Skip to main content


By February 3, 2021No Comments

Homework 1: Supervised Text Classification (100 points) Kathleen McKeown, Spring 2021 COMS W4705: Natural Language Processing Due 2/3/21 at 11:59pm ET Please post all clarification questions about this homework on the class EdStem under the “hw1” folder. You may post your question privately to the instructors if you wish. Overview The goal of Homework 1 is to gain experience with supervised text classification using hand-crafted features. To do this, you will be 1) implementing classifiers for sentiment analysis (§1) and 2) analyzing features and n-gram smoothing methods (§2). The classifiers you implement will be trained on a sentiment analysis dataset of Tweets from 2013 [1]. Your goal is to predict whether a tweet has a “positive”, “negative”, or “neutral” sentiment. You will be provided with two data files: for training and for development. We will run your model on a hidden test set. Skele- ton code and the data files are provided to you on CourseWorks. 1 Programming portion (40 points) 1.1 Tasks In this assignment, you will implement 4 models using different feature sets and evaluate each model using F1. Your models will have Input features you have selected from a tweet. Output a label y ∈ {0, 1, 2}, indicating the sentiment polarity of the tweet: “neg- ative” (0), “positive” (1), “neutral” (2). 1 The 4 models you must implement are (see §1.1.1 for feature details): 1. Ngram model: this model should use only word ngrams 2. Ngram+Lex model: this model should use • word ngrams • lexicon-based features: for 1 of the lexicons in §1.1.1 2.a), implement all 4 features in 2.b). 3. Ngram+Lex+Enc model: this model should use • word ngrams • lexicon based features (as in Ngram+Lex model) • 2 encoding features from §1.1.1, 3 4. Custom model: this model should use • the features used in either theNgram, theNgram+Lex or theNgram+Lex+Enc model, whichever performs best • 1 additional feature that you think will improve performance the most, either from §1.1.1 or use your imagination. For each model above, you should choose the architecture (SVM or Naive Bayes) that gives the highest macro-averaged F1 on the development set and include only this in your code. If this model has tunable parameters, you should tune them to perform well without overfitting. You may tune parameters you find in the scikit- learn documentation. Some examples are “kernel” and “C” for SVM. In order to achieve good performance, you may experiment with choosing the k best features (e.g., k best n-grams), with different values for k. Your submission must include all deliverables specified in §3.1 and must run in our environment. 1.1.1 Feature Details Each of your models will use features detailed here: 1. Ngrams (a) word ngrams (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) (b) character ngrams (n = 3, 4, 5) 2. Lexicon-based features. 2 (a) Lexicons i. Hashtag Sentiment Lexicon ii. Sentiment140 Lexicon (b) Features per lexicon. Let score(w, p) be the lexicon score for token w with emotion/polarity p. i. total count of tokens in the tweet with score(w, p) > 0 ii. total score: ∑ w∈tweet score(w, p) iii. maximal score: maxw∈tweet score(w, p) iv. score of the last token in the tweet with score(w, p) > 0 3. Encoding-based features (a) All caps: the number of words with all characters in upper case (b) POS tags: the number of occurrences of each part-of-speech tag (c) hashtags: the number of hashtags (d) elongated words: the number of words with one character repeated more than two times 1.2 Resources 1.2.1 Skeleton Code You will be provided with a file that takes 4 command line arguments. Do not modify the command line argument processing or we may not be able to run your code. For mode details see §3.1. 1.2.2 Allowed external resources For the assignment you are allowed to use scikit-learn implementations of mod- els, feature selection algorithms, and metrics. You may also use standard python packages such as pandas and numpy. Do not use any other publicly available code (e.g., github repos). If you are unsure about using a package, please ask. Apart from these exceptions, you must write all code yourself. Please refer to the Academic Integrity policy if you have questions in this regard. As an example, You can look at the text classification example in scikit-learn called “”. 3 1.2.3 Data Format The sentiment data is provided in csv format, with the following 3 columns: • “tweet_tokens”: the tokenized tweet. • “pos_tags”: part-of-speech tags for each token in the tweet. • “label”: the sentiment label (either “’positive”, “negative”, or “neutral”). The lexicons are provided as zip files with accompanying READMEs. Please read the readme.txt for details on processing the files. 2 Written portion (60 points) Please write all answers in a single file that you will submit as a pdf (see §3.2). Make sure to justify all your answers. 1. Performance. (5 points) Show the macro-averaged F1 and the class-wise F1 (i.e., the F1 for each individual class) for all 4 models. Show all results in a single table. Note: your classifier must achieve a score of at least 0.5 macro-averaged F1 on the hidden test set to receive full credit for this portion (worth 1 point). This threshold should not be difficult to reach. 2. Error Analysis (9 points) (a) What two encoding features did you implement in theNgram+Lex+Enc model? Why did you choose these and not the others? (b) Which of modelsNgram, Ngram+Lex, andNgram+Lex+Enc performed best? Discuss why you think this might be. (c) What additional feature did you implement in theCustommodel? Why? Were you right about it improving performance or wrong? Provide ev- idence. 3. Understanding Features (20 points). These questions are based on the features used in [1]. Answer each of the following questions briefly (1-2 sentences). (a) Mohammad et al. [1], discuss how features such as hashtags, emoti- cons, and elongated words could be captured by ngrams . Give one ex- ample for each feature (hashtags, emoticons, elongated words) showing how ngrams capture that feature. 4 (b) For each encoding-based feature (§1.1.1, 3), give an example showing how the feature might capture sentiment. (c) Why might character ngrams be more important for Twitter data than for news data? (d) Mohammad et al. [1], section 3.1 mentions non-contiguous ngrams. Why might these be used? (e) What are the differences between the two lexicons described in Mo- hammad et al. [1], in sections 2.2.1 and 2.2.2? Provide an example where each lexicon would get the correct sentiment label and where each would not. 4. Smoothing (26 points). Consider the following back-off scheme. First, for some word w we define the sets A(wi−1) = {w : c(wi−1, w) > 0} B(wi−1) = {w : c(wi−1, w) = 0} A(wi−2, wi−1) = {w : c(wi−2, wi−1, w) > 0} B(wi−2, wi−1) = {w : c(wi−2, wi−1, w) = 0} where c is a function that counts n-grams in the training set. For exam- ple, if the bigram “smart cat” appears 15 times in the corpus, we will have c(smart, cat) = 15. Now we define a back-off trigram model: p(wi|wi−2, wi−1) =  p1(wi|wi−2, wi−1) if wi ∈ A(wi−2, wi−1) p2(wi|wi−2, wi−1) if wi ∈ A(wi−1)and wi ∈ B(wi−2, wi−1) p3(wi|wi−2, wi−1) if wi ∈ B(wi−1) where p1(wi|wi−2, wi−1) = pML(wi|wi−2, wi−1) p2(wi|wi−2, wi−1) = pML(wi|wi−1)∑ w∈B(wi−2,wi−1) pML(w|wi−1) p3(wi|wi−2, wi−1) = pML(wi)∑ w∈B(wi−1) pML(w) 5 and pML is the maximum likelihood estimate. For example: pML(wi|wi−1) = c(wi−1, wi) c(wi−1) . Show how to modify the above model to form a valid probability distribution. You may do this by changing p1, p2, p3 and using pML and/or the count function c. Prove your modification works. Show and explain all your work. Update: The modifications you propose must give a reasonable backoff model. In particular the probabilities of unseen n-grams should not overwhelm the proba- bilities of seen n-grams (for the same n). Hint: to do this you may need to modify the count function. 3 Delive
rables and Submission Instructions Please read: • We WILL NOT accept code that does not run in Python 3.6.*, this in- cludes broken code because of Python 2 print errors. • We WILL NOT accept hand-written work for the written portion. • File names (including for the zip file) must be exactly as specified for full credit 3.1 Programming (40 points) Submit one zip file name to CourseWorks. This should have exactly the following files. Please DO NOT include the data files in the zip. NOTE: your zip file should have only the following files: • A file that takes a csv file as input and returns the input features and labels form the data in the csv. Indicate with comments the code for implementing each feature. If we cannot easily find the feature extraction, we will not grade it. • A file that does the following – Takes 4 command line arguments: 1) the training file full path, 2) the testing file full path, 3) a model name (as a string), and 4) the full path 6 to the directory containing the lexica. While working on this home- work, you will pass the development file as the test file. NOTE: all this should be already done by the skeleton code provided and should not be modified. – Trains the model on the training set – Evaluates the model on the input testing file. – Prints out the macro-averaged F1 on the input testing file. – Prints the class-wise F1 on the input testing file. • A README file that must include: – Your name and email address. – Homework number. – Information on how to train and test your classifier. – A description of special features (or limitations) or your classifier. Your code should be documented in a meaningful way and implemented efficiently. This can mean expressive function/variable names as well as commenting. Your code should be runnable with the following command (as an example): hw1 . py −− t r a i n < p a t h _ t o _ r e s o u r c e s > / d a t a / t r a i n . csv −− t e s t < p a t h _ t o _ r e s o u r c e s > / d a t a / dev . csv −−model ” Ngram+Lex ” −− l e x i c o n _ p a t h < p a t h _ t o _ r e s o u r c e s > / l e x i c a / where resources is the unzipped file provided to you. 3.2 Written Answers (60 points) You should submit the following on Gradescope: • A hw1-written.pdf file containing your name, email address, the homework number, and your answers for the written portion. 4 Academic integrity Copying or paraphrasing someone’s work (code included), or permitting your own work to be copied or paraphrased, even if only in part, is not allowed, and will result in an automatic grade of 0 for the entire assignment or exam in which the 7 copying or paraphrasing was done. Your grade should reflect your own work. If you believe you are going to have trouble completing an assignment, please talk to the instructor or TA in advance of the due date. References [1] Saif M. Mohammad, Kiritchenko, S., and Zhu, X. 2013. NRC-Canada: Build- ing the State-of-the-Art in Sentiment Analysis of Tweets. SemEval-2013. [2] Preslav Nakov, Ritter, A., Rosenthal, S., Sebastiani, F., and Stoyanov, V. 2013. SemEval-2013 Task 2: Sentiment Analysis in Twitter. SemEval-2013. 8 欢迎咨询51作业君


Author admin

More posts by admin

Leave a Reply