warriors were buried at particular places in the community therefore boreholes sited at these places will never be patronized. The cultural beliefs of the people influence the behaviour of the target group either to resist or accept the project. Hyden (2006:73) refers to this as “an informal institution in the economy of affection which arises when a group of people agree voluntarily on doing something together, they naturally a code of unwritten rules are developed to guide their activities and their dealings with those who breach these rules”Ideally, to prevent conflicts which may arise when the values of the people are being tampered with, then a better understanding of the culture of the people, their involvement in designing and the planning of such projects is key to its success, and to solicit their opinion from time to time will speed up implementation.Following, these discussions will form the foundation for identifying the factors that I will use to test my hypothesis based on these theories empirically assumed to facilitate or impede the successful implementation of STWSS in Ghana. Subsequently, other researches influenced the selection of these factors 0ne from the research paper presented by Ampadu Boakye et al (2008) at the WEDC international conference[ Water Engineer Development Center an organization that organizes international conferences for practioners, researchers, academics, decision maker who lead water and sanitation innovation in low income countries. ] identified these factors that affect the implementation of district water plans in Ghana. #p#分页标题#e#Among some of the challenges were inadequate financial resource allocation, unpredictable funds inflow from development partners, inadequate and poor quality of staff, weak monitoring, influence of development partners, institutionalization of District Water and Sanitation Teams. On the hand, at the DANIDA Water Sector Seminar, 2007 some of the challenges for implementing water projects discussed were inadequate government funding and staff, delay in the delivery of development funds, ineffective coordination, little experience for the communities to take charge of their project after completion, lack of monitoring.2.3 OPERATIONALISATION OF VARIABLES2.3.1 Dependent VariableAgainst the above discussed background, I operationalise and test in my study based on knowledge gathered from the above models from renowned implementation research scholars. First of all the performance of the implementation of Small Towns Water Supply Systems (successful or not successful) in Ghana, the case of Mfuom water supply system and Jukwaa Krobo water supply system.In my opinion, policies could be in the form of programmes and project, therefore from Winter’s model, implementation results are determined by the performance of the project and outcome. In the context of this study, implementation is actually the construction stage. Success criterion I used was based on the percentage rate of progress, which is 50% and above and vice versa. Mfuom had 38% and Jukwaa Krobo was rated 78% (IPR, 2009, p: 3) from that analysis, Jukwaa Krobo has been successful whilst Mfuom not successful, portraying the outcome of the implementation of the project.Performance was explained as the outputs of the project, therefore the study was designed to explore the number of boreholes and stand pipes constructed or rehabilitated, progress on work in terms of building of pump house and Board house, pipe laid, connections to boreholes and pump, raising of storage reservoirs, transformers, electrification, then lastly to assess if the local people have received training as caretakers of the system after completion of project. However, the success of the project or not can be determined considering the timely construction of boreholes or wells. On the other hand, assessing the pace of implementation process, if construction of these bore holes and wells are 指导留学作业提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041not hindered then it has been a success if constructed on time to serve the purpose. Also whether people from the target community are willing to be trained as caretakers of the boreholes to ensure its maintenance and sustainability will make the entire project a success. Are these enough to explain how the project has performed?2.3.2 Independent VariablesIn assessing both the process and output of implementation, the identified variables discussed below will explain deeply and empirically how it affects the successful or unsuccessful implementation of Small Towns Water Project (STWP) in Ghana. This was modeled after Winters Intergrated Implementation Model (IIM) with ideas shared from other scholars.#p#分页标题#e# Project objectives and designThere is no way the success of the STWSS can be achieved without clearly stated and precise objectives, as such, the mere existence of goals may not necessarily lead to the proper implementation of programmes. Though very essential, the objectives of this project must be specific and clear so that those responsible for carrying out the project such as the officials from World Bank, District Assembly, Community Water and Sanitation Agency, WSB, Consultants, local experts private sector, as well as make it easier to communicate it to even the community members. This will facilitate implementation, since what is to be done is laid bare. According to Winter (2003: 208) lack of connections between the policy design and goals can generate conflicts. In that view the primary cause of conflict may arise if the indigenes of Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo, the beneficiary communities do not understand what the project is all about, they may not be able to make any meaningful contributions towards the implementation of the projects, such as the need for safe water, their 5% contribution to this project, particular places to site the standpipes, boreholes, how many will be adequate to supply the community with safe water. Therefore, constant education, sensitization, negotiations, compromise and agreements must be reached with the chiefs, opinion leaders, town committee members, assembly members the entire community on even how the 5% quota will be paid, how much each person pays, who is eligible to pay, acquiring lands and permit to begin construction, eliminates conflicts and ensure smooth implementation. It is therefore clear that when there are conflicts implementation will suffer.Van Meter & Van Horn states that the breadth, wide implications of goals, consequence of ambiguities, contradictions in objectives of policy statements makes it very difficult to measure performance (1975: 464). Therefore if the objectives are not clear it will affect performance of the project negatively because nothing gets done appropriately. However, if the District Assembly with support from the Community Water and Sanitation Agency ensures the project design for implementation are drafted in consultation with key people in the community like the traditional rulers and prominent people in society, prior to implementation, then success result must be assured.Hypothesis 1Clear objectives, improved planning, coordination and consensus building by all stakeholders facilitate the implementation of STWSS to succeed.2.3.2. Organisational 指导留学作业提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041and Interorganisational CollaborationThe commitment and competence of the DWST who are the main implementing organisation in the towns is very crucial here, their organisational culture, commitment, competence and diplomacy will be manifested in the progress of the projects. Moreover, CWSA given the task to facilitate the implementation process collaborates with the DWST regularly. The major organizations coordination at the local level to see to the success of implementation of the water systems are largely dependent on the District Assembly, CWSA at the regional quarters, the Contracting firm and Consulting firm, and there is continuous correspondence among them during this period. Ideally, prompt and regular interactions, cooperation, proper communication and correspondence, performance of roles and responsibility, promotes strong partnership working hand in hand with other stakeholders. Ultimately, fosters good relationships and responsibilities and role assignment among them to facilitate the implementation of the project to ensure uniformity in the performance of their roles. #p#分页标题#e#In that case, the objectives if clearly spelt out will foster cooperation, collaboration and cohesion of activities. According to Pressman and Wildavsky (1973) stated by Winter 2003;209 ” focus on the typical ’complexitity of joint action’ successful implementation is likely to be negatively related to the number of actors, the diversity of their interest and perspectives, the number of decisions and veto points. In other words, if the number of implementing agencies are more it may affect implementation whereas few will facilitate proper collaboration and increase the commitment and competence of all implementing agencies involved. In this study the implementing agencies are significantly few and very close to the beneficiaries, thus, higher possibility for the projects to be successful in Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo. But Otoole and Montjoy are of the view that once the agencies are initially clear with the objectives of the project, the design as well as understand their roles and activities, it will facilitate the process of implementation.Hypothesis 2Enhanced cooperation and collaboration among institutions within the communities (DA, CWSA) responsible for implementation, the community itself will lead to succesful implementation of STWSS.2.2.3 ResourcesThough Small Towns Water Supply Systems may be successfully implemented if there are clear objectives, competent and committed staff. But one most important and crucial measure is the availability of resources and the timely disbursement of resources, otherwise it will delay construction and affect the level of performance of the projects. There is an adage which goes like ‘the lifeblood of every organization is money’. For every programme or policy to be accomplished and sustained, resources must be readily and sufficiently available. Therefore adequate resources cannot be compromised at all especially funds, Meter and Horn (1975: 465) emphasizes this fact and adds other incentives that also facilitate administration and effective implementation. What are these other incentives? Howlett and Ramesh (2003: 185) also agrees to the fact that resources are very necessary, they are also of the view that funds must be allocated, personnel assigned, and rules of procedure developed that guarantees policies into action, resources are indispensable. I identified resources in the study as funding, human, technical and lastly material resources.Funds from the World Bank are available and released to the government through the Ministry of Finance once approved, since this project is implemented at the local level, all processing for payment are done at the district office and then forwarded for payment. It is believed that, it is at the districts that due to bureaucratic processes delays are caused. Notwithstanding, development partners pledge huge sums of money towards projects, but in effect when it comes to the release and disbursement of funds, it becomes unpredictable and it is delayed in few cases. Non availability of funds directly impacts on the progress of implementing the Water Supply System in these two towns and affects the process of implementation where by the payment of drillers, contractors, suppliers and consultants are delayed. Fundamentally, implementation will be successful if financial, technical, human and material resources are assured.#p#分页标题#e#Thomas and Grindle (1990: 1176-1177) in their model also asserts that without political, managerial, technical and financial resources programmes can hardly succeed. This is quite elaborate that availability of these resources is needed for the STWP project execution and sustainability. More so, in some towns the DWST and CWSA may not have the full complement of staff even where there are, they have inadequate knowledge, skill, experience and exposure, and their level of commitment is doubtful. Consequently, the capacity, capability, availability of expertise, technical know how of their staff must be assured for successful implementation of the projects. In my study, I will factor all this in to ascertain the extent to which it has influenced the implementation of the water systems in Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo in the central region of Ghana. Drilling boreholes requires people with knowledge in civil and geodetic engineering to conduct feasibility studies to determine the best places to drill, build pump houses to generate pressure to pump water into the reservoirs that will supply water to the standpipes and raise reservoires, how to connect the pipes and lay them properly and continuous technical advice during implementation. Since the community is required to pay 5% of the capital cost to raise funds to show their commitment to the project,指导留学作业提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041 there is the need to find better ways of mobilizing this fund for the implementation of the project. After this has been satisfied then successful implementation may be assured. Nevertheless, if resources are insufficient, contractors may not be able to purchase all the building materials and equipments needed the technical expertise is constantly required to ensure the right things are done. Despite the fact that resources are needed is it the only guarantee to the successful implementation of STWSS? If not what other factors could be relevant?Hypothesis 3Unavailability of adequate resources (human & financial, technical), untimely disbursement of funds may delay implementation.2.2.4 Target group behaviourEvery project or program has recipients or beneficiaries, they are those who will directly benefit from that service provided and play a very important role in this particular context. Though Winter (2003: 209) admits to the fact that they can affect the nature and performance of policy, I strongly believe that in addition, in my study, the people natives of Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo who are the direct users or beneficiaries of the project can affect the implementation at all levels. That is why it is advisable to involve them to prepare and execute plans, engaged and responsible for positioning standpipes, select water sources, design layout for construction adequately trained on mobilizing funds, management of system option selection. By so doing the people feel responsible for the system and will do everything possible to implement it successfully.Secondly, the attitude of individuals in the community supposedly beneficiaries of the programme, will determine if they support or reject, either the project as a whole or how it is being carried out. This is what Thomas and Grindle (1990: 1166) refer to as response and reaction which may emanate from the public or private arena, can determine whether the programme is implemented successfully or not. #p#分页标题#e#According to Rondinelli and Ruddie (1997), they have suggested that the probability that local needs will be addressed in the design and administration of rural development project is enhanced through local participation. Were the local people are given all the information needed, sensitised on the consequences of drinking untreated water as well as the benefits of drinking safe water? Mobilising the local people to create a public awareness of the project which should be done before implementation starts, creates an opportunity to clarify the details of implementation so that the DA, CWSA, the chiefs and elders as well as the entire community can come to a consensus. This will involve siting the boreholes, pumps, standpipes etc as mentioned earlier, done in a way that will reduce conflicts. Unlike in other places where the lands belong to the state, in Ghana, the lands belong to families who are natives of the towns or individuals / organizations may have bought it legally and owns it. Therefore, a project like this will certainly encroach on peoples properties (land) that is why it is important to consult the community members and make necessary agreements in case such instances crops up, to reduce conflicts. Also, the target group must be involved in decision making at all stages of the project cycle in planning and designing of the project, consensus building to ensure that objectives of the project corresponds with the priorities of the people, then implementation will succeed Viswanath (1991.) When they feel part of the project, they are willing to contribute to the success of implementing it since it is indeed a need for the two small towns studied. In effect due to the benefits the communities will enjoy after the water has been provided with minimal cost they will ensure its success.Hypothesis 4Effective participation of community members will reduce conflicts.Demand driven STWSS that is when the beneficiaries are involved in decision making and conflicts resolved swiftly may be implemented successfully.How far and effective is the comprehensive community sensitization and mobilization through public meetings to facilitate an attitude of vision and ownership of the project?Lastly, the extent of commitment of local resources such as skills and manpower devoted by the local people to exhibit the peoples acceptance of the project.Cultural FactorsCertain superstitious beliefs, traditions customs, values peculiar among people living in these areas may impede implementation. For instance some still belief that water from the streams or other traditional source of water have been given to them by their ancestors, therefore refusing to tap water from this source is a sign of dishonor and denial, and may fear to face consequences. In other areas, they believe that certain plots of lands reserved in the community are the burial places for their forefathers and a heritage that must not be destroyed, therefore trying to construct in places like this may create problems. Great respect must be given to the local beliefs but those that can be managed must be done cautiously and the people must be well educated on the need for this project as well the communities need continuous sensitization so that the project can be carried on smoothly without interruptions.#p#分页标题#e#Hypothesis 5Cultural and superstitious beliefs, customs and traditions may impede implementation.Role of womenOver the years men are noted to have contributed to community development, because in Ghana, traditionally, they are seen as the head of the house / family. The Chief, Odikro and elders are regarded as those who take care of every community in areas like owners of the lands, settling disputes, initiating developmental projects (schools, markets, water etc). Even the Queenmother who may be the wife of the Chief or by inheritance, plays minor roles in public but mobilize the women in the community, advise and sets example for them. Women are not given the opportunity to talk in public, or participate in decision making. Basically, they manage the home and perform domestic roles like fetching water with the children, cooking, washing. It is known that women are the users of water and their duty is to fetch water for the home from far places with the help of their children. Therefore, if a project such as this is introduced at the local level, women will appreciate it most and will try to help its implementation to save them the time. There is a provision in the general design of the project to encourage women to take active part because their contributions are valuable and will speed up implementation. Astrategy to empower women at the grassroots and try to change the traditional system whereby men are public figures but also give women the opportunity to take up public roles.Hypothesis 6The effective involvement of women leads to high level of participation.CHAPTER TWODATA SOURCES AND METHODSThis chapter carefully discusses into detail the methods used to carry out this study. In order to achieve the objectives I have set for this study, and also to be able to test empirically the hypothesis derived from the variables generated from the various theories, having gathered data, the following was the design I employed. From Yin’s perspective this is a “plan that guides the investigator in the process of collecting analyzing and interpreting observations Yin (2003, p: 21). A qualitative approach to social science research was employed to fulfill this in my study. The aim of this study is to conduct an explorative study to explain the performance of implementation and give deeper, extensive and in depth inquiry to get a comprehensive understanding into why project in Jukwaa Krobo has been so successful whiles the state of implementation in Mfuom is so bad. Qualitative approach was relevant and appropriate to use to achieve this goal and have a better understanding of the process of implementation. Moreover, the statistical results that have been produced as indicators of the level of performance for the two cases are simply inadequate to make conclusion. Doing a qualitative research will be more relevant to identify the actual factors influencing it and give a clear picture of what is happening and causing that in reality through 指导留学作业提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041interviews and observations. One requirement of this approach is to retrieve information from all stakeholders involved in the implementation of Water supply systems in these two towns, in that the opinions of the respondents describes and provides a thorough insight of what is happening right there in real life context, making the justifications for claims of success or not success authentic.#p#分页标题#e#Research designThe study design for the proposed research project is a comparative one, assessing implementation performance results in two different communities (Jukwaa Krobo and Mfuom). According to Yin (2003: 13) “a case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident”. Comparing two cases is preferred to test theories as proposed by Goggin 1986 cited by Winter (2003, p:157). Furthermore, evidence gathered from both towns understudied provides a more concrete basis to prove or reject theories which cannot be compromised at all.Scope of studySince it is impossible to carry this study in all 54 communities within 42 districts in 6 regions in Ghana, given the limited time and resources at my disposal. I selected the two towns in the Central region because, first of all from the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, it was the only region among the Ten (10) Regions of Ghana whose access to improved water was very low at 33.8% (POM, 2004 p: 33), though it is not the poorest region. As a result it is the only region that is common to all the water projects being funded by the donors except CIDA who concentrates on only the northern regions, although, the main donors EU, DANIDA, WORLDBANK -IDA operates in different regions.Again, I further made the selection from one district (Twifo Heman Lower Denkyira) in the region for the unique results collected. Though there are only two communities from that district (Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo), the very successful and unsuccessful were from this district at the time of the study 38% and 78% respectively (GOG IPR 2009, p: 4). Another reason that pre-empted the choice was a recommendation by the Focal person for STWSS in the CWSA head office since they were also keen on finding out, why and what was actually happening on the field. Finding out the impact of geographical differences on the implementation process was not the focus of this study but the only difference is that the population densities in the two towns are not the same. How does it impact the process of implementation? They are both farming communities with similar economic prospects but Mfuom had a population of 3,500 people and Jukwaa Krobo 2431, does it explain the results? Since Jukwaa is quite smaller does it explain why it has succeeded? Therefore the units of analysis are Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo, after detailed discussion of the implementation process and its possible impacts on the performance results by comparing these two small towns, the study unveiled thorough explanations to why the variation in performance, The Target people for information will be the Director of water (Ministry of Water,Works and Housing), officials of the District Water and Sanitation Team (DWST) officials 1, direct implementers of the project in the District office, District Planning Coordinator 1, focal person at the CWSA regional office 1, head office 1, task team leader, World Bank 1, Assembly members 2 for both towns, who coordinate projects from the district for the communities, the traditional leaders 2 for both towns called the ‘Odikro’ he is responsible for developmental projects in small towns in the traditional system, Water Board chairman and one female member in Jukwaa Krobo and 1 member, 7 local people who are beneficiaries. Mfuom WSB secretary, 1 female treasurer, 5 local people, contractor in each town (2) and consultant.#p#分页标题#e#3.2 Methods for Collecting Data3.2.1 Interviews Conducting a case study research, interviews serve as an important and relevant source of information. I used a focused interview[ a type of interview in which a respondent is interviewed for a short period of time, open-ended, assume a conversational mannerbut follow a set of questions derived from the case study protocol.] prescribed by (Merton, Fiske, & Kendall, 1990) stated by Yin (2003: 90). Three sets of case study protocol were used. One for the Director of Water, World Bank and CWSA officials, one for the regional and district officials, consultant and contractor, last set for WSB, traditional rulers, community members.I will be guided by some questions in order to retrieve the relevant information I need and also use a recording device and later transcribe. But I will be open to any further questions that would be necessary for further inquiry to source for more information to solidify the findings.3.2.2 Direct observationPersonally visited places where they are establishing physical structures (eg. Boreholes, pump houses, standpipes, reservoirs, laying or laid pipes for connectivity, board house etc), as well as previous sources of water, hand pump boreholes, spring. Evidence gathered through observation adds supplementary information.3.2.3 Group InterviewSince I need to know the extent to which the local folks influence decision making and mobilization of resources, manpower and commitment to this project, I also conducted a discussion with the people in the localities to get a deeper understanding or their orientation, perceptions, contributions, challenges, cultural inclinations and responsibility towards STWSS. Then also to have a fair idea on how they perceive the project and their state of communications and collaborations with the DA and CWSA and progress of implementation.3.2.4 Secondary DataWith reference to my own research, the secondary source of data was largely from documents such as Programme information documents which contain the design of project, budget allocations, open and closing dates of projects and a list of other implementing agencies. From this document I will get the background knowledge about the project. Project Implementation design for Mfuom and Jukwaa Krobo, Quarterly Implementation reports, Small Towns Water & Sanitation Policy, Project Operation Manual, Small Towns Water Sector Policy, National Water policy, Strategic Investment Plan for CWSA, all these captures roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders, design of project in accordance with the provisions in the water policy in Ghana on small towns. Project Appraisal Documents/ Progress reports or指导留学作业提供指导Essay,指导Assignment,请联系QQ:949925041 Implementation reports which contains the previous and current disbursements, formal assessments of the performance of the projects embarked on to monitor progress will fetch me insights into the project performance and challenges.Newspaper publications, Journals, online information will be accessed to complement the information that captured from the books and reports. Other communications with the collaborating and implementing agencies such as letters, minutes on meetings and other available reports on the internet, textbooks from library will be consulted to generate basis for theory building on which my study will be tested.#p#分页标题#e#ReferencesCreswel. J. 2008. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd edition. California. Sage Publications, Inc.Harrison. L.E & Huntington. S. P. 2000. Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. Basic Books.Howlett, M., and Ramesh, M., (1995) Studying Public Policy: Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.Republic of Ghana, CWSA 2009, Implementation Progress Report- IDARepublic of Ghana, CWSA 2003, July: Small Towns Water & Sanitation Policy (STWSP)Republic of Ghana, CWSA 2004, May: Small Towns Sector Policy (STSP)Republic of Ghana, CWSA 2004, November: Project Operation Manual (POM)Republic of Ghana, MWRWH 2007, June: National Water Policy (NWP)Republic of Ghana, CWSA, 2008: Strategic Investment Plan 2008 – 2015 (SIP)Hyden Goran (2006), African Politics in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge University Press.King et al. 1994. Designing a Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Peters B. G. & Pierre J. (2003): Implementation by Winter Soren (Section 5) Handbook of Public Policy. Sage Publications, London.Rossman, G. B., & Rallis, S. F. (1998). Learning in the field: an introduction to qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Rondinelli D. & Ruddie K. (19977). Local Organisation for Integrated Rural Development: ImplementatingEquity Policy in Developing Countries. International Review of Science. XL111.Thomas W. John & Grindle S. Merilee (1990) After the Decision: Implementing Policy Reforms in Developing Countries. Pergamon Press. Van Meter & Van Horn, (1975) The Policy Implementation Process: A Conceptual Framework. Ohio State University Press.Viswanth Vanita (1991) NGO’s & Women Development in Rural South India: A Comparative Analysis Boulder. West view press.Yin, K. R. 2003. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 3rd edition. V.5: California. Sage Publications, Inc.Crook Richard. 2003. “Decentralisation and Poverty Reduction in Africa: The Politics of Local – Central Relations”. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Article can be found in this website Water supply and sanitation in Ghana分页标题#e#World Bank website.Ghana – Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Additional Financing (2007/04/05): Project Information Document ; Concept stage. assessed 6-03-09Proposed Additional Funding assessed 3oth September 2009IDA at work: Water, Community- Driven Approach Improves Access in Rural Ghana.WorldBank website,,contentMDK:21204612~menuPK:3266877~pagePK:51236175~piPK:437394~theSitePK:73154,00.html.Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Project- Ghana Additional Funding


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